High Frequency Power Quality

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1 High Frequency Power Quality Dr. Ing. Jos Knockaert, MSc CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

2 Project: TETRA HFPQ funded by Dec 2014 Nov 2016 Main goals: - How to measure? - What are the problems? - Propagation? - What are the solutions? CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

3 I. Introduction Spectral gap Harmonics / Power Quality Spectral Gap EMC Conducted / Radiated 0 Hz 50 Hz 2kHz 150 khz 6GHz CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

4 - The gap: 2 9 khz and 9 khz 150 khz - No standards: (except some advisory additions) - No emission limits - Immunity test is defined - Why? No coupling below 150 khz = no EMI? No propagation in the grid = no PQ problem? CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

5 Reality: Future grid will encounter more problems in the khz region - Driving forces are: Increasing number of renewable energy sources Increasing demand for energy efficiency (APFC, modern lighting) Result: increasing number of switching power converters Act now! Increasing capacitive behaviour of the loads Result: increasing HF current due to low impedance of loads Smart grid needs communication Result: increasing use of communication (PLC, home automation, wireless communication) CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

6 II. Sources PLC Power line communication CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

7 EN 50065: Signalling on low-voltage electrical installations in the frequency range 3 khz 148,5 khz PLC Wideband signals: BW >= 5 khz Narrowband signals: BW < 5 khz Class 122: general Class 134: only for industrial environment For single phase devices: 134dBµV 134dBµV (Class 134) A Utilities 120dBµV B C D Users 122dBµV (Class 122) ,5 khz CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

8 Sources: PV, AFE and Drives Ref: J. Meyer et al., Power quality challenges in future distribution networks, in IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe Conference, 2011 Ref: EMISSION LEVELS ABOVE 2 KHZ LABORATORY RESULTS AND SURVEY MEASUREMENTS IN PUBLIC LOW VOLTAGE GRIDS TU Dresden CIRED 2013 CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

9 Compact Fluorescent Lamp Sources: Lighting Typical around 40 khz CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

10 LED Light: Sources: Lighting - Very divers circuits: From simple capacitive voltage dividers + rectifiers to active PFC circuits A lot of LED s do not comply with CISPR15 CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

11 Sources: Electronic Devices All electronic devices: - fed by AC - internal DC - supplied by SMPS Forward converter CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

12 Electrical vehicle chargers Sources: Electronic Devices Above 1 A at switching frequency Fundamental switching frequencies from 8 khz to 50 khz CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

13 Resonances are mainly due to combination of transformers (+cables) and power factor correction capacitors Resonances Harmonic frequency p.u. CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

14 III. Problems Main sources in general: - power conversion harmonics - power line communication (PLC) - resonance phenomena Known problems in practice related to khz: - General malfunction - Unintentional switching - Loss of communication - Audible noise SC 205A - Study Report on Electromagnetic Interference between Electrical Equipment / Systems in the Frequency Range below 150kHz (Ed.2) CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

15 Main groups of EMI effects - Emissions from equipment leading to disturbance or loss of MCS (mains communication systems) communication - Harmonics of emissions from equipment cause interference with the MCS resulting in failed communication - Distortion of the supply voltage due to discontinuous currents/ voltages from equipment or signal voltages from MCS may lead to degraded performance or maloperation of equipment - Equipment representing a low-impedance path at frequencies used for MCS lead to an attenuation of the intentional MCS signal which might disturb or interrupt communication ( shunting effect ) - Emissions from equipment or MCS signal voltages may result in higher currents, leading to overheating and accelerated ageing of components in equipment SC 205A - Study Report on Electromagnetic Interference between Electrical Equipment / Systems in the Frequency Range below 150kHz (Ed.2) CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

16 Known sources: - Inverters (e.g. in PV installations) and variable speed drives (VSD) - Switch-mode power supplies (SMPS) (TV, DVD, UPS, ) - Lighting equipment (CFL, LEDs) - Household equipment (induction cookers, washing machines) - Automated meter reading using PLC SC 205A - Study Report on Electromagnetic Interference between Electrical Equipment / Systems in the Frequency Range below 150kHz (Ed.2) CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

17 Known victims: - AMR-PLC - Solid state meters displaying wrong values - Electronic control unintentional switching (e.g. touch-controlled equipment like Touch Dimmer lamps (TDL), alarm systems, traffic control systems, traffic lights, in heating systems, street lighting, in urinals, for doors, in kitchen appliances (e.g. steam irons, coffee machines, ceramic hobs) - Communication systems (e. g. Ethernet-system, ISDN-, ADSL-modems, IP network branch exchange, routers, LAN) - Telephone systems including inductive train radio systems - Earth leakage circuit breakers (ELB) - Contactless magnetic card readers, credit card terminals - Notebooks (cursor position) - TV and radio receivers - Mobile and amateur radio SC 205A - Study Report on Electromagnetic Interference between Electrical Equipment / Systems in the Frequency Range below 150kHz (Ed.2) CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

18 IV. Standards 4.1 Compatibility levels CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

19 IEC : Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public low-voltage power supply systems khz (in extension to 148,5 khz) Definition: Compatibility level (CL): the specified electromagnetic disturbance level used as a reference level in a specified environment for coordination in the setting of emission and immunity limits By convention, the CL is chosen so that there is only a small probability that it will be exceeded by the actual disturbance level CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

20 Emission must be at any time below CL. This means emission limits take into account the number of devices working together In the same environment. All equipment requires to have immunity at least at that compatibility level of disturbance. Immunity test level = CL + margin Emission limit = much lower than CL for individual devices Probability to exceed: < 5% CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

21 Current valid version IEC : Ed. 2.0 (2002) Maintenance of the standard is expected (TC77 / SC 77A) Line of thougth: khz : High emission allowed (power electronics) khz: Clean area for PLC Also ongoing work in CIGRE/CIRED/IEEE WORKING GROUP C4.24 CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

22 4.2 Immunity Basic Measurement Standard IEC : Testing and measurement techniques Test for immunity to conducted, differential mode disturbances and signalling in the frequency range 2 khz to 150 khz at AC power ports (Edition 1.0 _ ) Purpose: To demonstrate immunity against DM disturbances originating from Power Electronics and PLC CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

23 Two types of test - Continuous wave test (sweep test) - Rectangular modulated pulses Both for voltage and current - Voltage : to apply to all apparatus - Current: intended only for devices with current measuring port (= metering) Type of test and test levels is determined by product committees CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

24 Test levels: - compatilibility levels under consideration - voltage - also defined for current CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

25 IEC : Testing and measurement techniques Test for immunity to conducted, common mode disturbances in the frequency range 0 Hz to 150 khz (Edition 2.0 _ ) Purpose: To demonstrate immunity against CM disturbances originating from power line currents and return leakage currents in grounding systems F.i. due to power converters + filters and stray capacitances CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

26 4.3 Emission Basic Measurement Standards Several standards consider khz (under consideration) Standards on signal leveling are available (= power quality) No standards for products (with exceptions) Test methods: lot of open questions CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

27 - Questions: * voltage or current? * oscilloscope with FFT or EMI-receiver/SA? * amplitude and/or phase? * detector? * bandwidth * preconditions of the source (!) * narrowband and/or broadband? * continuous and/or discontinuous? * CM and/or DM? - Conclusion at this moment: it s complicated CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

28 2 150 khz according to EN : - informative annex khz: 4-7 can be considered khz: 3 options * CISPR16 (but PQ = in-situ) * extend 4-7 method to 150 khz * alternative method (further mentioned as 4-30 method): 10/12 cycle use equal segments (e.g. 2 khz) min/avg/max rms voltage sampling, filtering given as example - typical accuracy: 10 mv range CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

29 CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June From SC205A Study Report Version 3

30 4.4 Emission Product (Family) Standards CISPR 11: Industrial, Scientific and Medical Equipment - only limits for induction cooking appliances - QP (no average) CISPR 15: Electrical lighting and similar equipment - same limits - only provisional - radiated emission limits are provided EN : Signaling on low-voltage electrical installations - intentional emission - range > 122 dbµv CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

31 Technical Specification IEC TS62578 Ed. 2.0: Active infeed converter - 2 to 9 khz: distortion factor is defined - 9 to 150 khz: CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

32 4.5. Conclusion: Immunity measurement standard Emission measurement standard: - measuring apparatus - preconditions Compatibility levels CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

33 V. Grid Survey Voltage probe PQube3 Power quality monitoring tool khz option Measurement according to (annex C, option 3) CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

34 Purpose of the measurements: - What are normal levels? khz - 2 khz 150 khz - 5 locations: - house 1 & 2 - apartment - office - industry CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

35 HF-harmonic: mean values (1 min-average) Grid Survey Location 2 CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

36 Conclusion: - grid survey of months in different environments - several sources detected - results are part of Tetra-project - workshop in October 2016 CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

37 Questions? Ghent University Campus Kortrijk Research Group Lemcko Graaf Karel de Goedelaan Kortrijk CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June

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