Understanding Morality, Behavior and Justice: Justice readings and To Kill a Mockingbird

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1 Understanding Morality, Behavior and Justice: Justice readings and To Kill a Mockingbird Farmington Public Schools Grade 10 English Melissa Lukanik and Michelle Tardif DRAFT: June 2006 Farmington Public Schools 1

2 Table of Contents Unit Summary....page 3 Stage One: Standards Stage One identifies the desired results of the unit including the broad understandings, the unit outcome statement and essential questions that focus the unit, and the necessary knowledge and skills. The Understanding by Design Handbook, pages 4-5 Stage Two: Assessment Package Stage Two determines the acceptable evidence that students have acquired the understandings, knowledge and skills identified in Stage One. pages 6-9 Stage Three: Curriculum and Instruction Stage Three helps teachers plan learning experiences and instruction that aligns with Stage One and enables students to be successful in Stage two. Planning and lesson options are given, however teachers are encouraged to customize this stage to their own students, maintaining alignment with Stages One and Two... pages 9-15 Appendices.... page 16 Melissa Lukanik and Michelle Tardif DRAFT: June 2006 Farmington Public Schools 2

3 Unit Summary English 200 students will explore the relationship between morality, behavior and justice through their study of To Kill a Mockingbird, which they will apply to a critical analytical essay at the end of the unit. In addition, students will connect several short pieces, both fiction and nonfiction, to the essential ideas of the novel. This unit will follow the discussion of summer reading texts and will be completed in nine weeks. Melissa Lukanik and Michelle Tardif DRAFT: June 2006 Farmington Public Schools 3

4 Stage One: Standards Essential Understandings and Content Standards English Essential Understandings and Content Standards Essential Understanding#1- Reading and writing are reciprocal thinking processes used to construct meaning and communicate ideas. Content Standards: 1.2 Students will use appropriate strategies and behaviors for sustaining and expanding meaning of texts heard, viewed or read. 1.3 Students will use appropriate strategies and behaviors to compose their thoughts and ideas. Essential Understanding #2- Authors communicate in a variety of genre or contexts for a variety of purposes. Content Standards: 2.1 Students will read, write, speak, listen and view to gather and convey information. 2.2 Students will read, write, speak, listen and view to recognize and appreciate how literature conveys the relationship between morality, behavior and justice. Essential Understanding #3- Authors use the traits of writing to communicate ideas effectively. Content Standards: 3.1 Students will recognize and use specific text structures, word choices, literary devices and writing traits that achieve a desired purpose. 3.2 Students will speak and write using standard language structures appropriate to audience and task. Technology Essential Understanding #2- Technology can be used to create written, visual, and multimedia products to communicate ideas, information, or conclusions to others. Content Standards: 2. Students will use word processing software to compose, edit, and revise ideas for clear communication and purposeful writing in papers, essays, and reports. Melissa Lukanik and Michelle Tardif DRAFT: June 2006 Farmington Public Schools 4

5 Unit Outcome Statement As a result of this unit, students will understand that literature is a way to examine the relationship between morality, behavior and justice. Students will understand that the conflicts between morality, behavior and justice are universal; they transcend time and place. Several, short readings will be used to introduce concepts of justice and morality and their relationship to the behavior of individuals. These readings, along with a video about Emmett Till, will prepare students to examine these same issues in To Kill a Mockingbird. Students will demonstrate their understanding of the complexity of the relationship between behavior, morality and justice in a structured report that they will write for the mayor of Maycomb County. The report will be formatted as a critical analytical essay. Essential Questions What is the relationship between morality, behavior and justice? How does one know when justice has been achieved? Knowledge Social dynamics at work in the South in the 1930 s including segregation, Jim Crow laws, and the values and beliefs of people living during the Great Depression. Literary terms/devices: theme, conflict, irony, symbol, metaphor and methods of characterization Skills/Processes Use pre-reading strategies: make text-based predictions using title, headings, visuals, introductory information; activate background knowledge to help focus new knowledge; ask questions to guide initial reading. Use strategies of visualizing, retelling, clarifying, predicting and questioning while reading in order to monitor comprehension. Participate in dialogue to expand understanding: share viewpoints established through text evidence; analyze writer s purpose using text evidence. Use strategies for gathering information/ideas: with teacher guidance, create thesis that goes beyond the what to the why of an argument, based upon text evidence discussed and reviewed in class. Use strategies for organizing: with teacher guidance, use outlines, graphic organizers, or notes with strong evidence to support a thesis or argument. With teacher guidance, will evaluate the appropriateness of evidence. With teacher guidance, create a five paragraph essay using a specific structure for topic sentence, quote inclusion and conclusion. Use strategies for producing a draft: with teacher guidance, will translate organizers into a first draft; produce multiple drafts by asking for peer and teacher feedback on focus/purpose, organization, elaboration, fluency and impact on the audience. Use strategies for revising and editing: revise using feedback to clarify viewpoint, strengthening evidence, organization, and grammar/mechanics to gain greater impact on audience. Thinking Skills Understanding factors of role, manner, place, time and amount of information Understanding values of others Making inferences Identify appropriate evidence Effects of decision-making Understanding multiple causation Identifying significance of an event Melissa Lukanik and Michelle Tardif DRAFT: June 2006 Farmington Public Schools 5

6 Stage Two: Assessment Package Stage Two determines the acceptable evidence that students have acquired the understandings, knowledge and skills identified in Stage One. Authentic Performance Task Goal The novel To Kill a Mockingbird examines the impact of a town s morality and behavior on justice in the trial of an innocent man. The trial produces a ripple effect; almost everyone in the town is touched by the trial in one way or another. The mayor is very concerned about the effect that the trial has had on the community, and he has called on a group of social workers to evaluate the morality of the townspeople and the ways in which it influences their behavior as well as their views on justice. Your goal, as a social worker for Maycomb County, is to evaluate one member of the community and report your findings and recommendations to the mayor. Role You are a social worker for Maycomb County, investigating the relationship between morality, behavior and justice as it applies to one member of the community. Imagine you have already interviewed one member of the community (one of the characters from the novel) about his or her morals, behaviors and the ways in which he or she affected justice in Maycomb. You will report your findings to the mayor. Audience the mayor of Maycomb County Situation- your findings will be submitted to the mayor in an essay format, which should include the following: Introduction- profile of character, involvement in trial, and thesis statement which presents an argument that explains how the character s morality and behavior affected the achievement of justice in the community. Body paragraphs- analyze character s behavior, sense of morality and the impact their behavior and morals had on justice. Text evidence must be included to support the findings. Conclusion- summarizes the findings and includes recommendations to the mayor about what needs to be done to prevent further conflicts, such as the ones resulting from the trial of Tom Robinson. Product/Performance and Purpose: You will write a report for the mayor of Maycomb County which examines the behavior and morality of the character you selected from To Kill a Mockingbird, as well as the impact of his or her morals and behavior on justice. The purpose of the report is to understand the relationship between morality, behavior and justice in an effort to make recommendations that will prevent further conflicts from arising. Standards and Criteria for Success: The report should follow the conventions of a critical-analytical essay (thesis statement, topic sentences, transitions, quote inclusion, etc.) The report should convey a solid understanding of the behavior and morals of one of the characters from the novel, as well as an understanding of how these things affect justice. The report should also present a reasonable recommendation for the mayor as to how this information can be used to improve the situation in Maycomb County. Students will be assessed using the English department s critical/analytical essay rubric (see Appendix I). Content Standards: Melissa Lukanik and Michelle Tardif DRAFT: June 2006 Farmington Public Schools 6

7 1.3 Students will use appropriate strategies and behaviors to compose their thoughts and ideas. 2.1 Students will read, write, speak, listen and view to gather and convey information. 2.2 Students will read, write, speak, listen and view to recognize and appreciate how literature conveys the relationship between morality, behavior and justice. 3.1 Students will recognize and use specific text structures, word choices, literary devices and writing traits that achieve a desired purpose. 3.2 Students will speak and write using standard language structures appropriate to audience and task. Technology Content Standards: 2. Students will use word processing software to compose, edit, and revise ideas for clear communication and purposeful writing in papers, essays, and reports. Tests, Quizzes, and Other Quick and Ongoing Checks for Understanding: Reading Strategies: Students will practice collaborative and independent reading strategies for nonfiction pieces, as well as for To Kill a Mockingbird, in order to improve literal and analytical levels of understanding. Reading/Thinking Guides: Students will complete reading guides designed to mirror the CAPT Reading for Information test. Students will also complete close reading guides designed to move students through multiple layers of thinking. Reading quizzes: students will take quizzes that assess their initial understanding of To Kill a Mockingbird in order to ensure that students are ready to engage in an in-depth analysis of the reading. Reader response: students will analyze quotes from To Kill a Mockingbird in order to demonstrate development of their interpretations of character and theme. Content Standards: 1.2 Students will use appropriate strategies and behaviors for sustaining and expanding meaning of texts heard, viewed or read. 1.3 Students will use appropriate strategies and behaviors to compose their thoughts and ideas. 2.1 Students will read, write, speak, listen and view to gather and convey information. 2.2 Students will read, write, speak, listen and view to recognize and appreciate how literature conveys the relationship between morality, behavior and justice. Projects, Reports, Etc. Reflection on justice readings: Students will choose one of the justice readings that present situations involving the relationship between morality, behavior and justice. Students will choose one of the articles and write about the morals and behaviors of the individual in the article and how his or her morals and behaviors affect justice. Students will also answer the questions: Do you think that justice was achieved in this situation? Why or why not? How do you know? Justice Reflection: After viewing movie clips in which the main character is dealing with a conflict between his or her morals and the law, students will select one movie clip, and write a reflection about the internal and external conflicts the character experienced. A series of guiding questions will be provided to structure the reponse. In an effort to help students connect with the reading for the unit, they will be asked to explore their thoughts, feelings, and actions about the situation. Melissa Lukanik and Michelle Tardif DRAFT: June 2006 Farmington Public Schools 7

8 Town Meeting: In order to rehearse for the authentic performance task, after the trial of Tom Robinson, students will take part in a Maycomb Town Meeting. Students will work in groups to formulate questions and answers for a character from Maycomb. Students will also formulate questions to ask other characters who will be present at the meeting. Each student will take on one of the following roles in their group: character, town clerk, or reporter. After the town meeting takes place, each student will be required to write a reflection on the activity in which they choose one character from the meeting (other than his/her group s character) and explain how the behaviors and morals of the character affected justice in Maycomb. The students will use specific examples from the town meeting to support their thoughts. Content Standards: 1.2 Students will use appropriate strategies and behaviors for sustaining and expanding meaning of texts heard, viewed or read. 1.3 Students will use appropriate strategies and behaviors to compose their thoughts and ideas. 2.1 Students will read, write, speak, listen and view to gather and convey information. 2.2 Students will read, write, speak, listen and view to recognize and appreciate how literature conveys the relationship between morality, behavior and justice. 3.1 Students will recognize and use specific text structures, word choices, literary devices and writing traits that achieve a desired purpose. Melissa Lukanik and Michelle Tardif DRAFT: June 2006 Farmington Public Schools 8

9 Stage Three: Learning Experiences and Instruction Stage Three helps teachers plan learning experiences and instruction that align with Stage One and enables students to be successful in Stage Two. Learning Experiences and Instruction The learning experiences and instruction described in this section provide teachers with one option for meeting the standards listed in Stage One. Teachers are encouraged to design their own learning experiences and instruction, tailored to the needs of their particular students. Guiding Questions Instructional Strategies Checking for Understanding Lesson Topic: The conflict between morality and the law Hook: Are there any circumstances in which the law should be ignored? Has there ever been a situation in which you felt that breaking the law was justified? Quick write in response to the first two questions, followed by a class discussion in which students share responses. Students view clips from A Time to Kill, and John Q. Collect and review quick write What do people do when their personal beliefs conflict with the laws of their society? Rehearsal for written reflection: Think, pair, share: after watching the Written Reflection: Students will choose one of the movie clips and write a clips, students will discuss and reflection in which they record answers to viewing explore the ways in which guide questions. Subsequent morality and the law were in class discussion will use conflict and influenced the viewing guide questions to character s behavior. Students explore the third guiding will also reflect on the ways question. their own beliefs affect their opinion of the character s behavior. Lesson Topic: Character study: the interplay between morality, behavior, and justice How does annotating text improve reading comprehension? Teacher will model the process of annotation using a portion of the first reading. Short class discussion of how the process of annotation helps improve reading comprehension. Is there an unspoken code of conduct in our society? What happens when people break the code? Should the law dictate morality? Students will read the following short fiction and non-fiction pieces: The Bad Samaritan: The David Cash Story (accompanied by an excerpt from 60 Minutes) I Drank, I Drove, and My Friend Died The Necessary Knocking on the Door Reading for information guides will prompt students to demonstrate reading comprehension by answering fact-based questions. Melissa Lukanik and Michelle Tardif DRAFT: June 2006 Farmington Public Schools 9

10 Rehearsal for reflection on justice readings: Students are assigned to one of three groups. Each group will focus their work on one of the readings listed above, will develop responses to the guiding questions, and share responses with the class. Reflection on justice readings: Students will choose one of the justice readings that present situations involving the relationship between morality, behavior and justice. Students will choose one of the articles and write about the morals and behaviors of the individual in the article and how his or her morals and behaviors affect justice. Students will also answer the questions: Do you think that justice was achieved in this situation? Why or why not? How do you know? Lesson Topic: Emmett Till: injustice as a vehicle for change What interferes with justice? How does where you live affect your morals? What motivates or inhibits the fighting of injustice? How can an injustice be used to achieve a greater justice? Students will read The Murder of Emmett Till and complete accompanying reader s guide, which asks them to use reading strategies such as: making predictions and inferences, asking questions, identifying purpose and main idea, and revising initial predictions and inferences based on understanding. Students will watch The Murder of Emmett Till and complete a viewing guide which incorporates both factbased questions as well as questions stemming from the guiding questions. Fishbowl: students will address the guiding questions presented thus far, using specific examples from the readings and videos to support their ideas. Review Emmett Till reading guide. Review Emmett Till viewing guide. Teacher will track individual participation in the fishbowl activity and require all students to participate for a class participation grade. Exit ticket: Students will answer one of the questions from the fishbowl, using at least one specific example from the discussion to support their answers. Lesson Topic: Historical Context of To Kill a Mockingbird Melissa Lukanik and Michelle Tardif DRAFT: June 2006 Farmington Public Schools 10

11 What was life like in the South during The Great Depression? What was the racial climate like in the South in the 1930 s? Is there a relationship between race and class in the United States in the 1930 s? Chalk Talk: Each student records his or her ideas about the guiding questions on the board or on chart paper. Students do not speak, but rather record ideas and questions, which are used to guide class discussion. Reading for Information: Depression life and segregation readings: Students will read a series of short articles which will provide detailed information about the life in the South in the 1930 s. Readings are accompanied by a guide which prompts students to use reading strategies to answer fact-based questions. Chalk Talk debriefing Open-notes quiz on readings Guiding Questions Instructional Strategies Checking for Understanding Lesson Topic: Setting the stage: understanding Maycomb What moral beliefs are held by the people of Maycomb? How do people s moral beliefs influence their behavior? How do people s moral beliefs affect the lives of others? Are the laws in Maycomb enforced universally? Why do people in Maycomb make exceptions to the law? How do individuals determine what is right and wrong? What is the definition of courage? Part One of TKAM will be explored using a combination of chapter summaries, readings from the text, and short film clips. Review of literary terms/devices such as theme, conflict, characterization, symbol, metaphor, irony. Morality & behavior character charts: As a class, students will track the moral beliefs, behaviors, and personalities of the characters who are introduced in part one. The charts will also ask students to consider how characters morals and behaviors impact justice and/or other characters. Reading guides Quotation analysis Morality & behavior character charts Quizzes Group work Essential Understandings of Part One: At the end of part one, students will work in groups to discuss one of the guiding questions, develop an answer, and present answers to the class. Lesson Topic: Social caste system in Maycomb (chapters 12 & 13) Melissa Lukanik and Michelle Tardif DRAFT: June 2006 Farmington Public Schools 11

12 What is the social hierarchy of Maycomb? How does the social hierarchy of Maycomb affect people s morals, behaviors and sense of justice? Students will work in groups to construct a pyramid of social hierarchy for Maycomb, based on chapters 12 & 13 as well as the rest of the book. Students will also explain their reasoning for placing families at certain levels of the pyramid (morality and behaviors should come into play). Reading quiz to check for initial understanding. Group will post and share social pyramids. Lesson Topic: Civilian justice (chapters 14-16) Do individuals have the right to act upon their own sense of justice, even if their actions are not in accordance with the law? How does morality influence one s sense of justice? What interferes with achieving justice? How do people s moral beliefs influence their behavior? How do people s moral beliefs affect the lives of others? Class will view the scene in which Atticus defends Tom Robinson against an angry mob who have come for Tom. Students will be put into groups and assigned one of the following characters: the mob, Mr. Cunningham, Atticus, Jem, and Mr. Underwood. Each group will identify the significant behaviors and morals of their character and the effect on justice. Information will be recorded on chart paper and posted at the front of the room. Group work and class discussion. Students will update morality and behavior character charts. Class discussion of guiding questions based on information gathered during group work. Lesson Topic: The trial (chapters 17-21) How does one s morality influence one s behavior? What happens when people break the unspoken code of conduct in our society? Does understanding all the complex issues that cause people to act in certain ways mean that their behavior should be excused? Students will use graphic organizer to track the factual details of the trial. Students will work in groups to examine the first three guiding questions in relation to Mayella Ewell, Bob Ewell, Tom Robinson, and Atticus. Students will present their work to the class. Review and collect graphic organizers Presentation of group work Students will update morality and behavior character charts. What techniques of argument does Atticus use to try to get the jury to vote not guilty? What is the role of the justice system in our society? Does our legal system ensure that justice will be served? Beginning with a free write, students will consider the elements of an effective argument. Class discussion will move toward an examination of Atticus s closing remarks. Before discussing the verdict, students will consider the last Class discussion Melissa Lukanik and Michelle Tardif DRAFT: June 2006 Farmington Public Schools 12

13 What interferes with achieving justice? Why is fighting the battle more important than winning the war when it comes to justice? three guiding questions and write a response using a realworld example to illustrate their ideas. Class will begin with time for students to share their ideas with a partner. A full-class discussion will connect these real-world examples to the Tom Robinson trial. For homework, students will revise the response they wrote the night before, adding new insights gained during class. Collect and review homework response to the last three guiding questions. Guiding Questions Instructional Strategies Checking for Understanding Lesson Topic: The aftermath of the trial (chapters 22-25) What is the relationship between morality, behavior, and justice? How do we account for inconsistencies in individuals morals? Does our legal system ensure that justice will be served? What interferes with achieving justice? Why is fighting the battle more important than winning the war when it comes to justice? What effects do the imperfections of the judicial system have on people in Maycomb? How does the verdict of the trial affect Jem & Scout s understanding of the social hierarchy in Maycomb? **Introduce Authentic Performance task and explain that Town Meeting is a rehearsal for this final assessment. Rehearsal for Authentic Performance Task: Town Meeting as described in assessment package Quotation Analysis: Students will analyze a series of quotations and explain what they reveal about the ways the trial has had an impact on various characters. Students will also explain what these quotations reveal about the judicial system and justice in Maycomb. With a partner, students will search chapter 23 for quotations that reveal Jem and Scout s understanding of the social hierarchy in Maycomb. Students will explain the differences between their ideas and explain how their understanding has been influenced by the trial. Group performance during Town Meeting and Town Meeting reflection. Homework: After the town meeting takes place, each student will be required to write a reflection on the activity in which they choose one character from the meeting (other than his/her group s character) and explain how the behaviors and morals of the character affected justice in Maycomb. The students will use specific examples from the town meeting to support their thoughts. Students will selfassess their understanding of the relationship between behavior, morality and justice. Group presentation and discussion of quotes. Students will update morality and behavior character charts. Lesson Topic: Revisiting the impact of morality and behavior (chapters 26 & 27) Melissa Lukanik and Michelle Tardif DRAFT: June 2006 Farmington Public Schools 13

14 How do you know that Jem and Scout have matured as a result of the Tom Robinson trial? Before and After Chart: Students will list examples (paraphrases or direct quotes) of Jem and Scout s immaturity and innocence from before the Tom Robinson trial. Students will then list examples of Jem and Scout s loss of innocence and maturation that occur after the Tom Robinson trial. Collect and review charts and graphic organizers. What is the relationship between morality, behavior, and justice? Why does Harper Lee include minor characters such as Ms. Gates, Mr. Link Deas, Judge Taylor and Mr. Underwood? What do we learn through Bob Ewell s harassment of other characters? Graphic Organizer: For each character, students will answer the question: What does each character reveal about the relationship between morality, behavior and justice? Students will use morality and behavior character charts to inform their thinking. Lesson Topic: The conflict between the law and morality (chapters 28-31) What happened on the night of the pageant? Why is Boo Radley a model citizen? What do Heck Tate s actions reveal about his morality and sense of justice? What lesson does Harper Lee leave us with in the closing scene of the novel? Crime scene analysis: Students will work with a partner to gather facts, evidence, and testimony in order to determine the sequence of events on the night of the pageant. Students will need to draw a picture of the crime scene and list the events that occurred in chronological order. Students should also provide the evidence that supports their chronology. Add Boo Radley and Heck Tate to morality and behavior character charts. Discussion of crime scene analysis. As part of the debriefing of the crime scene, students will be asked to consider and comment on the last three guiding questions. Collect and review student work. Exit ticket: students will write a brief response to the last three guiding questions. Self assessement: Final response: How has To Kill a Mockingbird helped you to understand the relationship between behavior, morality and justice? How do you know when justice has been achieved? Give examples from the justice readings and To Kill a Mockingbird to support your answer. Lesson Topic: Authentic Performance Task Melissa Lukanik and Michelle Tardif DRAFT: June 2006 Farmington Public Schools 14

15 What is the relationship between morality, behavior and justice? Which characters from To Kill a Mockingbird best illustrate the relationship between morality, behavior and justice? What changes would need to occur in Maycomb to prevent future injustices? What do I need to include in my report to the mayor of Maycomb? What is the message I want to convey in my report and how do I convey it effectively? How do I organize and support my ideas? How do I find effective quotes? How do I smoothly incorporate quotes into my writing? What process should I use for revision? After reviewing the requirements and rubric for the authentic performance task, the class will brainstorm to create a list of possible characters to analyze. Once students select a character, they will complete a graphic organizer. Students will use completed character charts in order to brainstorm evidence that they can use to formulate a thesis statement. Teachers will model this process. Teacher will conduct a series of lessons to teach the skills of writing an organized essay: structure, quote selection, quote inclusion, topic sentences, transitions and mechanics. Students will use the computer lab to type their reports. Students will complete a selfediting sheet to assess their work. Students will also pair and share to get feedback from a peer. After completing the editing process, students will return to the computer lab to finalize their report. Collect and review graphic organizers, thesis statements, and evidence. After each lesson, students will complete the corresponding portion of their report and submit it for review. Teacher will collect and review first draft along with students self-editing sheets. Final report. Melissa Lukanik and Michelle Tardif DRAFT: June 2006 Farmington Public Schools 15

16 Appendices English department critical analytical rubric Language Arts Standards Melissa Lukanik and Michelle Tardif DRAFT: June 2006 Farmington Public Schools 16

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