1 Globalization; Effects to Urban Identity and Relation with Slow City Movement Özlem Candan Cengiz Hergül Abstract Globalization, nowadays, has became a commonly controversial concept to describe change (transformation) in every living space from economy to politics, social politics to culture, environmental issues to social life. Concept is defined basicly as; a process that encompasses the causes, course and consequences of transnational and transcultural integration of human and non-human activities. 1 It's a fact that globalization basically effects the urban identity also it has different effects over the cities. Cities getting shape according to New World Order are tending to show similarities between themselves within globalization. This issue effects the social, physical and cultural identities of the cities. This loss of identity, which is a natural result of capitalist systems, shows itself in social, political, environmental and primarily economic fields and the world runs forward to an uniformity such as fast living, being their own lives highly valuable, having limited time for living and enjoying their lives as because of globalization. Some countries aware of this situation started an urban movement against this rapid going. They described this concept half English half Italian word ''Cittaslow'' which means slow city and they chose snail as a symbol. Slow City Movement produces solutions on various subjects from food culture to architectural construction, from consuming format to environmental perception because of the articles in its declaration. Objection of the study is; to examine the concept of globalization, to put forth the effects of globalization over the urban identity, as well as to examine and to evaluate the Slow City Movement in functional terms as a solution to the loss of urban identity because of the globalization. Key Words: Identity, urban identity, globalization, Slow City Movement, Cittaslow *****
2 2 Globalization; Effects to Urban Identity and Relation with Slow City Movement 1. Globalization Concept and It's Effect to Urban Identity Globalization concept; reflects the common opinion of economic and technological powers are widely used and shared, world is rapidly formed as a social field and developments in any place of the world will create big and deep consequences over the chance to live of the individuals and communities on the other side of the sphere. 2 If globalization discussions which holds broad space in societies' agenda is examined; it is observed that different contexts and meanings are installed to the concept in different environments. 3 For some, globalization is a key process to establish a new and better world on the basis of freedom, openness and mutual interaction, for some others inequality, exploitation and a thrilling process opening door to a world where the gap between advanced and less-developed is venturing further. 4 In this context, globalization, there are positive and negative approaches. Globalization, according to the supporters of globalization; is spread of the economic, political and cultural values and aggregations formed in the frame of these values all over the world by exceeding national borders; development of physical and economic freedoms between nations. 5 Globalization according to the opponents of globalization is spreading the victory of West throughout the world with a new initiative after the cold war period. Without denying existence of globalization ideologically, they see it as a new stage of capitalism with its current structuring. Globalization is a process of abolition of borders and freedom in global market to provide the needs in producing and selling more goods, in order to continue the capitalist system itself. 6 Multi-dimensional links developing as a result of economic globalization and growing of international markets are paving the way for diversity and identity crisis. Cities are converted to the places or centers where continuous cash flow happens, progressively figure out their identity to
3 Özlem Candan Cengiz Hergül shape such connections. Here, the concept of urban identity becomes important. 7 Monopolistic dominance of the international capital consisting of globalization is canalizing the whole world to have the same type of behaviour patterns and cultural identity. 8 Especially with the help of developments in visual communication facilities, also as a result of consumption idealized by the media, trendy values of the market culture those who are manipulated by the economic concerns takes place of the values which established with the long histories of the communities. A new consumption culture and society is being created from fig to eating, from education to music. 9 In the perception evolved after globalization, the looming large of the identity concept in terms of cities looking forward to be center of attraction has brought forward the authenticity of cities. 10 With the impact of globalization it is impossible to stop socio-cultural, economic, politic and technologic changes caused by rapid erosion process in the recent urban ecosystems being transformed into homogeneous spaces and the effects of this changes. However, it is possible to protect natural and cultural tissues of the cities against the destructive effects of the change by evaluating cultural and biological capacities together in the urban ecosystems. The most important principle of this holistic protecting and planning approach, is keeping alive the unique identity, characteristic features and diversities that exist in cities by using in the functional sense in order to make cities grow healthier. 11 As a result, globalization which is a natural result of capitalist systems shows itself in cultural, social, politic, environmental and primarily economic fields as well and the world because of this globalization has gone to an uniformity where life is so rapid, people's time is highly precious, duration of life to live and having pleasure from life is so limited. Some countries in the world which recognized this situation started an urban movement against this fast going. They defined this movement with 3
4 4 Globalization; Effects to Urban Identity and Relation with Slow City Movement an English Italian combination word Cittaslow, namely Slow City concept and chose the snail as symbol. In this sense, a declaration in the concept of Slow City Movement which will be detailed in next section is prepared and in this decleration, although globalization facilitates the relation, fusion and exchange between people, it is also declared that there are concerns that it goes through to create a single model human by rasping the diversities and eventually a new order in which the mediocrity prevails will be created. A network within the context of Slow City Movement has been created in order to resolve these concerns, to look after, to protect and to develop the local values. 12 In this direction, it is aimed to decelerate the speed of change in the cities, essentially bringing it to optimum level; without losing unique identities by the influence of global capital and urbanization trends. To achieve this goal; it is foreseen an urbanization policy which puts forward local and original identity Slow City Movement The Cittaslow movement was established in Italy in It aims to achieve this by globally disseminating a model for local governance which is adopted by its accredited members. 14 Cittaslow (Slow Cities) began as an Italian grass-roots activist movement that encouraged towns to employ a set of urban design and planning tools to readdress the challenges associated with fast life. The fast life refers to our fastpaced everyday lives and the materiality of global standardization and modernization. 15 International Cittaslow Network, is just like the Slowfood Movement started earlier in Italy as a local initiative against central agro-food policies, draws attention as an initiative trying to overcome the negativities caused by globalization by seizing the opportunities of globalization. 16 While the Cittaslow movement shares the same geographic and cultural roots as the Slow Food movement, the aims of the two movements are different but complementary. In broad terms, both organizations are in favor of local, traditional cultures, leisurely consideration, enjoyment, and
5 Özlem Candan Cengiz Hergül conviviality. Both are against big business and globalization, though their driving motivation is not so much political as ecological and humanistic. 17 The Cittaslow Charter also covers many aspects of urban design and planning. Candidate cities must be committed to support modern industries whose products lend identity to the region. They must also be committed to the conservation of the distinctive character of their built environment and must pledge to plant trees, create more green space, increase cycle paths and pedestrianized streets, keep piazzas free of advertising billboards and neon, ban car alarms, reduce noise pollution, light pollution and air pollution, foster the use of alternative sources of energy, improve public transport and promote eco-friendly architecture in any new developments. 18 The main objectives of Slow City Movement, which emphasizes the importance of place based life quality, can be listed as follows: 19 To provide life quality and liveability by using technology. To provide sustainable development by regio-specific values. To ensure income justice by contributing local economic life. To protect natural environment and historical values. The idea behind Cittaslow is simple. It emphasises the concept of good living seen in terms of the quality of the local environment and gastronomic resources and the use of new technologies for collective well-being. It is also argued that small towns, of no more than inhabitants, offer the best opportunities for easy, enjoyable living Slow City Criteria The first condition to be a Cittaslow is to have a population under Additionally, Slow City criteria are grouped under six main topics. And there are 60 parametres required under these topics needed to apply to the cities. None of the towns that applies to become a Cittaslow is expected to fulfil all the requirements at the time of application. However, a city needs to comply with at least 5
6 6 Globalization; Effects to Urban Identity and Relation with Slow City Movement 50 percent of the criteria and to undersign pledges to set up initiatives in order to address the remaining criteria that it does not initially meet main topics containing the Slow City applications: Environmental policies 2. Town/landscape development 3. Technical infrastructure and transport 4. Quality of urban everyday life 5. Economy, industry, Craftmanship 6. Culture, community life and integration The sub parameters of the six headings are below: Environmental policies! Air quality control and improvement, plans and measures! Differentiated refuse collection, Industrial and domestic Composting! Watermanagement for Saving and Purification! Saving energy and decentralizing of Energy Production and Supply! Control of electromagnetic and Noise Pollution! Soil protection! Saving and Enhancing biodiversity 2. Town/landscape development! Prevention of urban sprawl! Conservation of historical landscape patterns! Active landscaping based on a green system concept, using autochthon plants! Tree census and protection program for trees in the city! redevelopment and reutilization of abandoned areas! Conservation / renewal of historic urban areas and patterns! Improving the quality of public urban and green open space! Concepts for vital neighborhoods and mixed use quarters! Creative urban design guidelines for constr. material, PR, parabola antennas, colors! Information about and support of sustainable architecture
7 Özlem Candan Cengiz Hergül 3. Technical infrastructure and transport! Quality and afforability of public transport system! Quality of bike lanes, bike parking and bike and ride! Quality of conditions for pedestrians, zones of priority for pedestrians! Implementation of optical fiber and wireless systems! internet information services for citizens 4. Quality of urban everyday life! Programs to support local acitivities! programs to facilitate family life! Center for medical assistance! Accessability of all urban facilities for disabled! Support of marketing for natural products! Friendly shop program! Citta slow information provided 5. Economy, industry, Craftmanship! Promotion of jobs based on regional economy! Promotion of craftmanship and traditional Work! Promotion of small buisness with sustainable methods! Certification of crafts products and art! Promotion of telework! Education of taste and nutrition in collaboration certificated with labels like Slow Food! Ban on the use of gen technology in agriculture 7 6. Culture, community life and integration! Promoting and preserving of local cultural traditions and events! Support of clubs and activities to integrate new incoming people and residents! Programms to supply a variety of cultural activities for different groups! Welcome, information and integration of hosts and residents interests! Programms for urban and school gardens and education for health! Information about targets and programs of Cittaslow
8 8 Globalization; Effects to Urban Identity and Relation with Slow City Movement 4. Conclusion It is a known fact that policies carried out over the city leads to major changes in the structure of the city. In addition to the city's economic and cultural structure, visage and spaces of city are affected from the trends and changes. Although there are some positive ones, these changes can adversely effect the city and in some ways they can cause urban degeneration. Nowadays, the phenomenon of globalization is discussed in many different dimensions and directs the world. The most obvious effect of globalization over the city is to create uniformity in the cities by spread of same consumption patterns. This process destroys the originality in the cities and thus urban identity which covers all components related to city is the most effected element from the urban change. So the most intense effects of globalization which is a concept emerged in the direction of the effects of capitalism is felt over the urban identity. Slow City Movement may seem like a modest movement to say stop to the life cycle which became a disease in cities and causes people to forget to enjoy life. Yet the movement is a strong idea that has a deep philosophical background tilting at windmills of capitalism. Cittaslow chews on many issues related to city. However, the most prominent features of Slow Cities are their being identified cities where people's sense of belonging is high. The rapid increase of Slow Cities also carries the discussions such as most of the cities may experience a globalization around the Slow City Movement. Increase in the Slow Cities will increase the number of cities where identities are protected, life is enjoyed and where people have memories rather than creating a globalization in the context of homogeneity. Just like Milan Kundera wrote in his piece ''Slowness'': ''The degree of slowness is directly proportional to the intensity of memory; the degree of speed is directly proportional to the intensity of forgetting. There is a secret bond between slowness and memory; between speed and forgetting...'' Notes 1 Nayef R.F. Al Rodhan, Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition (Geneva: Centre for Security Policy, 2006), 1.
9 2 Özlem Candan Cengiz Hergül Demet Cavcav, Geli!mekte Olan Ülke Kentlerinde Küreselle!me Sürecinin Kent Kimli"ine Etkisi-Ankara Örne"i (PhD Diss., Gazi University, 2007). 3 Perihan Kiper (b), Küreselle!me Sürecinde Kentlerin Tarihsel-Kültürel De"erlerinin Korunması-Türkiye-Bodrum Örne"i- (PhD Diss., Ankara University, 2004). 4 Mehmet Kaya, Küreselle!me Yakla!ımları Dicle Universitesi Ziya Gökalp E!itim Fakültesi Dergisi 13(2009): 2. 5 #afak Kaypak, Küresellesme Sürecinde Kültürel Kimlik Açılımları Ve Kentsel Çevreye Yansıması University of Süleyman Demirel, International Davraz Congress 2(2009): 2. 6 Kaypak, Küresellesme Sürecinde Kültürel Kimlik Açılımları ve Kentsel Çevreye Yansıması, Norberto Muniz Martinez, Identity and Marketing of Cities. In Information Communication Technologies and City Marketing: Opportunities for Digital Cities around the World, ed. Mila Gascó- Hernández and Teresa Torres-Coronas (New York: IGI Global Publishing, 2009), 3. 8 Kaypak, Küresellesme Sürecinde Kültürel Kimlik Açılımları Ve Kentsel Çevreye Yansıması, Perihan Kiper (a), Küreselle!me Sürecinde Kentlerimize Giren Yeni Tüketim Mekanları ve Yitirilen Kent Kimlikleri. Planlama 4(2004): Emre Sert, et al., Küreselle!me Sürecinde De"i!en Kent Kavramı; Mekan ve Politikle!me Üzerine Bir Okuma Çalı!ması. Planlama 2(2005): Merve Görkem Bilgi, Türkiye nin Sakin #ehirlerinde Permakültürel Koruma, Planlama, Yönetim ve E"itim Pratikleri Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 29(2013): Serdar #ahinkaya, Bir Yerel Kalkınma Modeli: Cittaslow ve Seferihisar Üzerine De"erlendirmeler. <http://www.bagimsizsosyalbilimciler.org/yazilar_uye/sahintem10.pd f> Accessed: December 20, Veli Sırım, Çevreyle Bütünle!mi! Bir Yerel Yönetim Örne"i Olarak Sakin #ehir Hareketi Ve Türkiye nin Potansiyeli Journal of History Culture and Art 4(2012): Sarah Pink, Sense and Sustainability: The Case of the Slow City Movement. Local Environment 13(2008); Jaimee Semmens and Claire Freeman, The Value of Cittaslow as an Approach to Local Sustainable Development: A New Zealand Perspective. International Planning Studies 17 (2012): 5. 9
10 10 Globalization; Effects to Urban Identity and Relation with Slow City Movement 16 Gündüz, Can. Pragmatism And Utopia Under The Auspices of Neoliberalism: Turning Out To Be Cittaslow of Seferihisar (PhD Diss., Middle East Technical University, 2012). 17 Heike Mayer and Paul Knox, Pace of Life and Quality of Life: The Slow City Charter In Community Quality-of-Life Indicators: Best Cases III, ed. M.Joseph Sirgy, Rhonda Philips and Don R. Rahtz, (New York: Springer, 2009), Mayer and Knox, Pace of Life and Quality of Life: The Slow City Charter, H.Rıdvan Yurtseven, Ozan Kaya and Serhat Harman, Yava" Hareketi (Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık, 2010), Mara Miele, CittàSlow: Producing Slowness against the Fast Life. Space and Polity 12(2008): Miele, CittàSlow: Producing Slowness against the Fast Life, Helmut Bott, Cittaslow-Criteria and Evaluation Methodology, Bott, Cittaslow-Criteria and Evaluation Methodology, Bibliography Al-Rodhan, Nayef R.F. Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition. Geneva Centre for Security Policy, Program on the Geopolitical Implications of Globalization and Transnational Security, Bilgi, Merve Görkem. Türkiye nin Sakin #ehirlerinde Permakültürel Koruma, Planlama, Yönetim ve E"itim Pratikleri (Permacultural Conservation, Planning, Management and Educational Practices in the Cittaslow of Turkey) Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 29(2013): Bott, Helmut. Cittaslow-Criteria and Evaluation Methodology Cavcav, Demet Geli!mekte Olan Ülke Kentlerinde Küreselle!me Sürecinin Kent Kimli"ine Etkisi-Ankara Örne"i (The Effect of the Globalization to the Urban Identity in Cities of Developing Countries-The Example of Ankara). PhD Diss., Gazi University, Gündüz, Can. Pragmatism And Utopia Under The Auspices of Neoliberalism: Turning Out To Be Cittaslow of Seferihisar. PhD Diss., Middle East Technical University, Kaya, Mehmet. Küreselle!me Yakla!ımları (Approches to Globalization) Dicle Universitesi Ziya Gökalp E!itim Fakültesi Dergisi 13(2009): 1-16.
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12 12 Globalization; Effects to Urban Identity and Relation with Slow City Movement Sert, Emre, Karpuz, Hayri, Akgün, Gürkan. Küreselle!me Sürecinde De"i!en Kent Kavramı; Mekan ve Politikle!me Üzerine Bir Okuma Çalı!ması. Planlama, TMMOB Journal of the Chamber of City Planners 2(2005): Sırım, Veli. Çevreyle Bütünle!mi! Bir Yerel Yönetim Örne"i Olarak Sakin #ehir Hareketi Ve Türkiye nin Potansiyeli (Cittaslow Movement as an Example of a Local Administration Integrated with Environment and Turkey s Potential). Journal of History Culture and Art 4(2012): #ahinkaya, Serdar. Bir Yerel Kalkınma Modeli: Cittaslow ve Seferihisar Üzerine De"erlendirmeler. <http://www.bagimsizsosyalbilimciler.org/yazilar_uye/sahintem10.pdf> Accessed: December 20, Yurtseven, H.Rıdvan., Kaya, Ozan and Harman Serhat. Yava! Hareketi Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık, Özlem Candan Cengiz Hergül is working as an academic staff in Ankara University, Landscape Architecture Department, Turkey. She is doing her PhD thesis about The Investigation of Slow City Model In Terms of Landscape Architecture As A Tool For Urban Identity Formation. Her study subjects are; urban design and planning, urban identity and image.