Business Model Framework: Initial Result Areas and Performance Indicators

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Business Model Framework: Initial Result Areas and Performance Indicators"

Transcription

1 Business Model Framework: Initial Result Areas and Performance Indicators GCF/B.05/02 20 September 2013 Meeting of the Board 8-10 October 2013 Paris, France Agenda item 4 (a)

2 Page b Recommended action by the Board It is recommended that the Board: a) Takes note of the information presented in document GCF/B.05/02 Business Model Framework: Initial Result Areas and Performance Indicators; b) Provides guidance on the policy matters regarding the initial result areas and performance indicators of the Fund; and c) Adopts the draft decision presented in Annex I to this document.

3 Page 1 Business Model Framework: Initial Result Areas and Performance Indicators I. Introduction 1. At its March 2013 meeting, the Board requested the Interim Secretariat to undertake work on a number of documents relating to the business model framework of the Fund. One of these documents was to address the objectives, results and performance indicators of the Fund. The Interim Secretariat, with the assistance of consultants, prepared the requested document (GCF/B.04/03) for consideration by the Board at its June 2013 meeting, where it was discussed by the Board. 2. At its June 2013 meeting, the Board, in its decision B.04/04: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Noted convergence that the Fund will have a strategic focus on climate mitigation and adaptation, and also seek to maximize sustainable development; Reaffirmed that country ownership will be a core principle of the business model framework of the Fund and that countries will identify their priority result areas in line with their national strategies and plans; Decided to consider further the initial result areas of the Fund, with an aim to achieve substantial progress at its September 2013 meeting; Further decided to consider the core performance indicators to be employed by the Fund to measure performance against the objectives of the Fund and the mitigation and adaptation results to be considered by the Board at its September 2013 meeting; Further decided to consider the expected impacts and role of the Fund in the initial result areas at its second meeting in The purpose of this document is to present to the Board an assessment of options for the initial result areas and performance indicators of the Fund which it could adopt to attain its objectives. This document should be read in conjunction with the document on objectives, results and performance indicators (GCF/B.04/03) and the document on the results management framework for the Fund (GCF/B.05/03). 4. The Governing Instrument for the Fund provides specific guidance on result areas of the Fund: Paragraph 2: The Fund will contribute to the achievement of the ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In the context of sustainable development, the Fund will promote the paradigm shift towards low-emission and climate-resilient development pathways by providing support to countries to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the impacts of climate change, taking into account the needs of those countries particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Paragraph 3: [ ] The Fund will play a key role in channelling new, additional, adequate and predictable financial resources to countries and will catalyse climate finance, both public and private, and at the international and national levels. The Fund will pursue a country-driven approach and promote and strengthen engagement at the country level through effective involvement of relevant institutions and stakeholders. The Fund will be scalable and flexible and will be a continuously learning institution guided by processes

4 Page 2 for monitoring and evaluation. The Fund will strive to maximize the impact of its funding for adaptation and mitigation, and seek a balance between the two, while promoting environmental, social, economic and development co-benefits and taking a gendersensitive approach. Paragraph 58: A results measurement framework with guidelines and appropriate performance indicators will be approved by the Board. Performance against these indicators will be reviewed periodically in order to support the continuous improvement of the Fund s impact, effectiveness and operational performance. 5. The provisions and principles from the Governing Instrument, as well as the decisions by the Board, have been fully reflected in the options for the Fund s initial result areas and performance indicators presented in this document. II. Initial result areas of the Fund 6. Document GCF/B.04/03 on the objectives, results and performance indicators of the Fund already provided a preliminary assessment of result areas of the Fund. This Chapter, however, complements this preliminary assessment by further elaborating on the reasoning behind the recommended set of initial result areas of the Fund. 7. Presented result areas are selected from a variety of possible options based on their feasibility and appropriateness. They present the best options with respect to both project and programme levels, and take into account the need for immediate results as well as long-term transformative impact, which could lead to low-emission and climate-resilient pathways. Annex V contains the descriptions of, and the reasoning behind, the individual initial result areas presented in Table 1. Annex VI further contains the rationale drivers for the recommended initial mitigation result areas. Table 1: Recommended initial result areas of the Fund IR 1 IR 2 IR 3 IR 4 IR 5 IR 6 IR 7 IR 8 IR 9 IR 10 IR 11 IR 12 Energy efficiency of buildings and appliances Energy efficiency of industrial processes Low-emission transport Low-emission energy access Large-scale low-emission power generation Agriculture and related land use management REDD+ implementation Sustainable forest management to support mitigation and adaptation Design and planning of cities to support mitigation and adaptation Support for result areas relating to all climate hazards Support for selected themes cutting across adaptation result areas ( flagships ) Facilitating capacity for programmatic and transformative adaptation activities

5 Page 3 IR 13 IR 14 Facilitating scaling up of effective community-based adaptation (CBA) actions Supporting coordination of public goods such as knowledge hubs and South-South exchange III. Performance indicators 8. As the Fund starts operating and as the results management framework is developed in greater detail, the list of performance indicators may be updated to ensure continuous learning. Performance indicators provide a metric for the Fund to measure its own effectiveness, as well as the effectiveness of its projects and programmes, and of the transformative country strategies supported by the Fund. Depending on the modalities of intervention and on the result areas of the Fund, initial performance indicators could be drawn from Table 2 and Annex III. Thus, not all performance indicators would be applied in all projects and programmes. The key criteria presented in document GCF/B.05/03 Results Management Framework are recommended to complement the performance indicators contained in Table 2. Table 2: Initial performance indicators of the Fund Indicator type Project and programme outputs performance indicators. Indicates the physical impact of Fund activities in terms of development and adaptation. Initial result areas indicators Mitigation (a) Reduced emissions from buildings and appliances (tco 2/m 2 ); (b) Increased access to transportation with low carbon fuels (tco 2/passenger km); (c) Reduced emissions from agriculture and related land use management (tco2/ha sequestered; tco2 sequestered; tn2o emitted per hectare from fertilizer); (d) tco 2 reduced through Fund interventions; (e) Deployment of low-carbon power generation technologies (tco2/kwh); (f) Households with access to low carbon modern technologies (Number of households served by off grid or clearly identifiable on grid renewable technologies); (g) Support development of negative emissions technologies (Number of CCS projects, tons of CO2 sequestered); (h) Support phased implementation of REDD+ (Decrease in rate of deforestation tco 2e reductions from reduced deforestation) and maintenance of afforestation, tco 2/ha. Adaptation (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Number of people supported by, and familiar with, early warning procedures; Indicators would need to be selected as appropriate to the results sector, the country and to the type of activity. There is a considerable body of experience on output indicators and gradually growing experience with outcome indicators; i Each flagship would have indicators relevant to its area of focus. For example, the ratio of women and children mortality/injury (possibly as DALYs) to that for men in climate-related events; variance in annual income of smallholder farmers postimplementation compared with estimated variance in the 10 years pre-implementation; total area under management for EbA values; Number of CBA scale-ups supported; Number of people supported by the scale-ups; Number of scale-ups achieving a 100 fold/1000 fold etc. more people within the activity than in the original pilot;

6 Page 4 Transformative impact of Fund activities performance indicators. Trends in the adoption of technology/best practice/business models for low-emission and climateresilient development pathways at the country and global levels. Captures the overall impact of the Fund on development pathways. (g) (h) (i) (j) (a) (b) (c) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Each scale-up would have its specific performance indicators depending on the activity; e.g. the reduction in the number of participant farmers experiencing income losses of more than 33 per cent; Number of CBA pilots supported (if Fund resources are used for pilots by a country) and the portion supported as scale-ups; Number of countries with effective access to a regional Centre of Excellence / Regional Climate Centre ; Within a country, the existence of an active staff training and exchange programme with that centre and number of people trained. Mitigation Carbon intensity of economy (tco 2/GDP); Reduced energy intensity of industry (tco 2/GDP); Facilitate design of sustainable cities (tco 2/capita). Adaptation Decreasing number of people killed, injured and affected (e.g. from the Center for Research on the Epidemiology for Disasters database) by climate-related disasters; In the longer term, developed methodologies that better measure monetary and non-monetary losses as percentage of GDP from climate related events relevant to countries; ii In the longer term, developed pragmatic index (c.f. the Human Development Index), or indices, that capture the major elements of social vulnerability at national to community scales; Meanwhile, a longer list of indicators, possibly linked to the Sustainable Development Goals, might be tracked regularly by the Fund. These might include access to clean and reliable water and sanitation; access to adequate and diversified food, etc.; Overall, the existence of a process for identifying transformational opportunities and the number of applications of that process; the number of implementation ready transformational plans; the number plans implemented; Secondary indicators might include the number of vulnerability areas analysed and transformational opportunities identified; status of each of those transformational plans; Within each transformational plan specific indicators should be selected depending on the focus of the plan. For example; the proportion of people moving from a hazardous area, such as a coastal flood plain, and the number of people remaining there; Number of planning processes, public and private, that draw upon climate risk information from the centre or from staff trained by the centre. IV. Role and expected impact of the Fund 9. The initial result areas will guide the role of the Fund, which will be detailed further through an impact analysis. The climate finance focus of the Fund and its opportunity to help reduce current fragmentation in climate finance and support necessary scaling of climate change mitigation and adaptation, and possible collaboration with other climate finance actors should be assessed more closely through an impact analysis, including an analysis of the role and expected impact of the Fund in the initial result areas. The guidance to the Secretariat to detail the role and expected impact of the Fund in the initial result areas is presented in Annex IV.

7 Page 5 Annex I: Draft decision of the Board The Board, (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Recalls decision B.04/04, paragraph (a), in which it noted convergence that the Fund will have a strategic focus on climate mitigation and adaptation, and also seek to maximize sustainable development; Recalls decision B.04/04, paragraph (b), in which it reaffirmed that country ownership will be a core principle of the business model framework of the Fund and that countries will identify their priority result areas in line with their national strategies and plans; Notes convergence that the Fund will adopt a fully comprehensive approach to its vision, consistent with the objectives of the Fund, as set out in its Governing Instrument; Adopts the initial result areas of the Fund, as contained in Annex II to document GCF/B.05/02, in order to enable low-emission and climate-resilient development pathways; Adopts the initial performance indicators of the Fund, as contained in Annex III to document GCF/B.05/02; Decides to move forward the date of the consideration of the expected impacts and role of the Fund set in decision B.04/04, paragraph (e) and requests the Secretariat to initiate work to provide more detail on the role and expected impact of the Fund in the initial result areas, and to present a working document to the Board at its first meeting in 2014, based on the guidance contained in Annex IV to document GCF/B.05/02.

8 Page 6 Annex II: Initial result areas of the Fund (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) Energy efficiency of buildings and appliances; Energy efficiency of industrial processes; Low-emission transport; Low-emission energy access; Large-scale low-emission power generation; Agriculture and related land use management; REDD+ implementation; Sustainable forest management to support mitigation and adaptation; Design and planning of cities to support mitigation and adaptation; Support for result areas relating to all climate hazards; Support for selected themes cutting across adaptation result areas ( flagships ); Facilitating capacity for programmatic and transformative adaptation activities; Facilitating scaling up of effective community-based adaptation (CBA) actions; Supporting coordination of public goods such as knowledge hubs.

9 Page 7 Annex III: Initial performance indicators of the Fund Indicator type Project and programme outputs performance indicators. Indicates the physical impact of Fund activities in terms of development and adaptation. Transformative impact of Fund activities performance indicators. Trends in the adoption of technology/best practice/business models for low-emission and climate-resilient development pathways at the country and global (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (a) (b) (c) (a) Initial result areas indicators Mitigation Reduced emissions from buildings and appliances (tco 2/m2) Increased access to transportation with low carbon fuels (tco 2/passenger km) Reduced emissions from agriculture and related land use management (tco 2/ha sequestered; tco 2 sequestered; tn 2O emitted per hectare from fertilizer) tco 2 reduced through Fund interventions Deployment of low-carbon power generation technologies (tco 2/Kwh) Households with access to low carbon modern technologies (Number of households served by off grid or clearly identifiable on grid renewable technologies) Support development of negative emissions technologies (Number of CCS projects, tons of CO 2 sequestered) Support phased implementation of REDD+ (Decrease in rate of deforestation tco 2e reductions from reduced deforestation) and maintenance of afforestation, tco 2/ha. Adaptation Number of people supported by, and familiar with, early warning procedures; Indicators would need to be selected as appropriate to the results sector, the country and to the type of activity. There is a considerable body of experience on output indicators and gradually growing experience with outcome indicators. iii Each flagship would have indicators relevant to its area of focus. For example, the ratio of women and children mortality/injury (possibly as DALYs) to that for men in climate-related events; variance in annual income of smallholder farmers post-implementation compared with estimated variance in the 10 years pre-implementation; total area under management for EbA values; Number of CBA scale-ups supported; Number of people supported by the scale-ups. Number of scale-ups achieving a 100 fold/1000 fold etc. more people within the activity than in the original pilot; Each scale-up would have its specific performance indicators depending on the activity; e.g. the reduction in the number of participant farmers experiencing income losses of more than 33 per cent; Number of CBA pilots supported (if Fund resources are used for pilots by a country) and the portion supported as scale-ups. Number of countries with effective access to a regional Centre of Excellence / Regional Climate Centre ; Within a country, the existence of an active staff training and exchange programme with that centre and number of people trained. Mitigation Carbon intensity of economy (tco 2/GDP); Reduced energy intensity of industry (tco 2/GDP); Facilitate design of sustainable cities (tco 2/capita). Adaptation Decreasing number of people killed, injured and affected (e.g. from the Center for Research on the Epidemiology for Disasters database) by climate-related disasters;

10 Page 8 levels. Captures the overall impact of the Fund on development pathways. (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) In the longer term, developed methodologies that better measure monetary and non-monetary losses as percentage of GDP from climate related events relevant to countries; iv In the longer term, developed pragmatic index (c.f. the Human Development Index), or indices, that capture the major elements of social vulnerability at national to community scales. Meanwhile, a longer list of indicators, possibly linked to the Sustainable Development Goals, might be tracked regularly by the Fund. These might include access to clean and reliable water and sanitation; access to adequate and diversified food, etc.; Overall, the existence of a process for identifying transformational opportunities and the number of applications of that process; the number of implementation ready transformational plans; the number plans implemented; Secondary indicators might include the number of vulnerability areas analysed and transformational opportunities identified; status of each of those transformational plans; Within each transformational plan specific indicators should be selected depending on the focus of the plan. For example; the proportion of people moving from a hazardous area, such as a coastal flood plain, and the number of people remaining there; Number of planning processes, public and private, that draw upon climate risk information from the centre or from staff trained by the centre.

11 Page 9 Annex IV: Guidance to detail the role and expected impact of the Fund in the initial result areas I. Background 1. At its October 2013 meeting, the Board discussed its initial result areas and adopted decision B.05/xx. In implementing and its initial result areas, it is important for the Fund to have clarity on the expected impact and the role on which it will focus. 2. Several entities are engaged in climate finance, including the Global Environment Facility (GEF), Adaptation Fund, Climate Investment Funds (CIFs), the multilateral development banks (MDBs) and various bilateral funds. The Board intends to enhance complementarity between the Fund s activities and those of other climate-related programmes or sources of finance to better mobilize the full range of financial and technical capacities. In the longer term, the Fund aims to become the main global mechanism for climate finance. 3. Existing climate finance is not adequate to successfully address the urgency and scale of the challenge, both in terms of volume of disbursed funds and the breadth of the areas of engagement. It is also crucial to ensure that countries enabling environments and policy frameworks facilitate low-emission and climate-resilient investment, from both domestic and international sources. Support to shift these policies and frameworks to mainstream climate change actions should also address non-financial barriers to climate-friendly investment. The opportunities for the Fund to enable transformation may lie in how result areas are scaled, combined, replicated and implemented, ideally as part of programmatic at the global and national levels. The aim of the impact analysis is to identify opportunities, considering the existing financing landscape, for the Fund to accelerate the support to low-emission and climateresilient development activities. A key element of the analysis will identify ways in which the Fund can reduce fragmentation within the existing international climate finance architecture by streamlining climate finance delivery for countries and to enhance the Fund s impact. II. Specific matters to be addressed 4. The document on the expected impact and role of the Fund in the initial result areas should address the following overarching questions, and will consider, among others, national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs), national adaptation plans (NAPs), nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and technology needs assessments (TNAs): (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) How can the Fund, in its initial result areas, best achieve paradigm shift towards low-emission and climate-resilient pathways? What kind of activities could fall under the individual result areas? How can the Fund help reduce fragmentation and attain the scale of financing to succeed in attaining its objective? What is the relevance of the initial result areas for countries? How can the Fund best manage to engage with countries on initial result areas based on their respective level of development and institutional capacity? What will be the Fund s role and expected impact in strengthening enabling environment (e.g. integrated climate and development planning, institutional capacity building, strengthening accountability systems, etc.), and what would appropriate policy indicators look like? What should be the balance between support for enabling environments and capital for direct investment support and how might this differ by country and sector?

12 Page 10 (g) (h) What will be the role of the Fund in engaging with other public and private financing channels to promote low-emission and climate-resilient development? What flagship programmes or sectors could be selected and what attributes should they entail?

13 Page 11 Annex V: Description of, and reasoning behind, initial result areas 1. IR 1. Energy efficiency of buildings and appliances (time frame: near-term). This includes energy used in lighting, heating and cooling buildings and by appliances, as well as upgrading building fabric. Measures could include support for: appliance standards and building design codes; institutional capacity building to enforce standards; commercialization of affordable high-efficiency appliances; and information campaigns and technical assistance. Reasoning: mitigation impact with the opportunity to avoid lock-in to inefficient infrastructure. Global mitigation is estimated at up to 6.7 Gt CO 2-eq/year. A fifth to a third of total end-use energy reduction in countries lies in buildings. Investment in buildings energy efficiency carries relatively high capital investment costs, but negative or low marginal abatement costs, making access to finance a key barrier to be addressed by the Fund. Many efficiency measures offer short paybacks and reduced energy bills to households and businesses. Up to 2030, significant technology innovations are expected in terms of the development of active metering and energy management systems, together with the integration of low-carbon generation technologies into building fabric. Interventions are both replicable and scalable, and can be supported through national-level frameworks, with a strong body of international best practice relating to efficiency standards and building codes. Reduced demand can lower energy import dependence and offset future investment in power generation at low cost. Reducing energy use also has significant economic co-benefits for households and industry. 2. IR 2. Energy efficiency of industrial processes (time frame: near-term and medium term). This includes two key types of measures: improving emission efficiency through fuel-switching and improving the productivity of energy use. Significant technology opportunities currently exist, including more efficient end-use electrical equipment; heat and power recovery; material recycling and substitution; control of non-co 2 gas emissions; and a wide array of process-specific technologies. Reasoning: mitigation, comprising around per cent of final energy use reduction alone. Although mitigation is concentrated in emerging economies, co-benefits are also important for other countries. In their TNAs, 80 per cent of least developed countries (LDCs) included industries, and 35 per cent and 42 per cent of countries included energy efficiency and fuel-switching, respectively, as priority technologies. v Relatively low capital investment and marginal abatement costs per tco 2-eq mean economic abatement is high and much can be addressed through improved information, standards and awareness. Payback periods are usually good, particularly for upgrading standard process equipment (e.g. motors, compressors). Sector-specific technology innovation pathways exist for energy intensive industries, with cross-cutting technologies including carbon capture and storage (CCS) and electrification. vi levels of ownership concentration in some industries can facilitate sector engagement; with more fragmented industries (e.g. ceramics, cement) scalable through the development of sector specific cleaner-production programmes and the adoption of Best Available Technology (BAT) guidelines. Medium co-benefits include improved energy security from reduced energy use and increased competitiveness of industry. 3. IR 3. Low-emission transport (time frame: medium to long-term). Measures could include: acceleration of the deployment of public transportation infrastructure in mega-cities in countries; support for the commercialization and deployment of high-efficiency, lowpolluting vehicles and related supporting infrastructure; support for the development of advanced low-carbon transport fuels; promoting modal shift to public transport, and encouraging a shift in freight transport from road to rail. vii Reasoning: Transport sector emissions are increasing rapidly in countries in line with urbanization and population growth. Transport sector-related energy reductions comprise a growing share of final energy reduction, up to per cent in viii

14 Page 12 Capital investment costs for new infrastructure are normally high, but overall marginal abatement costs are negative, creating a significant opportunity for the use of concessional finance. Electrification is a key decarbonisation strategy, with significant innovation expected in battery technology and motor efficiency. Advanced biofuels will also reduce fossil fuel reliance, particularly in aviation. Low-carbon transport options can be highly scalable and replicable, but need to be addressed through national and local planning frameworks. It is important to also consider life-cycle emissions of planned investments and interventions. development co-benefits, such as reduced air pollution, accidents, and congestion exist, with to integrate transport into wider urban planning (see IR 8). 4. IR 4. Low-emission energy access (time frame: near-term). This includes support for the deployment of decentralized renewable energy-based systems in regions that are beyond viable reach of central grid investments, such as in rural regions of sub-saharan Africa and South Asia. These might include household level solar systems, or community mini-grids, and the deployment of improved cook stoves with a net reduction in long-term and short-lived climate pollutants. The Fund would provide support for programmatic and national scale proposals. Reasoning: Significant mitigation for example, up to 1 Gt/CO 2 per year from cook stoves alone. ix Small-scale generation technologies exist and are cost-competitive against fossil fuel expenditure, although capital costs remain a challenge for the poorest households. ly relevant for LDCs, where estimated 2.6bn people are using biomass for cooking and 1.4 billion lack access to electricity x. Electrification and stove technologies are standard and low cost, and suitable for national programme design. Best practice exists at the national level of delivering successful programmes (e.g. IDCOL Bangladesh 1 ). Efficiencies and costs of solar photovoltaic are expected to improve steadily. development benefits from the reduction in premature deaths due to indoor air pollution (premature deaths today total 4 million per year) xi, reduced fuel collection time, increased time for children s education, among others. xii Improved energy access can also improve the reliability of electricity, increase climate resilience and provide new employment opportunities. 5. IR 5. Large-scale low-emission power generation (time frame: near to medium-term). Measures could include: support for the deployment of affordable advanced, lowcarbon power generation technologies; expansion of, and support for, improvements in grid technologies that may be necessary for the large-scale deployment of low-carbon energy sources. Support to cover the incremental cost difference to enable carbon capture and sequestration could also be considered. Reasoning: mitigation impact. The penetration of low-carbon technologies in electricity production is projected to increase from 33 per cent in 2010 to around 80 per cent by 2035 in scenarios of climate stabilization at 450 parts per million (ppm). xiii The sector represents a significant component of national low-carbon strategies in spite of relatively high capital and marginal abatement costs. Many emerging and LDC economies have established national targets and fiscal mechanisms to support scale-up, including several in sub-saharan Africa. Technologies and costs are relatively standard with well-developed global supply chains. Scalability is supported by high level of concentration within national or regional public utilities that can coordinate large scale investments. Independent power producers (IPP) can be engaged through fiscal mechanisms, and reform of tariff legislation, power purchase agreements and planning consents. Low to medium development co-benefits are achievable from reducing mercury and other pollution, decrease in mining fatalities as production is reduced; high development cobenefits from increase in access to energy. Fuel supply diversification improves energy security. 6. IR 6. Agriculture and related land use management (time frame: near to medium-term). Measures could include: reduction of soil and biota carbon losses from improved agricultural practices, such as switching from tillage to no-till cropping; reductions of direct (e.g. 1 Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL) was established by the Government of Bangladesh.

15 Page 13 tractors) or indirect (e.g. fertilizer production) emissions resulting from fossil energy use in agriculture; reductions in non-co 2 emissions from cropping and animal husbandry, and dedicated energy crops to replace fossil fuel use. Reasoning: Agriculture offers significant global abatement, and represents a high percentage of emissions in some LDCs. Both capital and marginal abatement costs for agriculture interventions are low, due to the focus on behavioural change and the resource savings from new technologies. Techniques are highly transferable between similar agro-ecological zones, and offer strong replication. In spite of the high level of fragmentation of the agricultural economy in many countries, sector-level are possible in relation to training and technology deployment programmes. development co-benefits exist for climate resilience, productivity, and freeing land for other uses. Among agriculture-related options, relatively high mitigation from lowering waste in distribution. xiv 7. IR 7. REDD+ implementation (time frame: near-term). There is an agreed phased approach to REDD+ within the UNFCCC. This is already supported by funding programmes of bilateral and multilateral agencies, and this result area would follow a similar approach. Activities would include development of national strategies or action plans, policies, and capacity building; results based action plans and demonstration projects, monitoring and verification, Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES), carbon offsets, and research and development (R&D). Reasoning: Medium to high mitigation impact. Tropical deforestation and forest related land-use change causes approximately 15 per cent of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. xv The relevance to countries is high, with the majority of REDD+ funding to date targeted at Brazil (Amazon Fund), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo Basin Forest Fund) and Indonesia. Both capital and marginal abatement costs are relatively low ( less than EUR10/tcO 2-eq). The for replicability and scalability is high, given the investment in global and national level institutional infrastructure. The Fund is well positioned to build on readiness activities supported by multilateral and bilateral donor programmes and to provide finance at scale. There are significant co-benefits with tropical forests providing ecosystem services and biodiversity, and supporting the livelihoods of 1.6 billion people. PES approach can support poverty alleviation, improve the resilience of forest communities and sustaining vital ecosystem services. 8. IR 8. Sustainable forest management to support mitigation and adaptation. This is a non-market alternative that aims at promoting co-benefits to reduce deforestation and facilitate the transition to better land use through the development of a more sustainable production system (linking agriculture and forestry). xvi Reasoning: Agroforestry and forest-pastoral systems show evidence of being more resilient to climate events and provide diversified incomes while retaining high levels of forest cover and carbon storage in vegetation and soils. This is a form of ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA). 9. IR 9. Design and planning of cities to support mitigation and adaptation (time frame: medium to long-term). Measures could include: support of the integrated development of urban space, including buildings, transport and the zoning of commercial and industrial activity, incorporating infrastructure that promotes low-emission and climate-resilient development and addresses urban vulnerability. Reasoning: Cities currently account for per cent of energy use, and represent up to 75 per cent of total GHG emissions. xvii Organizing mitigation efforts around city development creates the opportunity to generate high mitigation impacts and high development co-benefits that are likely to be more than the sum of those from buildings, transport and energy options pursued individually. Overall, the International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that energy efficiency measures contribute to 44 per cent of abatement in 2035 in the 450 parts per

16 Page 14 million scenario. xviii Rapid urbanization is underway in countries with 75 per cent of global population expected to live in cities by 2050 with95 per cent of expansion in countries. Over the next 20 years, the urban populations of sub-saharan Africa/South Asia is expected to double to 3.5 billion. The people living in informal settlements and exposed to climate risk are expected to double to 900 million by 2020 xix. In addition, combined mitigation/adaptation interventions in cities provide the opportunity to benefit large numbers of people due to the high population density. Both mitigation and adaptation interventions are also scalable due to the commonality of planning and development issues faced in urban design and sprawl. 10. IR 10. Support for result areas relating to all climate hazards. Countries would be able to seek support for concrete adaptation activities at the project or programme level xx in initial result areas across the full range of climate hazards. Reasoning. This initial result area is comprehensive and inclusive of all country priorities. Analysis of recent data on climate-related disasters shows that in most countries a particular disaster type (drought, flood, storm, wildfire) predominates, accounting for 80 to 90 per cent of the effects of climate events xxi. However, the particular dominant disaster type varies greatly from country to country with roughly a third being dominated by each of drought, flood or storm. Thus, if the Board seeks to support countries to address their most pressing climate-related risks, then support for action across the full range of climate extremes would be needed. 11. IR 11. Support for selected cross-cutting adaptation themes ( flagships ). The flagships may be time limited (5 to 10 years) as a priority area, although the commitment to resourcing could extend well beyond this. This initial result area could be combined with IR 10. Examples might include: reducing the high vulnerabilities of women and children in disasters; reducing climate-related hazards and increasing the resilience of people in highly populated floodplains; effective risk spreading mechanisms, including insurance mechanisms; and encouraging the use of ecosystem-based adaptation actions. The objective of the Fund would be to implement flagships at scale as opposed to a micro-project level, which, however, will depend on identification of suitable mechanisms for scaled implementation. Reasoning. This initial result area represents a focused approach that is likely to deliver clearly measurable results. A relatively small set of flagships would already encompass major priorities of most countries. Notably, this initial result area emphasizes outcomes and is likely to lead to transformative changes. For instance, women are disadvantaged in the recovery from disasters, especially those left as heads of households. This perpetuates their vulnerability. Thus, a flagship focusing on improving the ability of women to prepare for, cope with, and recover from, climate-related disasters would produce many other social and economic benefits and desirable transformative change. Similarly, even though insurance is not the answer to the steady increase in climate risks, there are opportunities to establish, or re-establish, effective risk spreading mechanisms that make livelihoods more resilient. These include community support schemes and fodder reserves, among others. Access to basic insurance of crops, homes and infrastructure, upon which developed country populations depend to buffer them from unfavourable climate events, is an order of magnitude lower in countries as compared to developed countries. xxii 12. IR 12. Facilitating capacity for programmatic and transformative adaptation activities. Under this initial result area, the Fund would seek to draw upon the experience of other relevant entities and technical literature to identify major barriers to moving to scale in adaptation activities and achieving transformational change. Currently, the main barriers include perceived uncertainty about climate risks, weak cost/benefit methodologies, and resistance to change within existing institutions. The Fund would financially support adaptation activities at a programmatic scale, including supporting countries in integrating climate risk into strategic

17 Page 15 planning, engaging multiple stakeholders, work across sectors, internalizing climate risk in operations and regulatory framework, and integrating it within budget planning. xxiii Reasoning. Most adaptation activities so far have been project-based and relatively small-scale. xxiv Many have called for a more programmatic approach to adaptation, which is taken to imply larger-scale, medium to long-term activities. Only facilitating capacity at scale can ultimately enable transformative adaptation activities. 13. IR 13. Facilitating scaling up of effective community-based adaptation (CBA) actions. This initial result area is to support the scaling up of the most successful actions from a few pilot communities to the thousands of communities that could benefit from them. This may require policies and measures at the national level, links with community-driven development (CDD) programmes, additional resources at local-government level and support to civil society and the private sector, to encourage self-replication of the best experience from CBA actions. As the Fund does not aim to itself act on a community-level, it will need to identify and collaborate with suitable mechanisms that will be able to implement such activities. Reasoning. Many adaptive actions will be achieved through CBA efforts. Although the CBA actions themselves may be incremental, the process of scaling up is transformational in itself. This initial result area would accelerate the spread of community-owned adaptation activities and would enhance the effectiveness of other initial result areas. 14. IR 14. Supporting coordination of public goods such as knowledge hubs and South- South exchange. Activities to achieve this result might be coordinated with the work of the Adaptation Committee on regional centres and networks xxv and the Global Framework for Climate Services, among others. The Fund would build on readily available experience and would aim to scale up and coordinate knowledge exchange. A target of this effort would be to support the preparation of integrated, climate resilient, national development plans, including integrated NAPs and Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). Reasoning. Currently, there are many underfunded activities which are unlikely to be able to keep up with a rapidly expanding knowledge base. This initial result area would enhance adaptation result areas and would encourage greater country ownership and countries ability to direct resilience efforts.

18 Page 16 Annex VI: Rationale drivers for the recommended initial mitigation result areas Initial result Area Comment Reducing energy use from buildings and appliances Global GHG emission reduction Gt CO2-eq/year (1) 3.0 Gt CO2-- eq/year (2030) (2) Current technology options (IPCC 1 ) Efficient lighting; more efficient electrical appliances and heating and cooling devices; improved cook stoves, improved insulation; passive and active solar design for heating and cooling; alternative refrigeration fluids, recovery and recycle of fluorinated gases Programmatic Improvement of appliance and building standards, enforcement mechanisms, labelling, information and awareness campaigns, access to finance through financial intermediaries Relevance to countries The mitigation in residential buildings exceeds by far that in commercial buildings in regions. Capital intensity What level of upfront capital investment is required per tonne abated (where the Fund might address financing matters)? Initial CAPEX costs up to EUR30-40 per tco2-eq creating a role for concessional bridging finance to overcome investment barriers CAPEX costs for buildings estimated at 25 per cent of total GHG abatement investment globally Marginal abatement cost per tco2-eq What is the marginal abatement cost per tco2-eq based on resource savings and other benefits (where the Fund might create market momentum)? Negative savings on energy use. Some very low cost measures (LED lighting, Insulation, HVAC Retrofit, residential electronics and appliances with abatement cost of less than EUR 50 per tco2-eq) Replicability What is the likely for in- and intracountry replication? Building standards and design codes highly transferable. Mass production of high efficiency goods provides global access to technologies at low cost Scalability What is the for supporting activity at a sector level? Possible to engage on sector wide basis through introduction of minimum efficiency standards for appliances, and new building codes Technology innovation (by 2030) Integrated design of commercial buildings including technologies, such as intelligent meters that provide feedback and control; solar photovoltaic integrated in buildings Adaptation/ development co-benefits Low-medium Reduce level of household spending on energy consumption 1 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

19 Page 17 Initial result Area Global GHG emission reduction Current technology options (IPCC 1 ) Programmatic Relevance to countries Capital intensity Marginal abatement cost per tco2-eq Replicability Scalability Technology innovation Adaptation/ development co-benefits Enabling reduction in the emission intensity of industrial production Gt CO2-eq/year (1) 7.7 Gt CO2- eq/year (2030) (2) More efficient end-use electrical equipment; heat and power recovery; material recycling and substitution; control of non-co2 gas emissions; and a wide array of process-specific technologies Regulation on import and production of low efficiency equipment. Introduction of fiscal incentives Although mitigation is concentrated in emerging economies, co-benefits are widespread. In their TNAs, 80 per cent of LDCs included industries, and 35 per cent and 42 per cent of countries included energy efficiency and fuel-switching, respectively, as priority technologies Low-medium Initial costs low for cement (more than EUR 10 tco2-eq), higher for ferrous metals Low-medium Some negative cost measures (e.g. motor efficiency, clinker substitution with fly ash), but longer term electrification/c CS at much higher cost (more than 50 tco2-eq). Companies might be compensated for higher lifetime costs despite low capital investment demands Significant standardization in process technologies for key sectors. Industrial standards exist for specific sectors (e.g. EU BREF) Sector possible for energy intensive industries, including aluminium, ferrous metals, ceramics, and chemicals. Some sectors are highly concentrate and can be engaged in a centralized manner. Others (e.g. ceramics, cement) are more fragmented and require stakeholder processes Advanced energy efficiency; CCS for cement, ammonia, and iron manufacture; inert electrodes for aluminium manufacture Low-medium Medium co-benefits for energy security from reduced energy use and increased competitiveness of industry

20 Page 18 Initial result Area Global GHG emission reduction Current technology options (IPCC 1 ) Programmatic Relevance to countries Capital intensity Marginal abatement cost per tco2-eq Replicability Scalability Technology innovation Adaptation/ development co-benefits Increasing access to transportati on with low carbon fuels Gt CO2-eq/year (1) 2.6 Gt CO2- eq/year (2030) (2) More fuel efficient vehicles; hybrid vehicles; cleaner diesel vehicles; biofuels; modal shifts from road transport to rail and public transport systems; non-motorized transport (cycling, walking); land-use and transport planning. Information and awareness programmes. Subsidies to low carbon alternatives. Integrated transport planning and policy reform Growing over time as population growth and urbanization increase. Overall sector estimates ( more than EUR 75/tCO2-eq) reflect high technology/ infrastructure costs Some lower cost measures (e.g. first generation biofuels) Transport estimated at 35 per cent of total abatement CAPEX costs globally Negative Substantial savings in fossil fuel use from improved vehicle efficiency. Benefits are strong if capital and behavioural barriers can be overcome Medium Standard policy and technology options exist, but significant issues with existing urban planning and infrastructure lock-in Medium Transport policy can be fragmented (national/ regional/city level), with many countries still to integrated transport planning Second and third generation biofuels; higher efficiency aircraft; advanced electric and hybrid vehicles with more powerful and reliable batteries Medium Adaptation benefits when mitigation undertaken as part of integrated transport planning, creating redundancy against climate risks (e.g. evacuation plans). Development co-benefits, such as reduced local pollution, accidents, and congestion are strong

PRACTICAL STRATEGIES FOR IMMEDIATE PROGRESS ON CLIMATE CHANGE BUILDING BLOCKS FOR A GLOBAL AGREEMENT

PRACTICAL STRATEGIES FOR IMMEDIATE PROGRESS ON CLIMATE CHANGE BUILDING BLOCKS FOR A GLOBAL AGREEMENT PRACTICAL STRATEGIES FOR IMMEDIATE PROGRESS ON CLIMATE CHANGE BUILDING BLOCKS FOR A GLOBAL AGREEMENT Forging an effective response to climate change is one of the international community s highest priorities.

More information

Common Principles for Climate Mitigation Finance Tracking

Common Principles for Climate Mitigation Finance Tracking Common Principles for Climate Mitigation Finance Tracking Introduction The purpose of these Common Principles for Climate Mitigation Finance Tracking (or the Principles) is to set out agreed climate change

More information

OVERVIEW of the ETHIOPIA S CLIMATE RESILENT GREEN ECONOMY STRATEGY

OVERVIEW of the ETHIOPIA S CLIMATE RESILENT GREEN ECONOMY STRATEGY FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA OVERVIEW of the ETHIOPIA S CLIMATE RESILENT GREEN ECONOMY STRATEGY Wondwossen Tadesse 1. Introduction Like most countries,ethiopia is experiencing the effects of

More information

EXAMPLES OF SUCCESSFUL POLICY TOOLS FOR EMISSION REDUCTION

EXAMPLES OF SUCCESSFUL POLICY TOOLS FOR EMISSION REDUCTION Submission of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Sustainable Building Initiative (SBCI) to the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA) 24 April

More information

Greenhouse gas abatement potential in Israel

Greenhouse gas abatement potential in Israel Greenhouse gas abatement potential in Israel Israel s GHG abatement cost curve Translated executive summary, November 2009 1 Executive Summary Background At the December 2009 UNFCCC Conference in Copenhagen,

More information

GLOBAL ALLIANCE FOR CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE (GACSA)

GLOBAL ALLIANCE FOR CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE (GACSA) GLOBAL ALLIANCE FOR CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE (GACSA) FRAMEWORK DOCUMENT Version 01 :: 1 September 2014 I Vision 1. In today s world there is enough food produced for all to be well-fed, but one person

More information

SUBMISSION BY THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

SUBMISSION BY THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES SUBMISSION BY THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 22 October 2015 Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of the United Arab Emirates In the post-2020 period the United Arab Emirates will continue to expand its

More information

GLENEAGLES PLAN OF ACTION CLIMATE CHANGE, CLEAN ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. 1. We will take forward actions in the following key areas:

GLENEAGLES PLAN OF ACTION CLIMATE CHANGE, CLEAN ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. 1. We will take forward actions in the following key areas: GLENEAGLES PLAN OF ACTION CLIMATE CHANGE, CLEAN ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 1. We will take forward actions in the following key areas: Transforming the way we use energy Powering a cleaner future

More information

are country driven and in conformity with, and supportive of, national development priorities;

are country driven and in conformity with, and supportive of, national development priorities; OPERATIONAL PROGRAM NUMBER 6 PROMOTING THE ADOPTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY BY REMOVING BARRIERS AND REDUCING IMPLEMENTATION COSTS 6.1 The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) seeks

More information

Creating a Successful Outcome in Copenhagen. Bert Metz, European Climate Foundation

Creating a Successful Outcome in Copenhagen. Bert Metz, European Climate Foundation Creating a Successful Outcome in Copenhagen Bert Metz, European Climate Foundation CPI launch event, Berlin, November 11, 2009 About Project Catalyst Initiative of the ClimateWorks Foundation, a global,

More information

Common principles for tracking climate mitigation finance Collaboration on climate adaptation finance

Common principles for tracking climate mitigation finance Collaboration on climate adaptation finance Common principles for tracking climate mitigation finance Collaboration on climate adaptation finance The international community recognizes the need to join forces to avert dangerous climate change. This

More information

Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Ethiopia intends to limit its net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2030 to 145 Mt CO2e or lower. This

More information

Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050

Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 COUNTRY CAPITAL XXX, 9 March 2011 NAME XXX DG Climate Action European Commission 1 Limiting climate change a global challenge Keeping average

More information

The Copenhagen Decisions. Submission on the outcome of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long Term Cooperative Action under the Convention under item 3

The Copenhagen Decisions. Submission on the outcome of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long Term Cooperative Action under the Convention under item 3 The Copenhagen Decisions Submission on the outcome of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long Term Cooperative Action under the Convention under item 3 Proposal by the African Group Rev.1 (Copenhagen Denmark,

More information

INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS (INDCs)

INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS (INDCs) UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS (INDCs) 1. Introduction The United Republic of Tanzania, which comprises of Tanzania Mainland and Zanzibar, brings forth her Intended

More information

Multi-year Expert Meeting on Transport, Trade Logistics and Trade Facilitation

Multi-year Expert Meeting on Transport, Trade Logistics and Trade Facilitation Multi-year Expert Meeting on Transport, Trade Logistics and Trade Facilitation Sustainable Freight Transport Systems: Opportunities for Developing Countries 14-16 October 2015 EGYPT'S POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE

More information

Republic of South Sudan

Republic of South Sudan 1 Page Republic of South Sudan Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (Draft) Introduction 1. The Republic of South Sudan gained its independence from Sudan on 9 July 2011 after more than 50 years

More information

10 S TEPS FOR C ARBON C REDIT S UPPORTED PROJECTS:

10 S TEPS FOR C ARBON C REDIT S UPPORTED PROJECTS: 10 S TEPS FOR C ARBON C REDIT S UPPORTED PROJECTS: Mercy Corps supports initiatives that fulfil our development mandate; where these also reduce greenhouse gas emissions we can look for financial support

More information

Low-Carbon Development for Mexico (MEDEC)

Low-Carbon Development for Mexico (MEDEC) Low-Carbon Development for Mexico () World Bank LCR Sustainable Development Department March 17, 2011 Questions for Low-Carbon Studies What does a low-carbon pathway look like? How much might it cost?

More information

The California Environmental Protection Agency works to restore, protect,

The California Environmental Protection Agency works to restore, protect, Environmental Protection The California Environmental Protection Agency works to restore, protect, and enhance environmental quality. The Agency coordinates the state s environmental regulatory programs

More information

July 7, 2009 DESIGN DOCUMENT FOR THE FOREST INVESTMENT PROGRAM, A TARGETED PROGRAM UNDER THE SCF TRUST FUND

July 7, 2009 DESIGN DOCUMENT FOR THE FOREST INVESTMENT PROGRAM, A TARGETED PROGRAM UNDER THE SCF TRUST FUND July 7, 2009 DESIGN DOCUMENT FOR THE FOREST INVESTMENT PROGRAM, A TARGETED PROGRAM UNDER THE SCF TRUST FUND 2 I. BACKGROUND 1. There is increasing consensus that addressing climate change is central to

More information

Residential & Commercial Sectors Overview CLIMATE

Residential & Commercial Sectors Overview CLIMATE CLIMATE TECHBOOK Residential and Commercial Emissions in the United States Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions data can be reported either by economic sector, which includes electric power generation as a separate

More information

REPUBLIC OF TURKEY INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTION

REPUBLIC OF TURKEY INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTION REPUBLIC OF TURKEY INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTION In accordance with decisions 1/CP.19 and 1/CP.20, the Republic of Turkey hereby presents its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC)

More information

Africa Clean Cooking Energy Solutions Initiative. Scaling-Up Access to Clean Cooking Technologies and Fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa

Africa Clean Cooking Energy Solutions Initiative. Scaling-Up Access to Clean Cooking Technologies and Fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa Africa Clean Cooking Energy Solutions Initiative Scaling-Up Access to Clean Cooking Technologies and Fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa THE CHALLENGE OF CLEANER COOKING Over the last decade, in a growing number

More information

IDFC green finance tracking methodology 2014. Eligible project categories

IDFC green finance tracking methodology 2014. Eligible project categories IDFC green finance tracking methodology 2014 Eligible project categories In a collective effort to contribute to the efforts of defining, tracking, and reporting mobilized climate finance, IDFC has set

More information

Analysis of the Expected Role and Impact of the Green Climate Fund

Analysis of the Expected Role and Impact of the Green Climate Fund Analysis of the Expected Role and Impact of the Green Climate Fund GCF/B.09/06 28 February 2015 Meeting of the Board 24-26 March 2015 Songdo, Republic of Korea Agenda item 8 Page b Recommended action by

More information

Resolution: Energy and climate. Year and Congress: November 2009, Barcelona. Category: Environment and Energy. Page: 1. Energy and climate change

Resolution: Energy and climate. Year and Congress: November 2009, Barcelona. Category: Environment and Energy. Page: 1. Energy and climate change The European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party, convening in, Catalonia on 19th and 20th November 2009: Notes that: The EU is responsible for approximately 10 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions

More information

Global Environment Facility GEF OPERATIONAL PROGRAM #13 ON CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IMPORTANT TO AGRICULTURE

Global Environment Facility GEF OPERATIONAL PROGRAM #13 ON CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IMPORTANT TO AGRICULTURE Global Environment Facility GEF OPERATIONAL PROGRAM #13 ON CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IMPORTANT TO AGRICULTURE CONTENTS Introduction..1 Convention Guidance... 2 Agricultural

More information

Green Climate Fund report of the Transitional Committee

Green Climate Fund report of the Transitional Committee Advance unedited version Green Climate Fund report of the Transitional Committee Draft decision -/CP.17 The Conference of the Parties, Recalling its decision 1/CP.16, 1. Welcomes the report of the Transitional

More information

LAW Nº 5.248 (JANUARY 27TH, 2011) MUNICIPAL LAW ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

LAW Nº 5.248 (JANUARY 27TH, 2011) MUNICIPAL LAW ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT LAW Nº 5.248 (JANUARY 27TH, 2011) MUNICIPAL LAW ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT States the Municipal Policy on Climate Change and Sustainable Development, regulates about the establishment

More information

Adaptation and mitigation options and responses, and the inter-relationship with sustainable development, at global and regional levels

Adaptation and mitigation options and responses, and the inter-relationship with sustainable development, at global and regional levels 4 Adaptation and mitigation options and responses, and the inter-relationship with sustainable development, at global and regional levels 4.1 Responding to climate change Societies can respond to climate

More information

1. Transport challenges in subnational entities and related GHG emissions

1. Transport challenges in subnational entities and related GHG emissions MOBILITY and TRANSPORTS CODATU and FRANCE NATURE ENVIRONNEMENT 1. Transport challenges in subnational entities and related GHG emissions Mobility for people as well as goods is at the heart of issues related

More information

UGANDA. Climate Change Case Studies

UGANDA. Climate Change Case Studies UGANDA Climate Change Case Studies Introduction The Department of Meteorology, as National Focal Point for the UNFCCC has coordinated several climate change projects and programmes. Some, which we think

More information

Low Carbon economy: How can (or should) the insurance industry adapt?

Low Carbon economy: How can (or should) the insurance industry adapt? Low Carbon economy: How can (or should) the insurance industry adapt? Future. Talk 3 / 2011 Sustainability and Insurance, Köln, 31/3/2011 WWF Deutschland Matthias Kopp 31st March 2011-1 Insurance & the

More information

REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS SEVENTH SESSION, HELD AT MARRAKESH FROM 29 OCTOBER TO 10 NOVEMBER 2001 Addendum

REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS SEVENTH SESSION, HELD AT MARRAKESH FROM 29 OCTOBER TO 10 NOVEMBER 2001 Addendum UNITED NATIONS Distr. GENERAL FCCC/CP/2001/13/Add.1 21 January 2002 Original: ENGLISH CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS SEVENTH SESSION, HELD AT MARRAKESH FROM 29

More information

A sustainable energy and climate policy for the environment, competitiveness and long-term stability

A sustainable energy and climate policy for the environment, competitiveness and long-term stability 2009-02-05 A sustainable energy and climate policy for the environment, competitiveness and long-term stability The party leaders of Alliance for Sweden entered into an agreement today on a long-term,

More information

The European Renewable Energy Directive and international Trade. Laurent Javaudin Delegation of the European Commission to the U.S.

The European Renewable Energy Directive and international Trade. Laurent Javaudin Delegation of the European Commission to the U.S. The European Renewable Energy Directive and international Trade Laurent Javaudin Delegation of the European Commission to the U.S. The European Union 27 Member States 490 million people 2 Outline The Present:

More information

Challenges for Climate Change Mainstreaming and Tracking the Effectiveness of Mitigation Projects -Cases from JICA Projects

Challenges for Climate Change Mainstreaming and Tracking the Effectiveness of Mitigation Projects -Cases from JICA Projects Climate Change Expert Group Global Forum 18-19 September 2013 OECD Conference Centre, Paris Challenges for Climate Change Mainstreaming and Tracking the Effectiveness of Mitigation Projects -Cases from

More information

Green Energy Technology, Economics and Policy

Green Energy Technology, Economics and Policy Green Energy Technology, Economics and Policy Editors U.Aswathanarayana, General Editor Mahadevan International Centre for Water Resources Management, Hyderabad, India T. Harikrishnan, Section 3 IAEA,

More information

Business Model Framework: Results Management Framework

Business Model Framework: Results Management Framework Business Model Framework: Results Management Framework GCF/B.05/03 19 September 2013 Meeting of the Board 8-10 October 2013 Paris, France Agenda item 4 (b) Page b Recommended action by the Board (a) (b)

More information

Prepared by the Commission on Environment & Energy

Prepared by the Commission on Environment & Energy Policy statement Energy efficiency: a world business perspective Prepared by the Commission on Environment & Energy Key messages Energy efficiency is a fundamental element in progress towards a sustainable

More information

HOUSING AND LAND RIGHTS NETWORK H a b i t a t I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o a l i t i o n

HOUSING AND LAND RIGHTS NETWORK H a b i t a t I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o a l i t i o n HOUSING AND LAND RIGHTS NETWORK H a b i t a t I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o a l i t i o n National Habitat III Parallel-reporting Tool Evaluation of Habitat II Implementation Following the commitments

More information

Intended Nationally Determined Contribution

Intended Nationally Determined Contribution Department of Environment Islamic Republic of Iran Intended Nationally Determined Contribution 19 November 2015 National Climate Change Committee: Iran INDC, page 1 1. Introduction The Islamic Republic

More information

Health Indicators of sustainable energy

Health Indicators of sustainable energy Health Indicators of sustainable energy in the Context of the Rio+20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development Key messages: Initial findings from a WHO Expert Consultation: 17-18 May 2012 Health is a universal

More information

Climate and Disaster Resilience Index of Asian Cities

Climate and Disaster Resilience Index of Asian Cities Climate and Disaster Resilience Index of Asian Cities Coexistence of Contrast Rajib Shaw Professor, http://www.iedm.ges.kyoto-u.ac.jp/ Increasing Trend 4000 3500 Source: UNPD, 2010 3000 2500 2000 1500

More information

Solar power as part of an integrated approach to sustainable development. Mark Booth BSc PhD ARCS MA Senior Lecturer Durham University, UK

Solar power as part of an integrated approach to sustainable development. Mark Booth BSc PhD ARCS MA Senior Lecturer Durham University, UK Solar power as part of an integrated approach to sustainable development Mark Booth BSc PhD ARCS MA Senior Lecturer Durham University, UK Luanda, 24 a 27 de Setembro de 2013 CONFERÊNCIA INTERNACIONAL SOBRE

More information

Sustainable Land Management in the Global Environment Facility. GEF Role as Financial Mechanism of the UNCCD

Sustainable Land Management in the Global Environment Facility. GEF Role as Financial Mechanism of the UNCCD Sustainable Land Management in the Global Environment Facility GEF Role as Financial Mechanism of the UNCCD GEF as Financial Mechanism of the UNCCD Land Degradation Focal Area as main GEF financing window

More information

The Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia under the UNFCCC

The Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia under the UNFCCC The Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia under the UNFCCC Riyadh, November 2015 The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is pleased to submit its Intended Nationally Determined

More information

A. BACKGROUND. 1. Nepal s vulnerability to climate change

A. BACKGROUND. 1. Nepal s vulnerability to climate change Government of Nepal Ministry of Population and Environment INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS (INDC) Communicated to the UNFCCC Secretariat in February 2016 1 A. BACKGROUND Nepal, a least developed,

More information

POLICY ACTIONS INVESTING IN INNOVATION

POLICY ACTIONS INVESTING IN INNOVATION The BC Energy Plan ALTERNATIVE ENERGY Government will work with other agencies to maximize opportunities to develop, deploy and export British Columbia clean and alternative energy technologies. POLICY

More information

Advance unedited version. Decision -/CP.13. Bali Action Plan

Advance unedited version. Decision -/CP.13. Bali Action Plan The Conference of the Parties, Decision -/CP.13 Bali Action Plan Resolving to urgently enhance implementation of the Convention in order to achieve its ultimate objective in full accordance with its principles

More information

Scope 1 describes direct greenhouse gas emissions from sources that are owned by or under the direct control of the reporting entity;

Scope 1 describes direct greenhouse gas emissions from sources that are owned by or under the direct control of the reporting entity; 9 Greenhouse Gas Assessment 9.1 Introduction This chapter presents an assessment of the potential greenhouse gas emissions associated with the Simandou Railway and evaluates the significance of these in

More information

Growing the Green Economy

Growing the Green Economy Growing the Green Economy Labour Green Economy Paper.indd 1 05/02/2016 17:44 Our Plan Establish a green infrastructure fund worth 1bn. We recognise the need to fund immediate action on climate change.

More information

Building a Low-Carbon Economy The UK's Contribution to Tackling Climate Change. www.theccc.org.uk

Building a Low-Carbon Economy The UK's Contribution to Tackling Climate Change. www.theccc.org.uk Building a Low-Carbon Economy The UK's Contribution to Tackling Climate Change www.theccc.org.uk Structure of the presentation 1. The 2050 target 2. The first three budgets 3. Wider social and economic

More information

Resolution XII.13. Wetlands and disaster risk reduction

Resolution XII.13. Wetlands and disaster risk reduction 12 th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) Punta del Este, Uruguay, 1-9 June 2015 Resolution XII.13 Wetlands and disaster risk reduction 1. RECALLING

More information

Multiple sources of energy will be available, giving the consumer choices. A Higher Percentage of Energy will come from renewable energy sources

Multiple sources of energy will be available, giving the consumer choices. A Higher Percentage of Energy will come from renewable energy sources Editor s comments: Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of duplicate or extremely similar comments made. The headings are editor s best attempt to draft vision statements reflecting the participants

More information

ICC 105 19 Rev. 1. 16 October 2012 Original: English. International Coffee Council 109 th Session 24 28 September 2012 London, United Kingdom

ICC 105 19 Rev. 1. 16 October 2012 Original: English. International Coffee Council 109 th Session 24 28 September 2012 London, United Kingdom ICC 105 19 Rev. 1 16 October 2012 Original: English E International Coffee Council 109 th Session 24 28 September 2012 London, United Kingdom Strategic action plan for the International Coffee Organization

More information

Call to Action on Smart Sustainable Cities

Call to Action on Smart Sustainable Cities Call to Action on Smart Sustainable Cities 1. Introduction Achieving sustainable urbanization, along with the preservation of our planet, has been recognized as one of the major challenges of our society

More information

The Green Road to Growth in South Korea: The Conditions for Success. Prof. Jae-Seung LEE Korea University

The Green Road to Growth in South Korea: The Conditions for Success. Prof. Jae-Seung LEE Korea University The Green Road to Growth in South Korea: The Conditions for Success Prof. Jae-Seung LEE Korea University Energy Situation in Korea: Overview Natural Resource is scarce. The 13 th largest economy (GDP)

More information

Nuclear power is part of the solution for fighting climate change

Nuclear power is part of the solution for fighting climate change Nuclear power is part of the solution for fighting climate change "Nuclear for Climate" is an initiative undertaken by the members of the French Nuclear Energy Society (SFEN), the American Nuclear Society

More information

Questions and Answers on the European Commission Communication: The Paris Protocol A blueprint for tackling global climate change beyond 2020

Questions and Answers on the European Commission Communication: The Paris Protocol A blueprint for tackling global climate change beyond 2020 European Commission - Fact Sheet Questions and Answers on the European Commission Communication: The Paris Protocol A blueprint for tackling global climate change beyond 2020 Brussels, 25 February 2015

More information

Netherlands National Energy Outlook 2014

Netherlands National Energy Outlook 2014 Netherlands National Energy Outlook 2014 Summary Michiel Hekkenberg (ECN) Martijn Verdonk (PBL) (project coordinators) February 2015 ECN-E --15-005 Netherlands National Energy Outlook 2014 Summary 2 The

More information

INDONESIA S COUNTRY REPORT ENCOURAGING CLEAN ENERGY INITIATIVE

INDONESIA S COUNTRY REPORT ENCOURAGING CLEAN ENERGY INITIATIVE DEWAN PERWAKILAN RAKYAT REPUBLIK INDONESIA INDONESIA S COUNTRY REPORT ENCOURAGING CLEAN ENERGY INITIATIVE As part of the international community, Indonesia shares its concern on the environment and development

More information

CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE. Executive Summary

CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE. Executive Summary CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE Sourcebook Executive Summary Why is climate-smart agriculture needed? Between now and 2050, the world s population will increase by one-third. Most of these additional 2 billion

More information

Co-creation progress update and an invitation to respond. Overview of ideas from co-creation activities towards a Climate Ready UK...

Co-creation progress update and an invitation to respond. Overview of ideas from co-creation activities towards a Climate Ready UK... Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Climate Ready Co-creation progress update and an invitation to respond July 2012 Contents Overview of ideas from co-creation activities towards a Climate

More information

The Global Commission on the Economy and Climate. Major Economies Forum, Paris

The Global Commission on the Economy and Climate. Major Economies Forum, Paris The Global Commission on the Economy and Climate Major Economies Forum, Paris Jeremy Oppenheim, Programme Director 11 th July 2014 Purpose of the Global Commission Reframe the debate about economic growth

More information

IFC Definitions and Metrics for Climate-Related Activities

IFC Definitions and Metrics for Climate-Related Activities IFC Definitions and Metrics for Climate-Related Activities IFC CLIMATE BUSINESS DEPARTMENT VERSION: 2.2 UPDATED: JUNE 2015 Background Climate change is a developmental and business issue. Smart business

More information

Keisuke Sadamori Director, Energy Markets and Security International Energy Agency Kuala Lumpur, 8 October

Keisuke Sadamori Director, Energy Markets and Security International Energy Agency Kuala Lumpur, 8 October Keisuke Sadamori Director, Energy Markets and Security International Energy Agency Kuala Lumpur, 8 October The context Southeast Asia is a key pillar of Asia s growth A mix of countries with disparate

More information

Climate change: Everyone s business

Climate change: Everyone s business Climate change: Everyone s business A summary report from the CBI Climate Change Task Force November 2007 Copyright CBI 2007 The content may not be copied, distributed, reported or dealt with in whole

More information

Further Development of the Initial Investment Framework: Sub-Criteria and Methodology

Further Development of the Initial Investment Framework: Sub-Criteria and Methodology Further Development of the Initial Investment Framework: Sub-Criteria and Methodology GCF/B.09/07 23 February 2015 Meeting of the Board 24-26 March 2015 Songdo, Republic of Korea Agenda item 11 Page b

More information

Perspective. The Hanoi Communiqué

Perspective. The Hanoi Communiqué The Hanoi Communiqué The Ministers, representatives of countries, practitioners, scientists, civil society, private sector, and all other participants present at the 2 nd Global Conference on Agriculture,

More information

Goals Status Current Policies & Programmes GENERAL OVERVIEW

Goals Status Current Policies & Programmes GENERAL OVERVIEW Mauritius Air Quality Overview This document is based on research that UNEP conducted in 2015, in response to Resolution 7 of the UNEA 1. It describes countrylevel policies that impact air quality. Triple

More information

Saving energy, growing jobs

Saving energy, growing jobs Saving energy, growing jobs Victoria s energy efficiency and productivity statement June 2015 Contents Minister s foreword 1 Why energy efficiency matters for Victorians 2 Our plan for energy efficiency

More information

DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY DRAFT REVISED NATIONAL FOREST POLICY OF MALAWI

DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY DRAFT REVISED NATIONAL FOREST POLICY OF MALAWI DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY DRAFT REVISED NATIONAL FOREST POLICY OF MALAWI July, 2013 1. Foreword 2. Preface 3. Introduction 4. Policy linkages 5. Broad Policy Direction 6. Policy Priority Areas Provides the

More information

TST Issues Brief: ENERGY 1

TST Issues Brief: ENERGY 1 1. Stock taking TST Issues Brief: ENERGY 1 Energy is central to sustainable development. It accelerates social and economic progress and enhances productivity. No country has developed without access to

More information

Outline. 1. Climate and energy: where do we stand? 2. Why a new framework for 2030? 3. How it works. 4. Main challenges. 5.

Outline. 1. Climate and energy: where do we stand? 2. Why a new framework for 2030? 3. How it works. 4. Main challenges. 5. 1 Outline 1. Climate and energy: where do we stand? 2. Why a new framework for 2030? 3. How it works 4. Main challenges 5. and benefits 6. Other key points 7. Next steps 2 1. Climate and energy: where

More information

Population, Health, and Human Well-Being-- Nigeria

Population, Health, and Human Well-Being-- Nigeria Population, Health, and Human Well-Being-- EarthTrends Country Profiles Demographic and Health Indicators Total Population (in thousands of people) 195 29,79 176,775 2,519,495 22 12,47 683,782 6,211,82

More information

CTF-SCF/TFC.7/Inf.3 October 24, 2011. Joint Meeting of the CTF and SCF Trust Fund Committees Washington, D.C. November 3, 2011

CTF-SCF/TFC.7/Inf.3 October 24, 2011. Joint Meeting of the CTF and SCF Trust Fund Committees Washington, D.C. November 3, 2011 CTF-SCF/TFC.7/Inf.3 October 24, 2011 Joint Meeting of the CTF and SCF Trust Fund Committees Washington, D.C. November 3, 2011 REPORT ON SURVEY OF CIF PILOT COUNTRIES I. INTRODUCTION 1. The Global Support

More information

JOINT MDB CLIMATE FINANCE TRACKING

JOINT MDB CLIMATE FINANCE TRACKING JOINT MDB CLIMATE FINANCE TRACKING Jan-Willem van de Ven Senior Carbon Manager Consultation on Development and Climate Change OECD-CPI event, Warsaw, 19 November 2013 European Bank for Reconstruction and

More information

British Columbia s Clean Energy Vision

British Columbia s Clean Energy Vision British Columbia s Clean Energy Vision Innovative Technologies and Green Energy Solutions National Environmental Conference Brunei Darussalam July 1, 2010 Profile of British Columbia Overview British

More information

BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL S ASKS FOR UNFCCC COP21

BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL S ASKS FOR UNFCCC COP21 Background BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL S ASKS FOR UNFCCC COP21 The climate change talks in Paris (UNFCCC COP21) are the culmination of several years of negotiations towards the adoption of a global climate

More information

CLIMATE ACTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 2014 PROGRESS REPORT

CLIMATE ACTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 2014 PROGRESS REPORT CLIMATE ACTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 2014 PROGRESS REPORT B.C. is continuing to work towards an economy that is prepared for climate change, and helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a global scale.

More information

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY BLUEPRINT

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY BLUEPRINT SUSTAINABLE ENERGY BLUEPRINT A PLAUSIBLE STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING A NO-NUCLEAR, LOW- CARBON, HIGHLY-EFFICIENT AND SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FUTURE The following statement outlines an ambitious but doable strategy

More information

Groupwork CCS. Bio-Energy with CCS (BECCS) Platzhalter Logo/Schriftzug (Anpassung im Folienmaster: Menü «Ansicht» «Folienmaster»)

Groupwork CCS. Bio-Energy with CCS (BECCS) Platzhalter Logo/Schriftzug (Anpassung im Folienmaster: Menü «Ansicht» «Folienmaster») Groupwork CCS Bio-Energy with CCS (BECCS) group 5 02.05.2015 1 Content What is BECCS? Stakeholder Analysis Resources on Global scale SWOT analysis Climate BECCS Technology Conclusions Outlook group 5 02.05.2015

More information

Population, Health, and Human Well-Being-- Kuwait

Population, Health, and Human Well-Being-- Kuwait Population, Health, and Human Well-Being-- EarthTrends Country Profiles Demographic and Health Indicators Total Population (in thousands of people) 195 152 111,647 2,519,495 22 2,23 423,296 6,211,82 225

More information

Forests & Forest Products as Carbon Sinks

Forests & Forest Products as Carbon Sinks Forests & Forest Products Forests & Forest Products Forests and the Climate Challenge Global temperatures are increasing and science has confirmed that we must limit the rise to under 2 C in order to avoid

More information

FCCC/SBSTA/2016/1. United Nations. Provisional agenda and annotations. I. Provisional agenda

FCCC/SBSTA/2016/1. United Nations. Provisional agenda and annotations. I. Provisional agenda United Nations FCCC/SBSTA/2016/1 Distr.: General 7 March 2016 Original: English Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice Forty-fourth session Bonn, 16 26 May 2016 Item 2 of the provisional

More information

Report of the Network on Atmospheric Pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

Report of the Network on Atmospheric Pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente Oficina Regional para América Latina y el Caribe UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME PROGRAMME DES NATIONS UNIES POUR L ENVIRONNEMENT Seventeenth

More information

Comparison of Recent Trends in Sustainable Energy Development in Japan, U.K., Germany and France

Comparison of Recent Trends in Sustainable Energy Development in Japan, U.K., Germany and France Comparison of Recent Trends in Sustainable Energy Development in Japan, U.K., Germany and France Japan - U.S. Workshop on Sustainable Energy Future June 26, 2012 Naoya Kaneko, Fellow Center for Research

More information

Six greenhouse gases covered by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol are:

Six greenhouse gases covered by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol are: Fact sheet: The need for mitigation United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Along with adaptation, mitigation is one of the two central approaches in the international climate change process.

More information

Business Model Framework: Allocation

Business Model Framework: Allocation Business Model Framework: Allocation GCF/B.05/05 30 September 2013 Meeting of the Board 8-10 October 2013 Paris, France Agenda item 4 (d) Page b Recommended action by the Board It is recommended that the

More information

Green Development Support Program. For BAPPENAS (Indonesia s Development Planning Ministry) World Bank March 2014

Green Development Support Program. For BAPPENAS (Indonesia s Development Planning Ministry) World Bank March 2014 Green Development Support Program For BAPPENAS (Indonesia s Development Planning Ministry) World Bank March 2014 Background: Bold initiatives of Indonesian Government 26-41% Voluntary emission reduction

More information

HORIZON 2020. Competitive Low Carbon Energy 2014-2015 Call. Paul Verhoef DG RTD K03/Head of Unit

HORIZON 2020. Competitive Low Carbon Energy 2014-2015 Call. Paul Verhoef DG RTD K03/Head of Unit THE EU FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME FOR RESEARCH AND INNOVATION HORIZON 2020 Competitive Low Carbon Energy 2014-2015 Call Paul Verhoef DG RTD K03/Head of Unit Thematic scope of the Energy Challenge (according to

More information

How to Earn the LEED Green Power Credit

How to Earn the LEED Green Power Credit 3D EG REES WH ITE PAPER How to Earn the LEED Green Power Credit Using on-site and off-site renewable energy to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions associated with a LEED project s energy use

More information

THE UK CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAMME AND EXAMPLES OF BEST PRACTICE. Gabrielle Edwards United Kingdom

THE UK CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAMME AND EXAMPLES OF BEST PRACTICE. Gabrielle Edwards United Kingdom Workshop on Best Practices in Policies and Measures, 11 13 April 2000, Copenhagen THE UK CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAMME AND EXAMPLES OF BEST PRACTICE Gabrielle Edwards United Kingdom Abstract: The UK published

More information

Creating Green Jobs within the Environment and Culture sector.

Creating Green Jobs within the Environment and Culture sector. Creating Green Jobs within the Environment and Culture sector. Matilda Skosana Environmental Programmes (ILO Definition): 1. DEFINITION OF GREEN JOB. Jobs are green when they help reduce negative environmental

More information

Decisions of the Board Seventh Meeting of the Board,

Decisions of the Board Seventh Meeting of the Board, Decisions of the Board Seventh Meeting of the Board, 18-21 May 2014 GCF/B.07/11 19 June 2014 Meeting of the Board 18-21 May 2014 Songdo, Republic of Korea Agenda item 17 Page b Table of Contents Agenda

More information

Annex. Elements for a draft negotiating text 1. [English only]

Annex. Elements for a draft negotiating text 1. [English only] Annex [English only] Elements for a draft negotiating text 1 A. Preamble 2 Option 1: {Placeholder for preamble} Option 2: The Parties to this agreement, In pursuit of the ultimate objective of the Convention

More information

ACCOUNTING FOR ASIA S NATURAL CAPITAL

ACCOUNTING FOR ASIA S NATURAL CAPITAL ACCOUNTING FOR S NATURAL CAPITAL DRIVING THE TRANSITION TO A RESOURCE-EFFICIENT GREEN ECONOMY Asia s rapid economic growth during recent decades has been accompanied by serious depletion of the region

More information

Framework Convention on Climate Change

Framework Convention on Climate Change United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change FCCC/CP/2010/7/Add.1 Distr.: General 15 March 2011 Original: English Conference of the Parties Contents Report of the Conference of the Parties on

More information