RICE QUALITY AND PROCESSING. Comparison of Milling Characteristics of Hybrid and Pureline Rice Cultivars

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1 RICE QUALITY AND PROCESSING Comparison of Milling Characteristics of Hybrid and Pureline Rice Cultivars S.B. Lanning and T.J. Siebenmorgen ABSTRACT Milling characteristics of two long-grain pureline and four long-grain hybrid cultivars were compared. Rough rice samples of each cultivar were conditioned to 12.5% moisture content (MC), and subsamples of four cultivars were conditioned to 10.5%, 11.5%, and 13.5% MC in order to evaluate the effect of MC at time of milling. Samples were milled for durations of 10, 20, 30, and 40 s. Hybrids generally reached a target surface lipid content (SLC) in shorter durations than purelines, and the color of hybrid head rice was generally whiter than pureline head rice after milling for any duration. The rate of change in head rice yield (HRY) per unit change in SLC varied among cultivars. Rice milled at greater MC exhibited lesser SLC and greater rates of change in HRY with respect to SLC than rice milled at lesser MC. The findings indicate definite differences in milling behavior between hybrids and purelines, and demonstrate a need to consider SLC in order to equitably compare milling performance and functional properties of rice cultivars. INTRODUCTION Degree of milling (DOM) is often expressed as surface lipid content (SLC) and is indicative of the amount of bran remaining on kernels after the milling process. As such, DOM affects rice quality indices and processing characteristics, including head rice yield (HRY) (Cooper and Siebenmorgen, 2007), cooked rice texture (Saleh and Meullenet, 2007), and flour pasting parameters (Perdon et al., 2001). Milling performance of rice varies due to inherently different physical and chemical properties among cultivars, as well as extrinsic factors such as pre-harvest 298

2 B.R. Wells Rice Research Studies 2011 conditions and post-harvest drying and storage treatments. Siebenmorgen et al. (2006) showed that SLC levels of two long-grain hybrids were less than those of four longgrain pureline cultivars across several milling durations. Different milling characteristics among hybrid and pureline cultivars may result in different DOM levels, producing HRY and processing inconsistencies. Because of the importance of HRY in determining rice economic value, and the importance of DOM in end-use functionality, the rate at which DOM changes in relation to HRY is critical. This study was undertaken to compare the milling characteristics of several current hybrid and pureline rice cultivars over a range of milling MCs. PROCEDURES Pureline cultivars Wells and Francis were harvested near Stuttgart, Ark., in 2008 at harvest moisture contents (HMC) 1 of 17.2% and 14.0%, respectively. Also in 2008, hybrid cultivars XL723, Clearfield (CL) XL729, CL XL730, and CL XL745 were harvested near Jonesboro, Ark., at HMCs of 13.4%, 13.9%, 13.7%, and 13.2%, respectively. Samples were cleaned (Carter-Day Dockage Tester, Carter-Day Co., Minneapolis, Minn.) and dried in a temperature- and humidity-controlled chamber (AA5582, Parameter Generation & Control, Inc., Black Mountain, N.C.) maintained at 21 C and 62% relative humidity (RH) to a MC of approximately 12.5%. To evaluate the effect of rough rice MC on milling quality, subsamples of Wells, Francis, CL XL729, and CL XL745 were conditioned to MCs of approximately 10.5%, 11.5%, and 13.5%, using the aforementioned chamber, maintained at 21 C and 44.5%, 53.5%, and 70.0% RHs, respectively. Rough rice MCs were measured by drying 15-g samples in triplicate at 130 C for 24 h in a convection oven (1370FM, Sheldon Manufacturing, Inc., Cornelius, Ore.). For each milling test, a 150-g rough rice sample was dehulled in a laboratory sheller (THU, Satake, Tokyo, Japan). The resultant brown rice was milled for 10, 20, 30, or 40 s using a laboratory mill (McGill No. 2, RAPSCO, Brookshire, Texas) to achieve varying DOM levels. Head rice was separated from brokens using a sizing device (Seedburo Equipment Co., Chicago, Ill.). Head rice yield was expressed as the mass percentage of rough rice remaining as head rice. Three milling repetitions were performed for each cultivar/mc/milling duration treatment. Surface lipid content of head rice was measured using a diode array analyzer (DA7200, Perten Instruments, Huddinge, Sweden). Each 60-g sample of head rice was placed into a 75-mm diameter sample cup, which rotated during the diode array analysis. Absorbance readings were collected over a near-infrared wavelength range of 950 to 1650 nanometers, at five-nanometer increments. Surface lipid content was predicted using the calibration of Saleh et al., Three scans were collected from each sample and average SLC values were calculated. 1 All moisture contents are expressed on a wet basis unless otherwise noted. 299

3 AAES Research Series 600 The L* (whiteness) color index of head rice was measured with a color meter (Colorflex EZ, Hunterlab, Reston, Va.). Thirty-five grams of rice were placed in a 6-cm diameter glass sample cup. After the first color reading, the sample cup was rotated 90 and a second measurement was performed. An average of the two readings was recorded for each sample. Statistical software (JMP release 8.0, SAS institute, Cary, N.C.) was used to perform analysis of variance using least significant differences (LSD), at a 5% level of probability, to determine the significance of the differences observed between HRY vs. SLC slopes. RESULTS AND DISSCUSION Fig. 1 illustrates SLC vs. milling duration curves of hybrid and pureline cultivars milled at a MC of approximately 12.5% for 10, 20, 30, and 40 s. For all cultivars, SLC decreased exponentially as milling duration increased. Hybrids generally had lower SLCs than purelines when milled for a given duration. Achieving a target SLC required a shorter milling duration for hybrids than purelines. The findings suggest a need to control milling duration with respect to a desired SLC in order to equitably compare HRYs of different cultivars, and, assuming that milling behavior in the McGill #2 mill extends to commercial mills, have implications to mill personnel in terms of greater throughput of hybrids over some purelines. Fig. 2 shows HRY vs. SLC relationships for cultivars milled at a MC of approximately 12.5% for 10, 20, 30, and 40 s. Head rice yield was linearly and directly correlated with SLC. Slopes of the regression lines, indicating the rate of change in HRY per unit change in SLC, are presented in Table 1. The average slope across all cultivars at a milling MC of 12.5% was 10.7, slightly lower than that observed by Pereira et al. (2008), who found that long-grain cultivars averaged a change of 11.3 percentage points (pp) in HRY for every 1.0 pp change in SLC. These differences in slope again suggest that different milling characteristics among cultivars can significantly impact HRY. Head rice became significantly (α = 0.05) whiter as milling duration increased (Fig. 3). The color of hybrid head rice was whiter than pureline Wells head rice when milled for any duration. These results correspond to SLC trends (Fig. 1), indicating a greater degree of bran removal or inherently whiter endosperm. Color values began to plateau with increasing milling duration (Fig. 3), suggesting that over-milling may compromise yield with diminishing gains in color quality. Rough rice MC at the time of milling had a significant effect on milling performance. Fig. 4 shows plots of head rice SLC for Wells and CL XL729, milled at rough rice MCs of 10.5%, 11.5%, 12.5%, and 13.5% for 10, 20, 30, and 40 s. Generally, at any milling duration, as the rice MC increased, SLC decreased, indicating a more wellmilled condition. This suggests that bran is more easily removed at greater MCs. Samples milled at greater MCs had greater rates of change in HRY with respect to change in SLC (Table 1). The trends in HRY vs. SLC regression slopes of Wells and CL XL729 cultivars milled at four MCs for 10, 20, 30, and 40 s are shown in Fig

4 B.R. Wells Rice Research Studies 2011 Increases in slopes were most significant at or above 12.5% MC across all cultivars (data not shown for Francis and CL XL745). These trends again suggest that bran is more easily removed as MC increases. Kohlwey (1992) speculated that bran removal is facilitated by a micro-scale gelatinization of starch at the surface of the endosperm due to increased temperature of friction in the milling process. Greater MC results in decreased starch gelatinization temperature, which may allow greater ease of bran removal, as well as more endosperm entering the bran stream. SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS Results of this study showed that hybrids generally exhibited greater DOM, as evidenced by lesser SLC and greater L* values, for any given milling duration. Moisture content of rough rice at the time of milling influenced milling performance. Rough rice milled at greater MCs demonstrated a greater rate of change in HRY with respect to SLC than did rice milled at lesser MCs. Due to these differences, SLC should always be considered and measured in order to better compare HRY and subsequent measurements of functional properties that are affected by degree of milling, particularly between hybrid and pureline cultivars. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors wish to thank the Arkansas Rice Research and Promotion Board and the corporate sponsors of the University of Arkansas Rice Processing Program for their financial support. LITERATURE CITED Cooper, N.T.W. and T.J. Siebenmorgen Correcting head rice yield for surface lipid content (degree of milling) variation. Cereal Chem. 84: Kohlwey, D.E The quest for the whole grain in rice milling. Cereal Foods World 37: Perdon, A.A., T.J. Siebenmorgen, A. Mauromoustakos, V.K. Griffin, and E.R. Johnson Degree of milling effects on rice pasting properties. Cereal Chem. 78: Pereira, T., N. Cooper, and T.J. Siebenmorgen Effects of storage temperature and duration on the milling properties of rice. Discovery 9: Saleh, M.I. and J.F. Meullenet Effect of moisture content at harvest and degree of milling (based on surface lipid content) on the texture properties of cooked long-grain rice. Cereal Chem. 84: Saleh, M. I., J.F. Meullenet, and T.J. Siebenmorgen Development and validation of prediction models for rice surface lipid content and color parameters using 301

5 AAES Research Series 600 near-infrared spectroscopy: A basis for predicting rice degree of milling. Cereal Chem. 85: Siebenmorgen, T.J., A.L. Matsler, and C.F. Earp Milling characteristics of rice cultivars and hybrids. Cereal Chem. 83: Table 1. Slopes, intercepts and coefficients of determination (R 2 ) of linear regression lines relating head rice yield to head rice surface lipid content of pureline (Wells and Francis) and hybrid (XL723, CL XL729, CL XL730, and CL XL745) rice cultivars milled at target rough rice moisture contents of 10.5%, 11.5%, 12.5%, and 13.5% for 10, 20, 30, and 40 s in a laboratory mill. Rough rice moisture content Milling Head rice yield vs. head rice surface lipid content Cultivar Harvest Target Actual Slope R (% w.b.) Purelines Wells b,b b,a a,bc a,b 0.88 Francis b,b b,a b,d a,a 0.93 Hybrids XL B 0.96 CL XL b,b b,a b,d a,b 0.93 CL XL CD 0.89 CL XL c,a d,a b,a a,a 0.93 Lowercase letters represent significant differences in slope among moisture content lots within a cultivar; uppercase letters represent significant differences in slope between cultivars at a given target moisture content. 302

6 B.R. Wells Rice Research Studies 2011 Fig. 1. Head rice surface lipid content of Wells, Francis, XL723, CL XL729, CL XL730, and CL XL745 cultivars after milling at a rough rice moisture content of approximately 12.5% (w.b.) for 10, 20, 30, and 40 s using a laboratory mill. Each data point represents the average surface lipid content measured from three replications of each milling duration. Fig. 2. Head rice yield vs. head rice surface lipid content of Wells, Francis, XL723, CL XL729, CL XL730, and CL XL745 cultivars milled at a rough rice moisture content of approximately 12.5% (w.b.) for 10, 20, 30, and 40 s using a laboratory mill. Each data point represents the average of three milling replications. 303

7 AAES Research Series 600 Fig. 3. Head rice color of Wells, Francis, XL723, CL XL729, CL XL730, and CL XL745 cultivars milled at a rough rice moisture content of approximately 12.5% (w.b.) for 10, 20, 30, and 40 s using a laboratory mill. Greater L* values represent greater whiteness. Each data point represents the average L* value from three replications of each milling duration. Fig. 4. Head rice surface lipid contents of Wells and CL XL729 cultivars after milling at rough rice moisture contents of approximately 10.5%, 11.5%, 12.5%, and 13.5% (w.b.) for 10, 20, 30, and 40 s using a laboratory mill. Each data point represents an average surface lipid content measured from three replications of each milling duration. 304

8 B.R. Wells Rice Research Studies 2011 Fig. 5. Head rice yield (HRY) vs. surface lipid content (SLC) regression line slopes of Wells and CL XL729 cultivars milled at rough rice moisture contents of approximately 10.5%, 11.5%, 12.5%, and 13.5% (w.b.) for 10, 20, 30, and 40 s using a laboratory mill. Each data point represents the average slope calculated from each of three milling replications. 305

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