# Chapter 15: Distributed Structures. Topology

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1 1 1 Chapter 15: Distributed Structures Topology Network Types Operating System Concepts 15.1 Topology Sites in the system can be physically connected in a variety of ways; they are compared with respect to the following criteria: Basic cost. How expensive is it to link the various sites in the system? Communication cost. How long does it take to send a message from site A to site B? Reliability. If a link or a site in the system fails, can the remaining sites still communicate with each other? The various topologies are depicted as graphs whose nodes correspond to sites. An edge from node A to node B corresponds to a direct connection between the two sites. The following six items depict various network topologies. Operating System Concepts 15.2

2 2 2 Fully Connected Network Each site (node) is directly linked with all other sites in the system. Basic cost is high, since a direct communication line must be available between every two sites. Messages between sites can be sent fast. Reliable, since many links must fail for the system to become partitioned. Operating System Concepts 15.3 Partially Connected Network Direct links exist between some, but not all pairs of sites. Basic cost is lower than of fully connected network. Slower communication (for example: a message from site A to site D must sent through sites B and C. Not reliable as a fully connected network, because the failure of one link may partition the network (for example: if the link from B to C fails then the network is partitioned into two subsystems; one subsystem contains sites A, B, and E and the second subsystem includes sites C and D. Operating System Concepts 15.4

3 3 3 Hierarchical Network The sites are organized as a tree. Basic cost is less than that of the partially connected scheme. A parent and child communicate directly (for example: A and E). If a parent site fails, then its children can no longer communicate with each other. The failure of any node (site) (except a leaf) partitions the network into several disjoint sub trees. Operating System Concepts 15.5 Star Network In a star network, one of the sites in the system is connected to all other sites, and none of the other sites are connected to any other. Basic cost is linear in the number of sites. Communication cost is low, because messages from process A to B requires at most two transfers (from A to the central site, and then from central site to B). May not ensure speed, since the central site may become a bottleneck. If the central site fails, the network is completely partitioned. Operating System Concepts 15.6

4 4 4 Ring Networks Ring networks: (a) Single links. (b) Double links Operating System Concepts 15.7 Ring Networks (Cont.) Each site is physically connected to exactly two other sites. The ring can be unidirectional or bi-directional. In an unidirectional architecture, a site can transmit information to only one of its neighbors, and all sites must send information in the same direction. In a bi-directional architecture, a site can transmit information to both of its neighbors. Basic cost of ring is linear in the number of sites. Communication cost can be high (a message from one site to another travels around the ring until it reaches its destination. Operating System Concepts 15.8

5 5 5 Ring Networks (Cont.) In an unidirectional this process could require n-1 transfers. In a bi-directional ring, at most n/2 transfers are needed. In a bi-directional, two links must fail before the network will partition. In an unidirectional ring, a single site failure would partition the network. Operating System Concepts 15.9 Multi-access Bus Network Bus network: (a) Linear bus. (b) Ring bus. Operating System Concepts 15.10

6 6 6 Multi-access Bus Network (Cont.) In a multi-access bus network, there is a single shared link (the bus). All the sites in the system are directly connected to that link, which may be organized as a straight line or as a ring. Basic cost is linear in the number of sites. Communication cost is low, unless the link becomes bottleneck. Failure of one site does not affect communication among the rest of sites. If the link (bus) fails the network is partitioned completely. Ethernet Bus (example). Operating System Concepts Network Types Local-Area Network (LAN) designed to cover small geographical area. Multiaccess bus, ring, or star network. Speed 10 megabits/second, or higher. Broadcast is fast and cheap. Nodes: 1. usually workstations and/or personal computers 2. a few (usually one or two) mainframes. Operating System Concepts 15.12

7 7 7 Network Types (Cont.) Depiction of typical LAN: Operating System Concepts Network Types (Cont.) Wide-Area Network (WAN) links geographically separated sites. Point-to-point connections over long-haul lines (often leased from a phone company). Speed 100 kilobits/second. Broadcast usually requires multiple messages. Nodes: 1. usually a high percentage of mainframes Operating System Concepts 15.14

8 8 8 Communication Processors in a Wide-Area Network Operating System Concepts 15.15

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