Resiliency in Ethernet Based Transport Networks

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1 Resiliency in Ethernet Based Transport Networks Kari Seppänen

2 Outline Introduction What is switched Ethernet? Legacy Ethernet Security and Reliability issues Rapid spanning tree protocol & others Multiple spanning trees Carrier-grade Ethernet Ethernet layer 2 switching Conclusions

3 Introduction The topic of this presentation is resiliency in native Ethernet transport networks. Ethernet services (e.g., E-Line, E-LAN) can be based on virtually any transport technology like EoS, IP/MPLS VPNs, ATM... Resiliency in Ethernet services depends on underlying transport network In p-to-p links between IP routers or such, Ethernet is just one LL protocol Carrier-grade Ethernet sometimes mean Ethernet over MPLS or such Ethernet is considered to be cheap, simple and versatile transport technology for IP NGN Ethernet is also considered to be easy to manage, plug-and-play solution Most of the Internet hosts use Ethernet i/f so why not transport that traffic end-to-end in native form?

4 Definition of layer 2 protocol: What is switched Ethernet? Anything defined by a committee whose charter is to standardize a layer 2 protocol. (Radia Perlman, Sun Laboratories) EtherNET is a network right? No it s just a link in a network. But there are Ethernet switches that do L2 switching? Not exactly logically an Ethernet switch is more or less a set of bridges connected by a high-speed Ethernet segment (or multiport bridge). Bridged/switched Ethernet divides a single collision domain (Eth. segment) to multiple ones (rather than divides a network into multiple subnets)

5 Legacy Ethernet Ethernet is a frame based multiaccess LL protocol with flat addressing. Logical Link Control (LLC) Layer 7 Layer 6 Application Presentation MAC Bridging 802.1D MAC bridging 802.1Q VLAN 802.1p Priority Layer 5 Session MAC Layer 4 Transport Ethernet specific Layer 3 Network Physical Signalling Layer 2 Layer 1 Data link Physical Media OSI Model Major IEEE Sublayers Bridge learning make it possible to divide a LAN into multiple collision domains automatically Need loop-free topology Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

6 Security, Reliability and Scalability issues Performance monitoring & fault detection Only 10GbE WAN option (poor man s SDH) has any performance monitoring Otherwise only loss-of-light at Ethernet layer How to get performance data for maintenance, e.g., replacing aging lasers? Management & monitoring Relies on upper layer (IP) system like SNMP or Web application STP Root node is a single point of failure Sloooooow action in error situations (i.e., up to minutes) Insecure if user s port accepts STP packets (e.g., due to misconfig.), attacker can bring down the network or make all traffic go through attacker s machine

7 No load balancing (except for link bundles) Link aggregation parallel links between two switches can be bundled to a single virtual link for STP Provides link-level load sharing Std. version provides fast failover 1 s faster recovery with vendor specific solutions Cheap shall it be GbE WAN option is much like SDH/SONET but eliminates expensive SDH clock distribution......actually money saved was about 5 USD per line card 10 GbE transport network cannot be used to distribute clock signal to legacy networks

8 Rapid spanning tree protocol & others STP relies on timers and Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDU) sent by root node in RSTP (802.1w) each bridge sends hello BPDUs faster fault detection All edge ports can be turned on immediately If a non-root bridge detects that root is unreachable, it can immediately declare itself as a new root node Still 1 s convergence Rapid Ring STP (RRSTP) or Ethernet Automatic Protection Switching (EAPS) for bidirectional Ethernet rings ( RPR) mimics bidir. SDH ring with similar performance

9 Multiple spanning trees RSTP has still only one spanning tree Suboptimal routes for most of VLANs Bottleneck links and unused resources MSTP (802.1s) allows for own spanning tree for each VLAN Location of root node for each ST can be selected according to each structure/traffic patterns of each VLAN better routes Traffic is more distributed and resources are better used A single fault does not (necessarily) affect all VLANs

10 Carrier-grade Ethernet Major requirement: the transport network has to be protected from user s actions hierarchical network is needed Service OAM (802.1ag connectivity fault management) Continuity check, link trace, loopback and AIS messages Link OAM (802.3 clause 57) Discovery, link monitoring, RFI, remote loopback L2 VPN is considered as a major application Q-in-Q does not provide sufficient protection for transport network, MAC learning is also an issue Limited number (4094) of VLANs MAC-in-MAC is required (that is, user s frames are carried inside provider s frames)

11 Page 135 VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND TDM over Ethernet to support legacy PDH services of 802.1ad is limthe fundamental broadcast domains s no real solutions es over a common e. This is because network into the oups (CUGs), in core with a CUG nterprise and not N IDs). This has sted with a hierarlationship, where etworks are funcimple partitioning r how a carrier s of multiple spandegree of indeterution for carriers e scale and scope etworks in a serit as server-layer r) layer networks, Payload DA SA Payload VID DA SA 802.1q SA: Source MAC address DA: Destination MAC address VID: VLAN ID C-VID: Customer VID S-VID: Service VID I-SID: Service ID B-VID: Backbone VID B-DA: Backbone DA B-SA: Backbone SA Figure 1. Evolution of Ethernet hierarchy. Payload C-VID S-VID DA SA 802.1ad Provider bridges Payload C-VID S-VID DA SA I-SID B-VID B-DA B-SA 802.1ah Provider backbone bridges engineer the network. This is a critical requirement for carriers so that they can exercise deter-

12 Ethernet L2 switching (a.k.a. Independent VLAN learning (IVL)) Even with MSTP exact traffic engineering ( route pinning ) is not possible L2 switching with Ethernet VLAN ID (VID) and destination MAC addr. are used as a label (VID can be swapped, MAC addr. has to remain the same) Ethernet LSP (or PVCCs) are created by configuring label lookup tables in switches Only part of VID range can be used Operation: if VID is in the range of Ethernet switching output port, new VID = Lookup(VID, MAC addr.)

13 Conclusions So, is Ethernet up to carrier-grade transport network standards? With all the modifications: probably it is, but I doubt that it would be simple, cheap and easy-to-manage anymore... Fault-tolerance Restoration: with RSTP & MSTP 1 s timescale and no single point of failure comparable to PNNI Link and ring protection: with tuned-up link bundles and RRSTP comparable to SDH Path protection:? Cell-tax was big issue but does anyone care about efficiency anymore? Voice over IPv6 over MPLS over MAC-in-MAC Ethernet (i.e. over 100 octets overhead per packet...)?

14 ... RFC 1925 (The Twelve Networking Truths) (3) With sufficient thrust, pigs fly just fine. However, this is not necessarily a good idea. It is hard to be sure where they are going to land, and it could be dangerous sitting under them as they fly overhead.... (6) It is easier to move a problem around (for example, by moving the problem to a different part of the overall network architecture) than it is to solve it.... (11) Every old idea will be proposed again with a different name and a different presentation, regardless of whether it works....

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