# Bonds. Accounting for Long-Term Debt. Agenda Long-Term Debt /516 Accounting Spring 2004

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1 Accounting for Long-Term Debt /516 Accounting Spring 2004 Professor S. Roychowdhury Sloan School of Management Massachusetts Institute of Technology April 5, Agenda Long-Term Debt Extend our understanding of valuation methods beyond simple present value calculations. Understand the terminology of long-term debt Bonds coupon and zero-coupon bonds At Par vs. Discount vs. Premium Market interest rate versus coupon rate Mortgages Interest plus Principal paid each period Practice bookkeeping for debt issuance, interest accruals, periodic payments, and debt retirement. Understand how long-term debt affects financial statements over time. 2 Bonds Bonds Periodic interest payments and face value due at maturity Face value (amount) (Principal) Amount due at maturity Interest payments Coupon rate times the face value of debt Coupon rate is the interest rate stated in the note. It s used to calculate interest payments Market rate of interest The rate of interest demanded in the market place given the risk characteristics of a bond Can be higher or lower than the coupon rate 3

2 Bonds Consider a loan with principal of \$10,000 initiated on 1/1/01 The market interest rate is 6% Final payment is to be made at the end of the third year, i.e., on 12/31/03. What annual payments are required under the following three alternatives? Annual interest payment at the end of each year and repayment of principal at the end of the third year (typical bond terms). A single payment (of principal and interest) at the end of year 3 (Zero-Coupon bond). Three equal payments at the end of each year (mortgage / new car loan terms). 4 Bonds - alternative payment streams Coupon Zero Mortgage End of Year 1 Int 0 Int + P End of Year 2 Int 0 Int + P End of Year 3 Int + P Int + P Int + P 5 Accounting for a Bond issued at par Coupon Rate 6% = Market Rate 6% At the time of the bond issue Dr Cash 10,000 Cr Bond Payable 10,000 Periodically thereafter Cash interest payments = Face Value x Coupon rate Bond payable at the present value of cash flows, i.e., the present value of interest and principal Interest expense = Bond payable x market interest rate Difference between interest expense and cash interest payment is added to Bond Payable At maturity Pay interest and entire principal balance 6

3 Accounting for a Bond issued at par Coupon Rate 6% = Market Rate 6% What is the present value of the bond? Payment stream Three annual coupon payments of \$600 each Principal payment of \$10,000 at the end of three years Present value PV of ordinary annuity, n = 3, r = 6%, Table 4 \$600 x = \$ PV of \$10,000, n = 3, r = 6%, Table 2 \$10,000 x = \$ PV = \$ \$ = \$10,000 7 Accounting for a Bond issued at par Coupon Rate 6% = Market Rate 6% End of year 1 Interest expense = \$10,000 x 6% Coupon payment = \$100,000 x 6% Dr Interest expense 600 Cr Cash 600 End of year 2 Dr Interest expense 600 Cr Cash 600 End of year 3 Dr Interest expense 600 Cr Cash 600 Dr Bond Payable 10,000 Cr Cash 10,000 8 Accounting for a Bond issued at par Coupon Rate 6% = Market Rate 6% Cash = Bond Payable Issuance 10,000 = 10,000 Cash = Bond Payable + Ret Erngs 2001 (600) = 2002 (600) = 2003 (600) = (10,000) (10,000) (600) (600) (600) 9

4 Accounting for a Zero- Coupon Bond The zero-coupon bond pays \$10,000 at the end of three years. How much will it sell for? That is, how much cash proceed will the firm receive at the time of issuing the zero-coupon bond? What is the present value of such a bond at the time of issue? PV of \$10,000, n = 3, r = 6%, Table 2 \$10,000 x = \$ Accounting for a Zero- Coupon Bond At the time of the bond issue Dr Cash 8, Dr Discount on bonds payable 1, Cr Bond Payable 10, Balance sheet presentation Bond payable, gross \$10, Less Discount (\$ ) Net Bond Payable \$ Zero-Coupon Bond Over time, the discount is reduced so that at maturity the net bond payable equals the face value of the bonds, \$10,000 Periodically after issuance Cash interest payments = 0 Interest expense = Bond payable x market interest rate Difference between interest expense and cash interest payment reduces Discount Account At maturity Pay interest and entire principal balance Remove Bonds Payable 12

5 Zero-Coupon Bond End of year 1 Interest expense = \$8,396.2 x 6% = No cash interest payment, so add the interest to Bond Payable Dr Interest expense Cr Discount Balance in Discount Account = \$( ) = \$ Net Bonds Payable = \$ = \$ OR Net Bonds Payable = \$10,000 ( ) = \$ Zero-Coupon Bond End of year 2 Interest expense = \$8, x 6% = No cash interest payment, so add the interest to Bond Payable Dr Interest expense Cr Discount Balance in Discount Account = \$ ( ) = \$ Net Bonds Payable = \$ = \$ OR Net Bonds Payable = \$10, = \$ Zero-Coupon Bond End of year 3 Interest expense = \$ x 6% = No cash interest payment, so add the interest to Bond Payable Dr Interest expense Cr Discount Balance in Discount Account = 0 Net Bonds Payable = \$ = \$10,000 OR Net Bonds Payable = \$10,000 0 = \$10,000 Pay off the bond at maturity Dr Bond Payable 10,000 Cr Cash 10,000 15

6 Accounting for a Zero-Coupon Bond Cash = [ Bond Payable Discount = ] NBP Issue 8, = [ 10,000-1, =] 8, Cash = [Bond Payable - Discount = ] = EB 10,000-1, NBP RE (503.77) = 534 EB 10, = EB 10,000 0 Pay off the bond (10,000) ,000 (10,000) (534) (566.03) 16 Accounting for a Mortgage In a mortgage, you make equal payments each period until maturity. Each payment represents interest and some principal repayment. PV of an ordinary annuity of three payments = \$10,000 N = 3, r = 6%, Table 4 \$10,000 = PVOA (n= 3, r = 6%) x Mortgage Payment Mortgage Payment = \$10,000/ = \$ Accounting for a Bond issued at par Coupon Rate 6% = Market Rate 6% At the time of the mortgage Dr Cash 10,000 Cr Mortgage Payable 10,000 Periodically thereafter until maturity Cash mortgage payment equals Interest expense = Outstanding mortgage balance x Market interest rate The excess of mortgage payment over interest expense reduces the Mortgage Principal balance 18

7 Accounting for a Mortgage Cash = Mortgage Payable Signing 10,000 = 10,000 Cash = Mortgage + Ret Earnings 2001 (3,741) = (3,141) (600) EB01 6, (3,741) = (3,329) (412) EB02 3, (3,741) = (3,530) (211) EB Bond issued at a Discount Coupon rate 6% < Market rate at issuance 8% Cash flows to the bondholder Interest payments = Coupon rate x Face Value = \$600 Principal at maturity = \$10,000 Proceeds from bond issue PV of cash flows discounted at the MARKET interest rate of 8% PVOA (n = 3, r = 8%) x \$600 = x 600 = \$ PV of (10,000, n = 3, r = 8%) = x 10,000 = \$ Total = \$ Bond Payable \$10, Less Discount (515.44) Net Bond Payable \$09, Bond issued at a Discount Coupon rate 6% < Market rate at issuance 8% At the end of first year Interest expense Net Bond Payable x 8% \$ x 8% = \$ Dr Interest expense Cr Cash Cr Discount on Bond Payable Net Bond Payable = \$ = \$

8 Bond issued at a Discount Coupon rate 6% < Market rate at issuance 8% Cash = [Bond Payable Discount =] NBP Issue 9,485 = [ 10, = ] 9,485 Cash = [Bond Payable - Discount = ] NBP + RE 2001 (600) = 159 9,643 (759) 2002 (600) = 171 9,815 (771) 2003 (600) = ,000 (785) (10,000) (10,000) 22 Bond issued at a Premium Coupon rate 6% > Market rate at issuance 4% Cash = [Bond Payable + Premium =] NBP Issue 10,555 = [ 10, =] 10,555 Cash = [Bond Payable + Premium =] NBP + RE 2001 (600) = (178) 10,377 (422) 2002 (600) = (185) 10,192 (415) 2003 (600) = (192) 10,000 (408) (10,000) (10,000) 23 Bonds - disclosures Balance sheet Current portion of L-T debt in current liabilities Long-term debt Income Statement Interest expense Indirect SCF Operations - interest accruals not yet paid, amortization of discount/premium Investing - purchase / sale of available for sale debt Financing - proceeds, repayment + supplemental disclosure of cash paid for interest Notes Details on all of the above 24

9 Bond Disclosures UAL, 1997 (8) Long-Term Debt A summary of long-term debt, including current maturities, as of December 31 is as follows (interest rates are as of December 31, 1997): (In Millions) Secured notes, 6.13% to 8.90%, averaging 7.16%, due through 2014 \$ 1,295 \$ 819 Debentures, 9.00% to 11.21%, averaging 9.97%, due through Convertible debentures, 7.75%, due Promissory notes, 6.33% to 11.00%, averaging 6.51%, due through Special facility bonds, 5.625%, due ,340 1, Less: Unamortized discount on debt (13) (9) Current maturities (235) (165) \$ 2,092 \$ 1,661 ===== ===== Courtesy of U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Used with permission. 25 Does the Balance Sheet Represent the Market Value of Debt? Shoney s, Subordinated zero-coupon debentures, due April 2004 \$122,520,712 \$112,580,014 What is the effective interest rate Shoney has used? Zero coupon bond value t = value t-1 (1+r) => r = 122,520,712 / 112,580,014 1 = 8.83% What is the market interest rate of the debt? The Wall Street Journal reported in 1999 that Shoney s debt was selling for 210 per thousand, with 5 years until maturity. FV n = PV 0 (1+r) n 1000 = 210 (1+r)5 => (1000/210)1/5 1 = 36.6% 26 Shoney's Statement of Cash Flows: Effect of Discount Amortization Years Ended October 31 October 25 The annual discount amortization on the zeros (which is equal to Operating activities the annual interest expense on the Net loss \$ (28,826,398) \$ (107,703,920) zeros) is a non-cash expense and Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net is added back to NI to reconcile to cash provided by operating activities: OCF. Depreciation and amortization 41,162,155 49,340,252 Interest expense on zero coupon convertible debentures and other noncash charges 16,329,932 18,508,713 Deferred income taxes (1,890,000) 38,088,000 Gain on disposal of property, plant and equipment (20,230,756) (9,417,828) Impairment of long-lived assets 18,424,046 48,403,158 Changes in operating assets and liabilities: Notes and accounts receivable 1,834,878 1,966,717 Inventories (492,529) 1,236,546 Prepaid expenses (1,676,202) 1,450,081 Accounts payable (10,850,662) 2,524,508 Deferred income and other liabilities (444,616) 4,243, Net cash provided by operating activities 34,521,046 55,063,923 Courtesy of U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Used with permission.

10 Early Retirement of Debt You repurchase Zero-Coupon bonds (Face Value = \$ 11,910) in the open market at the start of 2002 (2 years to maturity) when the market rate is 5%. The market rate of interest at time of issue was 6%. What is the market price of the bonds at that time? PV 0 = FV n / (1+r) n PV 0 = 11,910 / (1.05) 2 = 10,803 What is the effect on the BSE and financial statements? Cash (A) = Bond Principal - Discount + RE BB 11,910-1,310 (10,803) (11,910) (1,310) (203) The gain or loss on early retirement of debt is reported as an extraordinary item on the income statement. What is the journal entry? 28 Bonds - debt covenants (TCBY) Borrower will at all times maintain a ratio of Current Assets to Current Liabilities that is greater than 2.0 a Profitability ratio greater than 1.5 [defined as] the ratio of Net Income for the immediately preceding period of 12 calendar months to Current Maturities of Long Tern Debt a Fixed Coverage Ratio greater than 1.0 [defined as] the ratio of Net Income plus noncash Charges to Current Maturities of Long Term Debt... plus cash dividends plus Replacement CapEx of the Borrower [Borrower will not] sell, lease, transfer, or otherwise dispose of any assets except for the sale of inventory and disposition of obsolete equipment [to] repurchase the stock of TCBY [Borrower agrees it will not take on new loans if] the aggregate amount of all such loans would exceed 25% of the consolidated Tangible Net Worth of the Borrower... 29

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