# 1 Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC)

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1 Wire Antenna Modelling with NEC-2 1 Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) The software Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC-2) has been developed in the 1970s in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Livermore, California. It is based on a numerical solution of electromagnetic field integrals for thin, perfectly conducting wire segments using the Method of Moments (MoM). Such segments can be freely arranged in three-dimensional space and excited in different ways. To calculate the electromagnetic properties of antennas (e.g. input impedance, current distribution or radiation pattern) there are different analysis functions available. The program has later been released as Public Domain and is available today in many different versions for almost all operating systems and CPU platforms. For the present tutorial, the software tool 4NEC2 will be used which, in addition the the NEC-kernel, offers a graphical user interface for creating geometries, displaying results and optimization tools. 4NEC2 is a completely free windows based antenna modelling tool developed by the dutch radio amateur Arie Voors [2]. 1.1 Structure of NEC-2 Input Data A NEC-2 input file consits of a number of commands (called Cards in remebrance of the good, old times of punch cards) specifying the geometry of a problem, the excitation and the output data to be calculated. The structure can be separated in three different blocks: CM. CE GW/SP/.... GE EX/GR/LD/FR/RP/.... EN Comments End of Comment Blocks Geometry Definition End of Geomtry Block Program Control End of Program The usage of the different commands and the different parameters is explained in a detailed handbook of which you have an excerpt of important commands. The complete NEC-2 Manual is available over the internet [3]. For entering dimensions the standard units m and MHz for frequencies are used. For wire geometries some design criteria have to be considered (s. section 1.2)! Simple Example The structure of a NEC-2 program file and usage of cards shall be explained using the example of a half-wavelength dipole for the frequency of f = 200 MHz: version 08/12/09 p. 1

2 O N = Antenna Engineering, Peter Knott CM Example 1: Half-wavelength dipole CE GW GE EX FR EN After the short command line, the geometry block consists of a single GW command and results in the creation of a wire of length l = 40 cm aligned along the y-axis. It is partitioned in 9 individual segments of equal length as shown in the above figure. The radius of the wire is a = 1 mm. The subsequent EX command generates an impressed RF voltage current in the middle segment (no. 9) as excitation of the structure, the amplitude is set to 1 V per segment length. This is the common way of feeding wire antennas in NEC-2, for most single antenna problems one source of excitation will be sufficient but more impressed currents/voltages are also possible. The last command in the example, FR, starts the computation of the problem at a single frequency of f = 200 MHz, as specified. Before the execution of the program, the input file should be saved. Using the menu Calulate Generate (or calculator menu button) the calculation is started, the wire input impedance Z a = R a + jx a and the line currents are shown as the calculated results. The representation of current amplitudes over each wire segment exhibits the expected sinusoidal current distribution. The output of the NEC solver is a text file containing the numerical values required to obtain the results (e.g. geometry data, currents) and the desired target data (e.g. impedance, radiation pattern, gain etc.) which is stored in a *.out -file in the directory of program installation. For easier interpretation of the results, the 4NEC-2 program offers a number of different modules for the graphical representation of geometry, currents, impedance or radiation pattern. version 08/12/09 p. 2

3 1.2 Design Rules To obtain accurate and reliable results, certain rules for the dimensions and alignment of the wires must be observed. Segment length l < λ/10 Segment radius r < λ/100, r < l/8 Segment connections l 1 > l 2 l 1 < 5l 2 r 1 > r 2 r 1 < 5r 2 Using the menu function Show VALIDATE.. in the Geometry-Window these criteria may be checked one at a time or alltogether. In case the design rules have been broken, some segments are coloured grey (Warning) or red (Error) to mark the parts where the limits are exceeded. References [1] The unofficial Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC) Archives, [2] 4NEC2 antenna modeler and optimizer, arivoors/ [3] NEC-2 User Manual, ftp://ftp.qsl.net/pub/wb6tpu/nec/nec2prt1.pdf version 08/12/09 p. 3

5 2.1 Optimiser In the standard version, NEC-2 can only calculate loops where the frequency is the varying parameter. For typical antenna problems such as impedance matching or finding appropriate dimensions, a variation of geometrical parameters is required. For such problems, an external optimiser is included in the 4NEC2 package and may be used in a very versatile way. First, some parameters (variables) need to be declared and be applied in suitable commands. These parameters may be modified automatically by optimiser later when it is started. The parameters may be declared using a special SY-command: The cards in the following example SY d=0.01 GW d will create the variable d with an initial value of 0.01 [m], it is used subsequently to specify the radius of a wire. Parameters may also be calculated using simple formulas, e.g. 2 (d + 1). In a normal run of NEC-2 (Calculate Generate) the pre-defined initial value is used to calculate the dimensions while the optimiser is tries to modify these values for best fit. The usage of multiple variables at different points in a NECprogram is possible, also for optimisation. The optimiser is started using the menu Calculate Optimize and offers different modes of operation: In the Evaluate-mode the value of one or more parameters is altered step-by-step around the starting value. This can be used to realise loops for sweeping parameters other than frequency. The Optimize-mode offers a variety of different output data for definition of a design quality ( goal functions ): SWR Gain F/B, F/R R-a X-a Eff. Standing Wave Ratio Antenna Gain Front-to-Back Ratio of Field Magnitude Input Resistance Input Reactance Antenna Efficiency One or more values can be combined in goal function by weighting the different criteria (entering percentages in the appropriate fields). If, for example, only the standing wave ratio is to be optimised, a value of 100 is to be entered in the SWR-field. Should also other fields be included, different percentages may be added in other boxes. If the far field is addressed (e.g. gain or front-to-back-ratio), it is sometimes required to specify a particular direction (in Theta/Phi-angles) for the calculation. In the Optimize-mode selected parameters are madel larger or smaller until each new variation leads to worse results considering the desired design goal function and a (local) optimum has been found. It has to be noted that this optimisation process does not always lead to an absolute minimum bzw. maximum, depending on the starting values of the different parameters. Therefore it is sometimes adviseable to start with an intial run of Evaluate with a coarse grid of points for determining a finer range of starting values in the parameter space for a subsequent run. version 08/12/09 p. 5

6 M O N Antenna Engineering, Peter Knott 2.2 Excercises Initial Example First, just like in the previous example, a single wire with a radius of a=1 mm should be designed as a half wavelength dipole antenna for a resonance frequency of f 0 =500 MHz. Enter your values for wire lengthl 1, input impedance and reflection coefficient in table Additional Wire / Reflector A second linear wire antenna with identical dimensions (l 2 = l 1 ) in a distance w should be aligned parallel to the first dipole as shown in the following figure. The second antenna will remain passive, i.e. only the middle segment of the first wire (right hand side) will be excited. Set the distance between the two wires to w = λ 0 /4 and evaluate the influence of mutual coupling on resonance frequency, antenna input impedance and gain in the direction of the x-axis at f = 500 MHz using 4NEC Optimum Input Impedance Find a suitable distance w between the two wires using the optimiser, so that the antenna has a real input impedance at f 0 = 500 MHz (Z a = R a, X a = 0) Optimum Antenna Gain Find a suitable distance w using the optimiser, so that the gain of the antenna at f 0 = 500 MHz reaches a maximum Multi-Parameter Optimisation In addition to the distance w between the two wires, now also the reflector wire length l 2 is variable. Start the optimiser with one or both variables and try the find a good compromise between input impedance and antenna gain. Write down the results in the table Additional Wire / Director The usage of additional passive wires parallel to the active wire can also increase the antenna gain in the forward direction (so called directors ). Try to add one or more wires to your model as directors and experiment with different configurations (no. of wires, lengths, distances etc.) version 08/12/09 p. 6

7 2.3 Quad-Antenna Another example of a simple wire antenna is the so-called Quad Antenna shown in the following figure. It is built of 4 linear wires forming a square with an edge length of λ/ Resonance Frequency Build a model of a Quad antenna using 4NEC2 and find a suitable wire (edge) length l, so that the resulting frequency of resonance will be f R = 40 MHz. Take into account the wire radius a: Which wire length will be used for a very thing wire (a = 0.01mm), which length will be required for a wire with a radius of a = 5mm? What is the input impedance Z a in both cases? Antenna Radiation Pattern The far field radiation pattern of a Quad antenna differs from that of a half-wavelength dipole. Draw the shape of the E ϑ and E φ components of the Quad antenna s far field (as shown above) in the different planes: version 08/12/09 p. 7

8 Results Enter your results for wire geometry and resulting antenna parameters in the following tables: Half-wavelength Dipole E1.3.1 Half wavelength dipole, a = 1 mm, f 0 = 300 MHz l = R a = X a = E1.3.2 Resonance Frequency f R = R a = X a = E1.3.2 Exact Wire Length, f R = f 0 = 300 MHz l = R a = X a = E1.3.4 Radiation Pattern Gmax = (ϑ, φ)max = α 3dB = E1.3.5 Influence of Wire Diameter at f 0 = 300 MHz: a=0,1 mm R a = X a = f R = a=0,01 mm R a = X a = f R = a=0,001 mm R a = X a = f R = version 08/12/09 p. 8

9 Antenna Mutual Coupling E2.2.1 Single Wire as Dipole Antenna, f 0 = 500 MHz l 1 = R a = X a = Gmax = E2.2.2 Second Wire with Identical Length, w = λ 0 /4 new resonance frequency: f R = at f 0 = 500 MHz R a = X a = Gmax = E2.2.3 Optimum Input Impedance new wire distance: w = at f 0 = 500 MHz R a = X a = Gmax = E2.2.4 Optimum Antenna Gain new wire distance: w = new resonance frequency: f R = at f 0 = 500 MHz R a = X a = Gmax = E2.2.5 Multi-Parameter Optimisation new wire distance: w = new wire length: l 2 = at f 0 = 500 MHz R a = X a = Gmax = version 08/12/09 p. 9

10 Quad Antenna E2.3.1 Resonance Frequency at f R = 40 MHz: a = 0,01 mm l = R a = X a = 0 a = 5 mm l = R a = X a = 0 E2.3.2 Antenna Radiation Pattern Max. Gain: G(ϑ =, φ = ) = dbi version 08/12/09 p. 10

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