BMS College of Engineering. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust

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1 EIA/EMP Report For BMS College of Engineering At Survey no. 52/1, old ward no. 49, new ward no. 154, K.G Nagar, Bull Temple Road, Bangalore, For B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Prepared By Grass Roots Research & Creation India (P) Ltd. (An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Co.: Accredited by QCI / NABET: Approved by MoEF, GoI) F , Sector-63, Noida, U.P. Ph.: , Telefax: Website: GRC India Training & AnalyticaL Laboratory (NABL Accredited /Recognized by MoEF, GOI) A unit of GRC India August 2015

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3 TABLE OF CONTENT Sr. No. Description Page No. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Preamble General Information on Project Environmental Clearance Process Validity of Environmental Clearance Post Environmental Clearance Monitoring Transferability of Environmental Clearance Generic Structure of Environment Impact Assessment Project proponent Brief Description of Project Applicable Legal Requirements Need of the EIA study Scope of Study Study Methodology EIA methodology 8 CHAPTER 2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION Project Location & Surroundings Estimated Project Cost Brief Project Features Population Details Power Requirement Parking Water Supply & Sewerage Treatment Plant Sewarage System Rain Water Harvesting Solid Waste Management Landscape Details of Construction Materials Materials Used for Construction & Their U values Historical Data of the Project 49 CHAPTER 3 DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT Introduction Study Period Study Area 51

4 3.4 Baseline Monitoring of Environmental Component Meteorology Air Environment Noise Levels Water Environment Land Environment Biological Environment Socio Economic Assessment 88 CHAPTER 4 Anticipated Environmental Impacts &Mitigation Measures Introduction Impact Matrix Pollution sources Impact identification Assessment of Environmental Impacts During Development & Construction Phase Topography Land Use Pattern Land Environment Water Environment Air Environment Noise Environment Terrestrial Ecology Economic Impacts Socio-Economic Construction Camp Solid Waste Management Transport Linkage & Traffic Assessment of Environmental Impacts During Post Construction 114 Phase Land Environment Water Environment Air Environment Noise Environment Terrestrial Ecology Socio-economic Impact Transport Linkage and Traffic Energy Resources 121

5 CHAPTER 5 Specific Studies Transportation Building Materials Energy Conservation 128 Chapter 6 Environmental Monitoring Program Introduction Performance Indicators (PIs) Ambient Air Quality (AAQ) Monitoring Noise Level Monitoring Success of Vegetation Data Management Reporting Schedules Emergency 137 Chapter 7. Additional Studies Introduction Risk assessment And Disaster Management Plan Response In Case of earthquake Response For LPG leakage Response In case of fire Resource conservation Resettlement And rehabilitation 148 Chapter 8. Project Benefits General Physical infrastructure Social Infrastructure Economic Benefits 150 Chapter 9. Environmental Management Plan Introduction Environmental Management Strategies Topography and Physiography Soil Development & Construction Phase Operational Phase Hydrology Surface water Hydrology Ground water Hydrology Water Resource Development Surface Water Quality Air Quality Noise Levels 162

6 9.2.6 Operational Phase Biological Environment Development and construction phase Post construction phase Demographic and Socio-Economic Environment Development and Construction Phase Post Construction Phase Vehicle Parking And Traffic Management Development and Construction Phase Post Construction Phase Energy Conservation Management and Maintenance System Institutional Capacity Building Hierarchical Structure of Environmental Management Cell Awareness and Training Environmental Audits and Corrective Action Plan Overall Mitigation Measures and Environmental Management Plan 169 Chapter10. Summary And Conclusion Project Background Project Site Project Features Environmental Setting of the Area Land Environment Water environment Air Environment Noise Environment Biological environment Socio-economic environment Energy efficiency Other Environmental Management plan 187 Chapter11. Disclosure of consultants engaged Name of the Consultant with Resume and nature of Consultancy Accredition/ Registration Application Submitted To Quality Council 196 Of India, QCI 11.3 Accredition of laboratory from NABL 200 Chapter12. Corporate Environmental Responsibility Chapter13. Environment sustainability and CSR related issues Enclosure

7 LIST OF TABLES S.No. Table No. Particular Page No Project Team Details Connectivity & Location Detailed Area Statement Built-Up Area Detail Population Details Daily water requirement calculation Wastewater Calculations Solid Waste Generation List of Species of Plant Summarized Meteorological Data for the worst 52 day Location of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 55 Stations (a) Ambient Air Quality with respect to PM (b) Ambient Air Quality with respect to PM (c) Ambient Air Quality with respect to SO (d) AAQ with respect to NO (e) AAQ with respect to CO Noise level monitoring station Ambient Quality standard of Noise Hourly Noise level Water Quality Criteria as per Central Pollution 65 Control Board Location of Water sampling sites (a) Ground Water Quality December (b) Ground Water quality in study area during Jan (c) Ground Water quality in study area during Feb

8 (a) Surface Water quality in study area during 74 Dec (b) Surface Water quality in study area during Jan (c) Surface Water quality in study area during Feb Landuse Frequency and Methodology for Soil Sampling 80 & Monitoring Soil Sample Collection Points Phyisco-Chemical Properties of Soil Aspects to be covered in the study for the 82 Project Summary of data collected from various 83 sources List of Plants in Buffer Zone (100 m 84 Radius) List of Plants in Buffer Zone (10 km Radius List of Species in Buffer Zone (100 m radius) List of Species in Buffer Zone (10 km Radius) Demographic Particulars of the Study Area Potential environment impact of projects Pollutant sources Environment aspects of project other than 104 source of pollution Meteorological data for 24 hour average 117 maximum predicted concentration under worst condition Vehicle equivalent pcu factors Volume to capacity ratio at (tvc location-1) 124 Existing Volume to capacity ratio at (tvc location-2) 124 Existing Volume to capacity ratio at (tvc location-1) 125 after project exucution Volume to capacity ratio at (tvc location-2) after project exucution 125

9 Environment Monitoring plan Environment Management Plan Plantation List Environment Management Plan Salient features of the project Summary matrix of predicted impacts and 188 mitigation measures

10 LIST OF FIGURES S.NO. Fig No. Particulars Page No Organisational Chart a Location Map b Toposheet showing 5 km radius c Toposheet showing 15 km radius Water Balance diagram STP schematic diagram Solid Waste management scheme (construction 41 phase) Solid waste management scheme (operation phase) Organic Waste Converter Windrose Diagram Windrose Diagram Isopleths Waste Management Flow Diagram 154

11 CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 PREAMBLE Early identification and characterization of critical environmental impacts allow the public and the government to form a view about the environmental acceptability of a developmental project and what conditions should apply to mitigate or reduce those risks and impacts. EIA is a technical exercise, to establish baseline environmental condition to predict environmental impacts, assess their significance, and provide recommendations for their mitigation. The impact assessment covers both construction and operation phases of the development. The report covers areas such as noise, air quality, ecology, water quality & hydrology, local architecture, landscape & visual character, sustainability and socioeconomics. The report describes how the project has been improved through the EIA process. This report has been prepared as per the EIA Notification, 2006 & its amendments, EIA Guidance Manual for Building, Construction as a guiding document. (S.O. 3252/ and its classification F.No.19-2/2013-IA-III dated ) 1.2 GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROJECT The BMS college of Engineering will be constructed by B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust. BMS college of Engineering is located at survey no. 52/1, old ward no. 49, new ward no. 154, K.G nagar, Bull Temple Road, Bangalore The BMS college of Engineering existing building structure will be demolished and new building will be constructed in four phases. The college comprises of Academic Block, Multilevel Car Parking, Food Courts, Sports complex, Academic Building, Auditorium, library, Boys Hostel, Girl Hostel, Research & Administration Block. This project shall provide world-class infrastructure and encourage further development. The main purpose and benefit of the project to environment and society are as under: To enhance the aesthetics surrounding with greenery and landscaping. To adopt the practice of rain water harvesting to improve the ground water condition. To adopt the practice of waste management to make the environment and surroundings pollution free and clean. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 1

12 To adopt the practice of wastewater treatment in an in-house STP and re-use the treated water for various purposes so that stress on water abstraction will be minimized. Student gets benefited by Higher Technical Education and better infrastructure facility. 1.3 ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE PROCESS As per EIA Notification 2006 and its amendments, all Building Construction and area development projects covering a Built up area greater than 1,50,000 sq. m. are designated as 8 (b) projects and are required to obtain prior environmental clearance from State Environmental Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA). The application for environmental clearance shall comprises submission of Form I, Form IA, conceptual plan along with proposed ToR to SEIAA. The EIA/EMP shall be prepared on the basis of approved ToR will be submitted to the SEAC for appraisal and due recommendation and suggestions. Following the appraisal of the project to the satisfaction of the SEAC and SEIAA, Environmental Clearance shall be granted. Since, the project covers an area of 53, m 2 and the total built up area is 1,65, m 2, the project is categorized as 8(b) project, under the EIA notification 2006 and requires environmental clearance from the SEIAA, Karnataka. As per the requirement of EIA Notification, B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust had submitted the application to State Level Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA), Karnataka for approval of Terms of Reference (ToR) and the ToR was approved from State Environment Appraisal Committee (SEAC), Karnataka in 119 th SEAC, Karnataka meeting held on 10 th October, 2014 for carrying out the Environmental Impact Assessment study. Present EIA report has been prepared based on the approved ToR The Terms of reference letter is enclosed as Annexure I. The present EIA report has been prepared based on the baseline data generated during Dec, 2014 to Feb, The compliance of the ToR is enclosed as Annexure II 1.4 VALIDITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE As per the provisions of the EIA Notification, 2006 & its amendments, the prior environmental clearance granted is valid for a period of seven years. This may be extended by a maximum of seven years, provided an application is made to the regulatory authority B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 2

13 during the period from one month after the validity period of EC but less than three month after such validity period with updated Form 1, Form 1A Conceptual Plan and Environmental Impact Assessment Report (EIA/EMP Report). 1.5 POST ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE MONITORING It will be mandatory for the project management to submit half-yearly compliance reports in respect of the stipulated prior environmental clearance terms and conditions in hard and soft copies to the regulatory authority concerned, on 1 st June and 1 st December of each calendar year. All such compliance reports submitted by the project management will be public documents. Copies of the same shall be given to any person on application to the concerned regulatory authority. The latest such compliance report shall also be displayed on the website of the concerned regulatory authority. 1.6 TRANSFERABILITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE A prior environmental clearance granted for a specific project or activity to an applicant may be transferred during its validity to another legal person entitled to undertake the project or activity on application by the transferor or the transferee with a written no objection by the transferor, to, and by the regulatory authority concerned, on the same terms and conditions under which the prior environmental clearance was initially granted, and for the same validity period. 1.7 GENERIC STRUCTURE OF ENVIRONMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT The environmental impact assessment has been carried out to assess the impact of the project on various environmental components. The methodologies and findings of the study are detailed in the EIA Report along with other relevant information under the different chapter headings as under: 1. Introduction - provides background information about the project and the developers along with the legal environmental requirements of the project. The scope and EIA methodology adopted in preparation of EIA report have also been described in this chapter. 2. Project Description briefly discusses the project features while elaborating on components bearing environmental consequences. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 3

14 3. Description of the Environment discusses the environmental setting of the project area based on primary and secondary data collection. 4. Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures predicts the environmental impacts of the various components of the project during construction and operation phases to highlight concern areas requiring mitigation measures. Accordingly, it also suggests controls and mitigation measures to offset/ minimize the adverse impact while optimizing the positive benefits from the project. 5. Specific study- Analysis of traffic study, building material used in construction & energy conservation measures etc. 6. Environmental Monitoring Programme outlines a monitoring programme for the different environmental components during the construction and operation phase for evaluation of the environmental status of the area due to the project development. 7. Additional Studies discusses any study that has been carried out for the purpose of better understanding of the environmental impacts of the project. It also highlights any pertinent findings from the study that will aid decision-making. 8. Project Benefits brings out the positive impacts from the project. 9. Environmental Management Plan organizes the suggested mitigation measures to aid implementation through formulation of performance indicators, reporting structure and pronounced implementation periods. 10. Summary & Conclusion summarises the important report findings and concludes on the environmental sustainability of the project. 11. Disclosure of Consultants engaged gives the names of the technical team involved in the report preparation along with accreditation of consultant from the Quality Council of India. 12. Corporate Environmental Responsibility- Environment policy and hierarchical system to deal with environmental issues. 13. Environmental sustainability and CSR related issues- Environment sustainability and welfare programs. 14. TOR Compliance-reply of various conditions mentioned in TOR. 1.8 PROJECT PROPONENT The BMS college of Engineering is proposed by the B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust. The engineering college, started in 1946 by BM Sreenivasiah, is one of the first which provides technical education in India and is run by the BMS Educational Trust today. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 4

15 BMSCE has the largest student population among the engineering colleges in Karnataka, drawing students from other states of India and abroad. BMSCE is going to demolish all the building structures present at the site and proposed to build new buildings & blocks in four phases. The contact details for B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust are as follows: Dr. B.S. Ragini Narayan Donor Trustee & Member Secretary, BMS Educational Trust, Bull Temple Road, Bangalore Telephone Nos , , The project team detail and the organizational chart of the project proponent are as follows: Table 1.1: Project Team Details 1. PHE Consultants 2. Architects Sundaram Architects Pvt. Ltd. 3. Electrical Consultants 4. Traffic Consultant In-house 5. Hydrological Consultant SPACE GEO TECH 6. EIA Consultant Grass Roots Research & Creation India (P) Ltd. Donor Trustee & Member Secretary Electrical Consultants Architects PHE Consultants Hydro geological Consultants EIA Consultants Traffic Consultants Figure 1.1: Organizational Chart B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 5

16 1.9 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT Project Background This is a green field project. The project site located at survey no. 52/1, old ward no. 49, new ward no. 154, K.G nagar, Bull temple Road, Bangalore over an area of 53, m 2 or acres. Land has been gifted by the corporation of the city of Bangalore Commissioner Sri K. Henjerappa to Dharmaprakasha B.M. Srinivashish ( Founder of B.M. Srinivasiah Engineering college). Government gave their sanction to the resolution of the corporation in their order no. L / Dated 8 th November Copy of Gift deed is enclosed as Annexure - III Site Description The BMS college of Engineering is located at Survey no. 52/1, Old ward no. 49, New ward no. 154, K.G nagar, Bull Temple Road, Bangalore It is spread across acres of land which have a wide road network with close proximity and easy accessibility to the retail outlets, schools, hospitals, etc. The nearest Airport is HAL Airport which is km away from the project site and the nearest railway station is Bangalore City Railway Station which is approx. 4 km from the project site. The college of Engineering will be built in four Phases namely Phase-I, Phase-II, Phase-III & Phase-IV. The coordinates of the site is E & N. Yediyur Lake is 1.43 km SE of the project site. The site plan showing the project site and features that is proposed to come up in the project is enclosed as Annexure-IV. Contour Plan is enclosed as Annexure V APPLICABLE LEGAL REQUIREMENTS Under the Environment Impact Assessment Notification, 2006 & its ammendment, the project will obtain environment clearance. The project will abide by all applicable provisions of the Environment Protection Act, 1986 and rules formed there under. As per the Air Pollution (Prevention and Control)Act 1981, Water Pollution (Prevention and Control) Act 1974, and Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989 the project will obtain No Objection Certificate from Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) and continue to obtain Consent for Operation from the same as per the guidelines during the operation period. The proponent will also submit 6 monthly compliance of EC condition from regional Office of MoEF&CC. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 6

17 1.11 NEED OF THE EIA STUDY The project activities must co-exist in harmony with its surrounding environment, to reduce the environmental impact, which is likely to arise during various project activities. To safeguard the environment from adverse effects of developmental activities, the MoEF & CC has issued some regulations. As per the notification dated of MoEF & CC, GoI Environmental Clearance is mandatory for any construction projects with built-up area of more than 20,000 m2. EIA/EMP will be carried out for the projects covering an area of 50 ha and/ or built up area greater than 1, 50,000 m 2. As, the built-up area is 1,65, m 2 which is more than 1,50,000 m 2 and comes under category 8(b). Hence, an Environment Impact Assessment Report has been considered mandatory for the project. Tor was received wide letter No. SEIAA 83 CON 2014 dated 25 th October The EIA report is made in line with the TOR. The study would facilitate B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust to obtain Environmental Clearance (EC) from the SEIAA, Karnataka SCOPE OF STUDY The scope of the study is:- Compilation of baseline environmental and social scenario of the study area within a radius of 10 km around the project site based on field studies covering one season (Dec, Feb 2015) and secondary data collected from the authorized source /Govt. agency; Identification, prediction and evaluation of potential environmental impacts expected during the construction and operation phase of the project; Preparation of mitigation measures, Environmental Management Plan (EMP) and Monitoring Programme for implementation of suggested mitigation measures STUDY METHODOLOGY The approach followed by Grass Roots Research & Creation India (P) Ltd. in conducting of the EIA study is according to the applicable regulatory framework. The main stages followed are described below: Stage I Review of design and operational information of the Project through various plans and drawings and identification of sources of major potential impacts Stage II An initial review of the project site and status of the physical environment around the project site vicinity; B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 7

18 Understanding regarding project design and operation as well as macro environmental aspects. The major issues needed to be addressed with due care were identified and monitoring plan for the environmental baseline was prepared. Baseline environmental assessment was conducted within the study area of 10 km radius around the project site covering monitoring and primary field data collection of environmental components viz. Ambient Air Quality, Water (Surface and Ground water) and its Quality, Soil Quality, Noise Level, Traffic Volume etc.; Survey study was carried out in the study area to assess the status of flora & fauna and socio-economic profile of the study area; and Information was also collected through secondary sources like Department of Census, Local and City Offices, National Institutions (Survey of India, National Information Centre etc.), District Head Quarters and other Government Offices etc. as well relevant Published Literatures. Stage III Compilation of the Environmental Baseline of the study area. Stage IV Assessment of environmental impacts by predicting the scale and extent of changes associated with the project and their subsequent effects on the environment against the environmental baseline condition and evaluating the significance of such impacts against accepted criteria. Stage V Identification and preparation of measures to mitigate significant impacts (evaluated from the impact prediction process) by proposing applicable alternatives and control measures; and Finally, development of appropriate Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan to audit and ensure that the mitigation measures are in place and effective EIA METHODOLOGY The project may have impact on the physical, biological and socio economic attributes of surrounding environment. In assessing the environmental impact, collection, collation and interpretation of baseline data is of prime importance. The objective of EIA is to predict and address potential environmental problems/ concerns at an early stage of project planning and design. EIA/ EMP assists in the decision making B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 8

19 process by identifying the key impacts/ issues as a results of the activities and formulating mitigation measures, leading to an improvement in environmental quality. In order to achieve these objectives, the following procedures have been adopted for the study:- Collection, collation and analysis of regional and local environmental status for various environmental attributes (like topography, geology, ambient air quality, meteorology, water quality, noise level, soil characteristics and land use, transport, settlement status and socio economic aspects etc.) Identification of environmental impacts leads to assessment of impact on the base-line status which will decide the feasibility of the project and suggests mitigation measures to control pollution with respect to standards applicable for the area. Evaluation of impacts leading to preparation of environmental management and monitoring plan. Addition study will cover disaster management plan during construction and operation phase of the project. Environment Monitoring Plan will be discussed in separate chapter. Project cost and schedule and project benefit will be discussed along with disclosure of consultants. This report is based on scientific principles and professional judgment with resultant subjective interpretation. Professional judgments expressed herein are based on the available data and information. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 9

20 CHAPTER-2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION 2.1 PROJECT LOCATION AND SITE SURROUNDINGS Location The Institutional project is agreen field project located at survey no. 52/1, Old ward no. 49, New ward no. 154, K.G Nagar, Bull Temple Road, Bangalore The coordinates of the site is E & N. Location map along with Toposheet Image showing site and surrounding within 5 km, 15 km are given in figure 2.1 (a), 2.1 (b), 2.1 (c) respectively. Figure 2.1(a): Location map of the project site B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 10

21 Figure 2.1 (b): Toposheet image showing site and surrounding (5 km radius) B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 11

22 Figure 2.1(c): Toposheet image showing site and surrounding (15 km) B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 12

23 2.1.2 Connectivity Table 2.1: Connectivity & Location features NEAREST METRO STATION & RAILWAY STATION FROM THE PROJECT SITE: National College Metro Station 1.24 km NNE Bangalore City Railway Station 4.0 km N AIRPORTS FROM THE PROJECT SITE: HAL Airport km ENE Yelahanka Airport 25.3 km N Bangalore international Airport 39.2 km NNE ROADS FROM THE PROJECT SITE: Bugle Rock Road 0.19 km N Bull Temple Road 0.09 km E Kumaraswamy Temple Road 0.11 km W Bangalore-Mysore Road 4.43 km W Water bodies Yediyur Lake 1.43 km SE 2.2 ESTIMATED PROJECT COST The total cost of the project is Rs. 350 Crores which includes the land cost as well as the development cost. 2.3 BRIEF PROJECT FEATURES The project will be spread over an area of m 2 or 13.17acres, with a ground coverage area of 18, m 2. The permissible ground coverage area of the project is 23, m 2. The Built up area of the project is 1,65, m 2. The area statement of the project is given in Table 2.2. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 13

24 Table 2.2: Detailed Area Statement S. No. Particulars Area (in m 2 ) 1. Total Site Area 53, Permissible Ground Coverage 45% of Total Site area) 23, Proposed Ground Coverage 33.9% of Total Site area) 18, Permissible FAR 2.25 of the Total Site area) 1,19, Proposed FAR of the Total Site area) 1,19, Phase-I 39, Phase-II 44, Phase-III 21, Phase-IV 13, Total Built Up Area (Proposed FAR + Non-FAR + Basement) 1,65, Basement Area 14, Phase-I 14, Academic Block 9, MLCP 3, Food court & sports complex Phase-II - Phase-III - Phase-IV - Proposed Non-FAR 31, Terrace Area MLCP floor wise Non-FAR 18,762 Building blocks floor wise Non-FAR 12, Landscape Area % of the total site area) 17, Area planned for roads Pathway, Footpath & other areas Open area B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 14

25 Total Parking Area Open surface parking area 1,650 Basement parking (Academic block) 13. Lower basement 3,675 Upper basement 2,975 MLCP parking area 22,330 Research & Administrative parking area 3, Maximum height of the tallest building 45 m Table 2.3: Built-Up Area Detail SL. NO. BUILDINGS FAR (IN SQ.M) BUILT UP AREA (IN SQ.M) 1. PHASE-I Academic Building 33, , Food Court & Sports complex 6, , MLCP 22, PHASE-II Boys Hostel 11, , Academic Building 25, , Auditorium + Library 8, PHASE-III Boys Hostel 11, , Girls Hostel 10, , PHASE-IV B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 15

26 Research & Administrative building 11, , Admin Block 2, , TOTAL 1,19, ,65, POPULATION DETAILS The total population of project has been estimated around 16,711 persons. Population break up is as follows. Table 2.4: Population details S. No. Unit Type Total 1. Academic Block (G+7) Staff/Students Visitors 2. Food Court & Sports Complex Seats Staff 3. Academic Block (G+7) Staff/Students Visitors 4. Auditorium & Library Seats Visitors 5. Boys Hostel (Phase-II) Occupancy Visitors Population , B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 16

27 6. Boys Hostel (Phase-III) Occupancy Visitors 7. Girls Hostel Occupancy Visitors 8. Research & Admin Staff Visitors Grand Total 16, POWER REQUIREMENT The total power requirement for project is 4121 KVA which will be supplied by Bangalore Electricity Supply Company (BESCOM). The requirement will be fulfilled by 2 transformers of 2500 KVA. Details of D.G Sets There is provision of 2 no. of DG sets of 2000 KVA (1x1500 KVA+1x500 KVA) capacities each for power back up in the Institutional Project. The DG sets will be equipped with acoustic enclosure to reduce noise generation and with proper stack height. Electrical plan showing the location of DG sets transformer is enclosed as Annexure-VI. 2.6 PARKING Adequate provision will be made for car/vehicle parking at the project site. There shall also be adequate parking provisions for visitors so as not to disturb the traffic and allow smooth movement at the site. Parking Required: As per State Bye Laws: Phase-I B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 17

28 Area required for Academic Block parking Parking required = 1 ECS /150 m² FAR = /150 = ECS = 225 ECS Area required for Food Court parking Parking required Area required for Sports Complex parking Parking required = 1 ECS /75 m² FAR = /75 = ECS = 15 ECS = 1 ECS /50 m² FAR = /50 = ECS = 98 ECS Phase-II Area required for Boys Hostel parking Parking required = 1 ECS /5 rooms = 360/5 = 72 ECS = 72 ECS Area required for Academic Block parking Parking required = 1 ECS /150 m² FAR = /150 = ECS = 167 ECS Area required for Auditorium & Library parking Parking required = 1 ECS /150 m² FAR = /150 = ECS = 56 ECS Phase-III Area required for Boys Hostel parking Parking required = 1 ECS /5 rooms = 360/5 = 72 ECS = 72 ECS Area required for Girls Hostel parking = 1 ECS /5 rooms B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 18

29 Parking required = 360/5 = 72 ECS = 72 ECS Phase-IV Area required for Research & Admin Building parking Parking required = 1 ECS /100 m² FAR = /100 = ECS = 113 ECS Area required for Admin Block parking Parking required = 1 ECS /100 m² FAR = /100 = ECS = 23 ECS Hence, Total Number of Parking Required = = 913 ECS Parking Proposed: Parking in open spaces: Area proposed for Open parking = 1,650 m 2 Area required for 1 ECS of open parking = 25 m² Parking proposed for open parking = 66 ECS Parking in Basement (Academic Building): Area proposed for Lower basement parking = 3,675 m 2 Area required for 1 ECS of basement parking = 35 m 2 Parking proposed for Lower basement parking = 105 ECS Area proposed for Upper basement parking = 2,975 m 2 Area required for 1 ECS of basement parking = 35 m 2 Parking proposed for Upper basement parking = 85 ECS Parking in MLCP: B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 19

30 Area proposed for parking = 22,330 m 2 Area required for 1 ECS parking = 35 m 2 Parking proposed for MLCP = 638 ECS Parking in Research & Administrative Building: Area proposed for parking = 3,750 m 2 Area required for 1 ECS of open parking = 25 m 2 Parking proposed = 150 ECS Total Parking proposed = = 1044 ECS Parking plan showing the circulation and parking space is enclosed as Annexure-VII 2.7 WATER SUPPLY AND SEWAGE TREATMENT PLAN The source of water supply is bore wells and from Municipal Corporation. The total water requirement is approx KLD, out of which domestic water requirement is 956 KLD. The fresh water requirement is approx. 669 KLD which is 70% of the domestic water demand. The daily water requirement calculation is given below in Table 2.5: S. No. Table 2.5: Calculations for Daily Water Demand Description Total Rate of water Occupancy demand (lpcd) Total Water Requirement (KLD) A. Domestic Water A)Academic Block(Phase-I) Staff /Students Visitors B) Food Court & Sports Complex (Phase-I) Staff Seats C)Academic Block(Phase-II) Staff /Students Visitors B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 20

31 Sub Total (A) D)Auditorium & Library (Phase-II) Seats Visitors E) Boys Hostel (Phase-II) Occupancy Visitors F) Boys Hostel (Phase-III) Students Visitors G) Girls Hostel (Phase-III) Students Visitors H) Research & Admin Block (Phase-IV) Staff Visitors KLD or 956 KLD 3 l/sq.m/day B. Horticulture and 17, Landscape m 2 development C. DG Sets Cooling (1 x 0.9 l/kva/hr x 500 KVA) * D. HVAC Cooling 120 Grand Total (A+B+C ) = KLD or 1140 KLD *Note: The DG is considered to be operational for 6 hrs per day HVAC is considering to be operational for 10 hrs per day Table 2.6: Wastewater Calculations Domestic Water Requirement 956 KLD Fresh Water of domestic) KLD Flushing of domestic) KLD B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 21

32 Wastewater Generated fresh + 100% flushing) KLD or 822 KLD(say) FRESH WATER (669 KLD) (70% of Domestic 80% WASTE WATER GENERATED (822 KLD) STP CAPACITY 1000 KLD FLUSHING (287 KLD) (30% of Domestic 100% 287 KLD Wastewater waterwaterwat erwaterwaterw Recycled Water aterwater HORTICULTURE (53 KLD) DG Cooling (11 KLD) HVAC Cooling (120 KLD) 53 KLD 11 KLD % of 822 KLD =740 KLD Discharge to BWSSB Drain (269 KLD) 269KLD Figure 2.2: Water balance diagram Wastewater Generation & Treatment It is expected that the project will generate approx. 822 KLD of wastewater. The wastewater will be treated in the 1000 KLD capacity of STP provided within the complex and the treated wastewater will be reused for Flushing, Horticulture, DG cooling, HVAC cooling and the surplus treated water will be discharged to the BWSSB drain. Dual plumbing plan showing the fresh, flushing, waste water line and STP location is enclosed as Annexure-VIII. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 22

33 2.8 SEWERAGE SYSTEM An external sewage network shall collect the sewage from all units, and flow by gravity to the proposed sewage treatment plant. Following are the benefits of providing the Sewage Treatment Plant in the present circumstances: Reduced net daily water requirements, source for Horticultural purposes by utilization of the treated wastewater. Reduced dependence on the public utilities for water supply and sewerage systems. Sludge generated from the Sewage Treatment Plant shall be rich in organic content and an excellent fertilizer for horticultural purposes. a. Wastewater Details (a) Daily load : 822 KLD (b) Duration of flow to STP : 24 hours (c) Temperature : Maximum 32 C (d) ph : 6 to 8 (e) Colour : Mild (f) T.S.S. (mg/l) : mg/l (g) BOD 5 (mg/l) : mg/l (h) COD (mg/l) : mg/l (i) Oil & Grease : mg/l b. Final discharge characteristics (a) PH : 6.5 to 7.5 (b) Oil & Grease : <10 mg/l (c) B.O.D. : <10 mg/l (d) C.O.D. : <30 mg/l (e) Total Suspended Solids : <20 mg/l Treatment Technology: Treatment technology is based on the extended aeration activated sludge followed with tertiary treatment. Raw sewage will be collected under gravity into the equalization tank after allowing to pass through the bar screen. The bar screen, by removing coarse solids from the sewage help in B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 23

34 protecting the raw sewage pump. The raw sewage equalization tank, through temporarily holding the incoming sewage facilitates both pumping of sewage through the STP and dampening the flow variation in the received sewage. The sewage collected in equalization tank is pumped and passed through the Aeration tank. From the aeration tank the raw sewage goes to a settling tank (Clarifier) to allow gravity separation of the mixed liquor suspended solids from the treated wastewater. Settled MLSS are than recycled to the aeration tank. Excess sludge from the system is drained out. The excess sludge will be dewatered and used as manure for green belt development. The effluent coming after treatment will be stored in a sump of desired capacity. Treated effluent coming out from the sump will be passed through softening plant followed with disinfection. INLET AND OUTLET ARRANGEMENTS OF ALL THE TREATMENT UNITS Description Inlet dia Outlet dia Bar screen 250 mm 250 mm Equalization tank 250 mm 50 mm Aeration Tank 65 mm 65 mm Settling Tank 65 mm 65 mm Pressure Sand Filter 50 mm 50 mm Activated carbon Filter 50 mm 50 mm Clarified Tank 50 mm 50 mm Final Effluent 50 mm 65 mm DESCRIPTION OF TREATMENT UNITS: A. BAR SCREEN CUM GRIT CHAMBER: Bar screen removes foreign materials, such as plastic, rag, napkin and any other item comes along with the effluent water and the grit chamber removes grit of larger sizes so as to allow smooth transition of sewage. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 24

35 In the incoming channel, a chamber medium screen shall be fitted, the purpose of which is to filter out coarse trashy matter from introducing in to succeeding units of the treatment plant. Screens shall be made of M.S. construction epoxy painted. Flow Rate : 1000 Cum/Day Average Flow Rate / Hr 35.4 Cum/Hr Peaking Factor (maximum) : 3 Times Peak Flow : Cum/Hr Desired Velocity Through Bar Screen Chamber (V) 0.8 m/sec Area of Bar Screen (Peaking Flow / (3600 X V) Sq.m Adopting Screen flat size 5mm thk. & 5mm opening Area (area of bar screen X 8 / 6 ) Sq.m Assuming inclination of screen is 60 Degrees. Area (area of flat / sin 60) Sq.m Hence Area of screen Sq.m Available smallest model bar screen in the field is 0.5 m x 0.5 m to fixed inside the chamber Area of Bar screen : sq.m Clear width of opening at the rack : /0.1 (considering half pipe full flow) : 1.62 sq.m Number of bars : (1.62 x 1000 / 20) +1 : = 82 Hence, proposed to provide 82 Nos. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 25

36 Channel size Type of screen 700 wide x 1800 long x 1000 Deep M.S. Construction manually cleaned with MS flats 5-8mm placed at 12 mm c/c, number of bars - 82 with MS hand rake with handle all epoxy painted placed at an inclination of 60 degrees GRIT CHAMBER In Grit chamber removes grit particles. For Removal of grit also reduces the frequency of cleaning of digesters, & settling tank. Grit is non-putressible & possesses a higher hydraulic substances value than organic solids. Specific gravity of the grit is usually varies from 2.4 to The Dimension of the Tank is 2.0 m x 1.0m x1.0 m deep. B. EQUALISATION TANK / COLLECTION TANK: In order to homogenize the quality of influent, as well as to feed equalization tank at a uniform rate to the rest of the treatment plant, an equalization tank is proposed. In order to mix the contents, as well as to provide a degree of preparation, diffused aeration by means of membranes and blowers are proposed. From the collection tank and effluent is pumped to the aerobic reaction tank. Capacity cum Dimensions 79.0 sqm x 2.7mSWD Aeration MECHANICAL AGITATION D. P. 6 Hours. Average flow / 35.5 Cum./ hr. Hr. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 26

37 Air requirement Cum./ Hr. We are considering Air Cum/hr / 0.762m x 90 OD No. of m x 90mm OD Diffuser Required : 32 Nos C. RAW EFFLUENT PUMP SETS 2 NO: The equalized and neutralized waste together with return sludge shall be pumped at a uniform rate of Cu.m / Hr. into the aeration tank. Quantity 2 Nos. (1 standby) Type Vertical Submersible Capacity Cum / Hr. TDH 12 m Temp Ambient Solids 35 mm maximum PH D. AERATION TANK: Biological stabilization of the influent is accomplished in the aeration tank in the presence of microorganisms, for the respiration of which, Oxygen is supplied by means of diffused aeration comprising membrane diffusers and air blowers. As micronutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus will be already present in sufficient quantities, no external supplementation will be necessary. The aeration tank is provided with diffused aeration system to supply the air for the microorganisms growth. The nutrients required for the micro-organisms growth are organic matter, which is present in the domestic effluent. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 27

38 The MLSS level is maintained in this process to enhance the aeration process. Optimum concentration of MLSS to be maintained is in the range of mg / lit in the aeration time the sludge starts to settle in this tank. Here the settling of the solids takes place and the clear water from the top overflowed to the clear water tank. Flow Quantity 1000 Cum / day. BOD in 250 mg / L BOD out 10 mg / L desired Tank volume 364 cum Dimensions 180 sqm.x 3.0m SWD Diffusers Fine pore diffusers. F.M 0.12 MLSS 4000 mg / Lit Total Air 850 M3 /hr Requirement D. P. 18 Hours (Refer from page no.235 As per CPHEEO norms) Air Cum/hr / 1m x 90 OD Fine Bubble Diffuser Cum/hr 1m x 85 OD Diffuser Required 85 Nos. E. AIR BLOWERS 2 NO : Type Capacity Twin lobe Compressor M3 0.5 KG/CM2 B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 28

39 The standard air requirement (SAR) is arrived at on the basis of 2 kg oxygen / Kg of BOD. F. SECONDARY CLARIFIER TANK : The mixed liquor (waste water with micro organism) existing the aeration tank has to be clarified in a clarifier, as well as to thicken the biomass MLSS (Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids). Size 8.5 x 8.5x 2.8m SWD Capacity cum. Recirculation 75 % Overflow 0.5 Cu.m / sqm / day D.P 1 ½ to 2hrs G. SLUDGE DISPOSAL: The biomass in the aeration tank stabilizes BOD in wastewater by consuming the organic matter in the wastewater. The metabolic activity results in growth of the biomass population in the aeration tank. Consequently, in order to contain the level of MLSS in the aeration tank to the design level of 4000 mg / L, it will be necessary to bleed off or waste the excess activated sludge. For this purpose, A sludge holding tank with air supply 16.5 sqm. x 2.5m SWD cum One no. filter press is proposed. 600 mm x 600 mm size. SLUDGE DISPOSAL 1. Flow of Sewage: 1000 KLD Raw sewage BOD: 350mg/L Minimum temperature assumed: 18 degree C Maximum temperature assumed: 40 degree C DESIGN CALCULATIONS: B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 29

40 Ref: Manual on Sewerage and Sewage treatment (2 nd edition) (Prepared by the expert committee constituted by Government of India, Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization, Ministry of Urban Development-New Delhi) SRT = 6.5 days 1. Activated Sludge- MLSS concentration in aeration tank 4000 mg/l Therefore, Mass of waste (excess) activated sludge from secondary settling tank under flow is given by the formula (13.3) VX QWXS = SRT Where V = Volume of aeration tank = 710 m 3 X = MLSS concentration = 4000mg/L SRT = 6.5Days QW = Waste activated sludge rate = m 3 /d XS = Waste sludge concentration or mass = 10 kg/ m 3 or10000g/ m m 3 x 4000mg/ m 3 QWXS = = g/day 6.5days Qw = = m 3 /day 10,000 Therefore, Excess Sludge Volume = m 3 /day Sludge weight = g / day. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 30

41 FILTER PRESS 2 nos. It is a dewatering process achieved by forcing the water from sludge under high pressure. Advantage for filter press include, High concentration of cake solids Filtrate clarity High solids capture. Fixed volume recessed plate filter press has been proposed for dewatering sludge for this project. It consists of rectangular plates, recessed on both sides, which are supported face to face in vertical position on frame with fixed and movable head. A filter cloth is hung over each plate. The plates are held together with sufficient force to seal them so as to with stand the pressure applied during the filtration process. Hydraulic rams are used to hold the plates together. The sludge cake thickness varies from 25 to 38 mm and operating time varies from 2 to 5 hrs. Basic Treatment for dewatered Sludge: Generally no treatment is required for dewatered sludge as technology is extended aeration with activated sludge process. Sludge wasted will be completely digested. Although for stabilizing organic matters lime post treatment will be given. In this process, hydrated lime or quick lime is mixed with dewatered sludge to raise the ph of the mixture. Post lime stabilization system consists typically dewatered sludge and lime sludge mixture. Good mixing results in well fertilization, which allows it to be stored for a longer period or on land distribution by conventional manual spreader. Disposal will be by using the same for gardening and the excess to the external agencies which will cart away the same, used as manure, or buried at areas indicated by and with departmental permissions. A filter press of size 600mm x 600mm (with plates as per the manufacturer Specifications). B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 31

42 H. FILTER FEED TANK / CLARIFIED WATER/EFFLUENT SUMP The settled sewage/effluent from the settling tank is expected to meet the standards with respect to BOD and TSS for discharge to island surface waters. However, it is our intention to improve the quality of treated sewage further in order to make it fit for re use. For this reason, further secondary treatment in the form of coagulation, filtration and disinfection is proposed. The clear effluent from the settling tank shall be fed to the clarified sewage/effluent tank, from where it will be pumped to the filters. Sump size 97 sqm. X 2.5m SWD 1no. I. FILTER FEED PUMP 2 NO: Quantity : 2 sets. (1 set = 1w + 1s) Duty : To transfer treated effluent for sand filter and activated Carbon Filter Type : Horizontal centrifugal non-clog Self priming, open impeller, pumps Kirloskar, Beacon. Motor : TEFC Motor, with IP-55 protection and suitable for 400/440 V, 50 HZ A/c supply of Kirloskar / Grundfos / DP / ITT. Material : Body and impeller in CI Accessories : Air cock with priming funnel, Flexible Coupling with Guard, Base frame, foundation bolts etc. Flow : 30 Cu.m / hr at 25 m Head. J. PRESSURE SAND FILTER Vertical down flow type with graded gravel with polystyrenes strainers. Diameter 1720mm dia Depth of media 1200 mm Test Pressure 5 Kg. / Sq.cm Flow rate 30 Cu.m / hr B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 32

43 Quantity : 2 no.s Make : Ion exchange or equivalent Material : Shall made out of 6 mm thick MS plate and dish end made out of 8 mm thick end plate whole unit shall be given 2 Coats for internal and external with epoxy/enamel-based paint over a coat of epoxy based primer. Under drain : Perforated bottom plate with plastic Strainers or central headers and laterals. Media : Graded River sand and Gravel Flow direction : Down flow. Size of the media =16 x 32 & 375 mm deep (Sand) = 8 x 16 & 150 mm deep (Sand) = 1/4 x 1/8 & 150 mm deep (Grit) = 1/2 x 1/4 & 100 mm deep (Gravel) = 1 x 1/2 & 100 mm deep (Gravel) = 2 x 1 & 100 mm deep (Gravel) Depth of the media = 1200 mm Total height of the filter = 2200 mm (Approx.) Supporting media = Gravel, Sand & Grit ACTIVATED CARBON FILTERS: ACF Proposed is the vertical down flow type with graded gravel with polystyrenes strainers. Diameter Depth of media Test Pressure Flow rate 1720 dia. As per system requirement 5 Kg. / Sq.cm 30 Cu.m / hr Quantity : 2 nos. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 33

44 Make : Ion exchange or equivalent Material : Shall made out of 6 mm thick MS plate and dish end made out of 8 mm thick plate, whole unit shall be given 2 Coats for internal and external with epoxy / enamel - based paint over a coat of epoxy based primer. Under drain : Perforated bottom plate with plastic Strainers or central headers and laterals. Media : Iodized Activated carbon with Gravel support Flow direction : Down flow. Size of the media = 1/2 x 1/4 & 75mm deep (Gravel) = 1 x 1/2 & 75mm deep (Gravel) = 2 x 1 & 75mm deep (Gravel) Height of the sand media = 300mm Carbon media = 900mm deep Depth of the Media = 1200 mm Total height of the filter = 2200 mm (Approx) Supporting media = Gravel, Sand, Grit & Carbon DUAL MEDIA FILTER: The suspended and colloidal matter in the raw influent is reduced to certain extent by the treatment and the final purification is effected by passing the treated effluent through Dual Media Filter, where water is allowed to flow into the sand and Pebble media under pressure (by pumping). Suspended impurities in the water are left behind in the pores. A number of different processes combine to provide the overall removal of impurities associated with the water by way of filtration through granular substance, viz., straining sedimentation, and flocculation and in some instances biological activity. Before starting, the filter feed pump, the filter valves should be checked and brought to the following positions. Back wash outlet valves closed (V4). Back wash inlet valves closed (V2). B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 34

45 Filter inlet valves opened (V1). Filter outlet valve closed (V3). Filter vent pipe valves opened (V5). Flow From Sand Filter to Activated Carbon filter [V6] Start the Filter feed pumps and allows water into the filter. Watch the inlet pressure gauge. As soon as the filter is full, the pressure gauge reading will rise. Air valve on the top and the vent pipe of the filter will release the air from inside the filter with a hissing sound while water will flow out from the vent pipe. Close the Filter vent pipe valves. Immediately on observing the rise in the inlet pressure, the filter outlet valve should be opened. Filtration is now on; do not operate at higher recirculation rate, as filter will get overloaded. BACKWASHING THE FILTER: Backwashing the filter is to wash out dirt accumulating on the top of the filter bed is an essential part of the operation routine. The frequency of backwashing depends upon the turbidity of waters to be filtered. As the water in the pre-filtration sump will be clear, the backwashing operation may be done once a week. BEFORE BACKWASHING, PROCEED AS FOLLOWS: Stop the pump, if it is working. Close the filter inlet valves (V1) and filter outlet valve (V3). Open the backwash outlet valves (V4) and V6 (Connecting from sand Filter to carbon filter) Proceed to backwash the filter as follows. Ensure that the pre-filtration sump is full of water. Switch on to filter feed pump during backwash and observe the rise in inlet pressure gauge Immediately open the Backwash inlet valves (V2) and until the out-let pressure gauge reading shows 20ft head or 8.5 psi. Backwashing is now on. The treated effluent will enter the filter in the reverse direction at a high rate. This will loosen and carry the accumulated dirt on the filter beds upwards into the backwash B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 35

46 tray and the dirty water will be wasted from backwash drainpipe. Completion of backwashing is indicated when the influent Coming out of drain is fairly clear. The drain water should be led to filter press of the treatment system. Close the backwash inlet valves immediately on completion of backwash and stop the pump to avoid unnecessary wastage of water. Filter can now be reinstated for normal operation as described earlier. Generally, Backwash is done for a period of 10 minutes. L. UV FILTER: Ultra violet filter is used to kill the bacteria s present in the water. Capacity of Ultra Violet Filter is 30 Cum/ Hr 2 numbers (Optional) M. FINAL SUMP 1 NO. Sump size sqm. x 4.5 m One No. Final sump of 680 Cu.m capacity is also provided to hold filtered and chlorinated Sewage/effluent before pumping to gardens and toilet flushing purpose. Online chlorination shall be done before pumping for end use. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 36

47 STP Re-cycled (Effluent) water is planned to use for Toilet Flushing with a separate network of piping and also STP Re-Cycled (Effluent) water is planned to use Landscape Irrigation and HVAC system for the buildings (Academic block, Hostels and Auditorium). SCHEMATIC -PHE BWSSB Fire Water Reservoir Raw Water Reservoir Chlorine dosing Treated water Reservoir Building PSF ACF Softener Roof Top Rain Water Flushing SF Rain Water Reservoir Irrigation HVAC Make up Water Reservoir STP Cooling Towers Softener Figure 2.3: Schematic Diagram 2.9 RAINWATER HARVESTING The storm water collection system for the premises shall be self-sufficient to avoid any collection/stagnation and flooding of water. The amount of storm water run-off depends upon many factors such as intensity and duration of precipitation, characteristics of the tributary area and the time required for such flow to reach the drains. The drains shall be located near the carriage way along either side of the roads. Taking the advantage of road camber, the rainfall run off from roads shall flow towards the drains. Storm water from various buildings shall be connected to adjacent drain by a pipe through catch basins. Therefore, it has been calculated to B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 37

48 provide 43 rainwater harvesting pits along with two rain water collection sumps at selected locations, which will catch the maximum run-off from the area. 1) Since the existing topography is congenial to surface disposal, a network of storm water pipe drains is planned adjacent to roads. All building roof water will be brought down through rain water pipes. 2) Proposed storm water system consists of pipe drain, catch basins and seepage pits at regular intervals for rain water harvesting and ground water recharging. 3) For basement parking, the rainwater from ramps will be collected in the basement storm water storage tank. This water will be pumped out to the nearest external storm water drain. 4) The peak hourly rainfall of 25 mm/hr shall be considered for designing the storm water drainage system. Rain water harvesting has been catered to and designed as per the guideline of CGWA. Peak hourly rainfall has been considered as 25 mm/hr. The shaft is having adequate diameter including weep hole, vent pipe and depth. Inside the shaft, a recharge pit of 1.5 m diameter & 3 m depth is constructed for recharging the available water to the deeper aquifer. At the bottom of the shaft, a filter media is provided to avoid choking of the recharge well. Design specifications of the rain water harvesting plan are as follows: Catchments/roofs would be accessible for regular cleaning. The roof will have smooth, hard and dense surface which is less likely to be damaged allowing release of material into the water. Roof painting has been avoided since most paints contain toxic substances and may peel off. All gutter ends will be fitted with a wire mesh screen and a first flush device would be installed. Most of the debris carried by the water from the rooftop like leaves, plastic bags and paper pieces will get arrested by the mesh at the terrace outlet and to prevent contamination by ensuring that the runoff from the first minutes of rainfall is flushed off. No sewage or wastewater would be admitted into the system. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 38

49 No wastewater from areas likely to have oil, grease, or other pollutants has been connected to the system. Calculations for storm water load Roof Top Area = Ground Coverage = 18, m 2 Green Area = 17, m 2 Paved Area = Total Plot Area (Roof-top Area + Green Area) = 53, m 2 (18, , ) m 2 = m 2 Runoff Load Roof Top Area = 18, = m 3 /hr Green Area = 17, = m 3 /hr Paved Area = 17, = m 3 /hr Total Runoff Load = m 3 /hr = m 3 /hr Taking 15 minutes, Retention Time, Total volume of storm water = /4 = m 3 Taking the effective dia and depth of a Recharge pit 1.5 m and 3 m respectively, Volume of a single Recharge pit = π d 2 h/4 = / 4 = m 3 Hence No. of pits required = / = Pits or 41 Pits. Hence, total of 43 Rain Water Harvesting pits are being proposed for artificial rain water recharge within the project premises along with two rain water collection sumps of 100 m 3 capacity each. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 39

50 Storm water plan showing the RWH pit location and storm water line is enclosed as Annexure- IX SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Waste quantification is carried out to estimate the amount of waste generated by different activities in the project site. For estimation of quantity of solid waste generated from the project, waste generation factors are selected for each activity based on case studies available for similar type of projects, assumptions and past experience. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 40

51 Solid Waste Generation Solid waste would be generated both during the construction as well as during the operation phase. The solid waste expected to be generated during the construction phase will comprise of excavated materials, used bags, bricks, concrete, MS rods, tiles, wood etc. The following steps are proposed to be followed for the management solid waste: Construction yards are proposed for storage of construction materials. The excavated material such as topsoil and stones will be stacked for reuse during later stages of construction Excavated top soil will be stored in temporary constructed soil bank and will be reused for landscaping of the Institutional project. Remaining soil shall be utilized for refilling / road work / rising of site level at locations/ selling to outside agency for construction of roads etc. Solid Waste Construction Waste Construction waste, Broken Bricks, Waste Plaster Empty Cement Bags Excavated Soil Used in re-filling, raising site level Sold to agency for recycling Top soil conserved for landscaping, balance used in refilling Figure 2.4: Solid Waste Management Scheme (Construction Phase) B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 41

52 During the operation phase, waste will comprise domestic as well as agricultural waste. The solid waste generated from the project shall be mainly domestic waste and estimated quantity of the waste shall be approx. 4,734 kg per day 0.45 kg per capita per day for 0.15 kg per capita per day for the visitor, 0.25 kg per capita per day for the staff members & Day scholars and landscape 0.2 kg/acre/day). Following arrangements will be made at the site in accordance to Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, S. No. Category Table 2.7: Calculation of Solid Waste Generation Waste Generated (kg/capita/day) Waste generated (kg/day) 1. Day Scholar 0.25 kg/ capita /day Hostler 0.45 kg/ capita /day Staff 0.25 kg/ capita /day Food Court 0.5 kg/seat/day Auditorium & Library 0.15 kg/seat/day Visitors 0.15 kg/ capita /day Landscape waste ( kg/acre/day STP sludge 97.8 Total Solid Waste Generated kg/day Say 4734 kg/day Collection and Segregation of waste 1. Garbage Bins will be provided at Hostels and Academic Block. 2. The local vendors will be hired to provide separate colored bins for dry recyclables and Bio-Degradable waste. 3. Litter bin will also be provided in open areas like parks etc. Treatment of waste Bio-Degradable wastes B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 42

53 1. Bio-degradable waste will be subjected to Organic waste converter and the compost will be used as manure. 2. STP sludge is proposed to be used for horticultural purposes as manure. 3. Horticultural Waste is proposed to be composted and will be used for gardening purposes. Recyclable wastes i. Grass Recycling The cropped grass will be spread on the green area. It will act as manure after decomposition. ii. Recyclable wastes like paper, plastic, metals etc. will be sold off to recyclables. Disposal Recyclable and non-recyclable wastes will be disposed through Govt. approved agency. Hence, the Municipal Solid Waste Management will be conducted as per the guidelines of Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, Solid waste management scheme is depicted in the following figure for the Institutional project. Figure 2.5: Solid Waste Management Scheme (Operation Phase) B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 43

54 Figure 2.6: Organic Waste Converter Waste Flow Chart DEMOLITION & CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT Construction Debris Construction debris is bulky and heavy and re-utilization and recycling is an important strategy for management of such waste. As concrete and masonry constitute the majority of waste generated, recycling of this waste by conversion to aggregate can offer benefits of reduced landfill space and reduced extraction of raw material for new construction activity. This is particularly applicable to the project site as the construction is to be completed in a phased manner. Mixed debris with high gypsum, plaster, shall not be used as fill, as they are highly susceptible to contamination, and will be send to designated solid waste landfill site. Metal scrap from structural steel, piping, concrete reinforcement and sheet metal work shall be removed from the site by construction contractors. A significant portion of wood scrap will be reused on site. Recyclable wastes such as plastics, glass fiber insulation, roofing etc shall be sold to recyclers. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 44

55 Demolition Debris It is expected that about 15,500 MT of demolition wastes would be generated from the Institutional Project which needs to be disposed off in a proper manner. Some of the demolition wastes will be recycle & reuse to a possible extent such as filling/leveling of low lying areas. For remaining demolition wastes, there is a need for the proper Storage, Collection, Transportation & Disposal of these wastes. STORAGE OF DEMOLITION WASTE These wastes are best stored at source, i.e., at the point of generation. If they are scattered around or thrown on the road, they not only cause obstruction to traffic but also add to the workload of the local body. All attempts should be made to stick to the following measures: All demolition waste will be stored within the site itself. A proper screen will be provided so that the waste does not get scattered and does not become an eyesore. Attempts must be made to keep the waste segregated into different heaps as far as possible so that their further gradation and reuse is facilitated. Material, which can be reused at the same site for the purpose of construction, levelling, making road/pavement etc. will also be kept in separate heaps from those, which are to be sold or landfilled. A local body or a private company will be arranged to provide appropriate number of skip containers/trolleys on hire which may be parked at the site and removed with skip lifters or tractors as the case may be. The local body may consider using its old vehicles, especially, tractors and trailers or old lorries or tippers for this purpose. COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 45

56 For handling very large volumes, front-end loaders in combination with sturdy tipper trucks may be used so that the time taken for loading and unloading is kept to the minimum. Local body/ Private agency will be responsible for collection & transportation of demolition wastes. RECYCLING AND REUSE The use of these materials basically depends on their separation and condition of the separated material. A majority of these materials are durable and therefore, have a high potential of reuse. It would, however, be desirable to have quality standards for the recycled materials. Construction and demolition waste can be used in the following manner: Reuse (at site) of bricks, stone slabs, timber, conduits, piping railings etc. to the extent possible and depending upon their condition. Sale / auction of material which cannot be used at the site due to design constraint or change in design. Plastics, broken glass, scrap metal etc. can be used by outside recycling industries. Rubble, brick bats, broken plaster/concrete pieces etc. can be used for building activity, such as, leveling, under coat of lanes where the traffic does not constitute of heavy moving loads. Larger unusable pieces can be sent for filling up low-lying areas. Fine material, such as, sand, dust etc. can be used as cover material over sanitary landfill. DISPOSAL Being predominantly inert in nature, construction and demolition waste does not create chemical or biochemical pollution. Hence maximum effort should be made to reuse and recycle them. Permission shall be obtained from competent authority for the disposal of the demolition wastes. However, proper sampling of the material for its physical and chemical characteristics has to be done for evaluating its use under the given circumstances. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 46

57 2.11 LANDSCAPE Total green area measures m 2 i.e % of the total area which will be area under tree plantation within the project and along the roads. Evergreen tall and ornamental trees and ornamental shrubs have been proposed to be planted inside the premises. Landscape plan is enclosed as Annexure-X. The list of trees is shown below in Table 2.8. Table 2.8:- List of Plants LIST OF SPECIES OF PLANTS Sl. No. Common Name Scientific Name 1. Neem Azadirachta indica 2. kali maina Carissa carandas 3. Tamarind Tamarindus indica 4. Palaash Butea monosperma 5. Peepal Ficus religiosa 6. Kumbhi Careya arborea 7. Jackfruit Artocarpus heterophyllus 8. Bakli Anogeissus latifolia 9. Ashoka Polyalthia longifolia 10. Mahuwa Madhuca indica 11. Arjuna Tree Terminalia arjuna 12. Ichalu Tree Phoenix sysvestris 2.12 DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS List of building materials to be used at site is as follows: Coarse sand Fine sand Stone aggregate Stone for masonry work Stone for under floor soling Cement Reinforcement steel B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 47

58 Plywood & steel shuttering Pipe scaffolding (cup lock system) Bricks Crazy (white marble) in grey cement P.V.C. conduit Indo-Asian MCBs PVC overhead water tanks 2 1/2' thick red colour paver tiles B class GI pipe (ISI marked) PVC waste water lines S.W. sewer line upto main sewer PVC rain water down take Stainless steel sink in kitchen 5mm thick plane glass 3mm thick ground glass in toilets Joinery hardware- ISI marked There will be no significant use of natural resources that will be utilized during operational phase MATERIALS USED FOR CONSTRUCTION & THEIR VALUES Type of Construction U values (in W/m 2 deg C) Walls: Plastered both sides-114 mm 3.24 Solid, Unplastered- 228 mm 2.67 Plastered both sides-228 mm 2.44 Concrete, ordinary, Dense: -152 mm mm 3.18 B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 48

59 Concrete block, cavity, 250mm Single skin, outside render Aerated Concrete Blocks 1.19 Hollow Concrete block, 228 mm, single skin, outside rendered, inside plastered Aerated Concrete Blocks 1.70 Roofs Pitched: Tiles or Slates on boarding and felt with plaster ceiling Roofs Flat: Reinforced concrete slab, 100 mm, 63-12, 3 layers bituminous felt Floors: Concrete on ground or hardcore fill Grano, Terrazzo or tile finish Wood block finish 0.85 Windows: Exposure South, Sheltered: Single glazing 3.97 Double glazing 6mm space HISTORICAL DATA OF THE PROJECT Historical Data on climate condition such as Wind pattern, History of Cyclones, Strorm surges, Earthquake for the last 25 years. 1. History of Cyclones According to the data given on the website of IMD (Indian Meteorological Department) there was no observation of cyclones in Bangalore in last 25 years. 2. Wind pattern According to the data given on the website of IMD (Indian Meteorological Department) the annual mean speed of wind is 5-10 km/hr blowing from east direction. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 49

60 3. Earthquake According to the data given on the website of IMD (Indian Meteorological Department) the area near the Bangalore comes under the seismic Zone-II and the average magnitude of the earthquake in Bangalore is (Zone II). B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 50

61 3.1 INTRODUCTION CHAPTER-3 DESCRIPTION OF ENVIRONMENT Information on the existing environmental status is essential for assessing the likely environmental impacts of the project. In order to get an idea about the existing state of the environment, various environmental attributes such as meteorology, air quality, water quality, soil quality, noise level, ecology and socio-economic environment have been studied/ monitored. 3.2 STUDY PERIOD Baseline environmental data generation for air, water, noise and soil quality monitoring around the project site was conducted from Dec, 2014 to Feb, STUDY AREA The present report covers baseline environmental data generated in the study area (10 km radius all around the project site for land use and the sample selection for monitoring are done within 5 km radius of the project site). 3.4 BASELINE MONITORING OF ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENT In order to get an idea about the existing state of the environment, various environmental attributes such as meteorology, air quality, water quality, soil quality, noise level, ecology and socio-economic environment have been studied/monitored Meteorology Meteorological data was generated during the Dec, 2014 to Feb, The following parameters were recorded at hourly intervals continuously during monitoring period: B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 51

62 Wind speed Wind Direction Air Temperature Table-3.1 gives summarized meteorological data for the worst day Figure-3.1 gives the wind-rose diagram for the monitoring period. Table 3.1: Summarized Meteorological Data for the worst day Year Month Day Hour Wind direction Wind speed (m/s) Temperature (K) B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 52

63 B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 53

64 Figure 3.1: The wind-rose diagram at site for three months Dec, 2014 to Feb, Air Environment To quantify the impact of the project on the ambient air quality, it is necessary at first to evaluate the existing ambient air quality of the area. The existing ambient air quality, in terms of Particulate Matter 10 (PM 10 ), Particulate Matter- 2.5 (PM 2.5 ), Sulphur-dioxide (SO 2 ), Oxides of Nitrogen (NO2), and Carbon Monoxide (CO), has been measured through a planned field monitoring. To assess the ambient air quality level, 5 (five) monitoring stations were set up. Table-3.2 gives location of the ambient air quality monitoring stations and same is attached as Annexure XI (a). B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 54

65 Table 3.2: Location of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations Locations Locations Direction Distance Code AAQ1 Project site Center Zero AAQ2 Hanumanta West North 0.36 km Nagar West AAQ3 SBM Colony WSW 0.70 km AAQ4 Gandhi Bazaar NE 0.75 km AAQ5 Meditech Hospital West 0.57 km Monitoring Schedule Ambient air quality monitoring was carried out twice a week with a frequency of 24 hours for 12 weeks Methods of Sampling and Analysis The brief methodology of the parameter analyzed is as follows I. Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 ): (CPCB Method) Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 ) was analyzed by Fine particulate Sampler Enviroteh Model APM 550. PM 2.5 was collected on 47mm diameter filter paper. The mass concentration of (PM 2.5 ) fine particles in ambient air was calculated as the total mass of collected particles divided by the volume of air sampled. II. Particulate Matter (PM 10 ): Particulate Matter (PM 10 ) was carried out by Respirable Dust Sampler Envirotech Model APM 460 BL. The cyclone of this Instrument is used for fractionating the dust into two fractions. PM 10 dust is accumulated on the filter paper (8ʺ 10ʺ size) while coarse dust is collected in a cup placed under the cyclone.pm 10 was calculated as per IS: 5182 (Part 23):2006. The mass of these particles was determined by the difference in filter weight prior to and after sampling. The concentration of PM 10 in B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 55

66 the designated size range was calculated by dividing the weight gain of the filter by the volume of air sampled. III. Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ): SO 2 was monitored with the help of APM 411 assembly attached with APM 460 BL using the impinger. It was absorbed by aspirating a measured air sample through a solution of Potassium tetrachloromercurate (TCM). This procedure resulted in the formation of a dichlorosulphite mercurate complex. The complex was made to react with para rosaniline and methylsulphonic acid. The absorbance of the solution was measured by means of spectrophotometer. IV. Nitrogen Dioxides: NO 2 was monitored with the help of APM 411 assembly attached with APM 460 BL using the impinge. It was collected by bubbling air through a solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium arsenite. The concentration of nitrite ion produced during sampling was determined colorimetrically by reacting the nitrite ion with phosphoric acid, sulphanilamide and NEDA and absorbance of highly colored azo-dye was measured at 540nm. V. Carbon Monoxide: Its measured using CO Analyser. This analyser is used to measure CO in ambient air, in the range of ppm (220 mg/m3) to a sensitivity of 0.05 ppm (55µg/m3). The Serinus 30 combines the benefits of Microprocess control with Non- Dispersive Infrared Spectrophotometry technology. CO concentration is automatically corrected for gas temperature and pressure changes. CO was monitored on hourly basis whereas other parameters were monitored on 24 hourly bases Results and Discussions The results of AAQ are given in Table 3.3 a, b, c, & d in details and summarized in the tables form. The results when compared with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) for "Industrial, Residential, Rural and Other Areas" show that the average values of ambient air quality parameters are well within the stipulated limit. The results of ambient air quality monitoring are summarized in the Tables below: B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 56

67 Table 3.3 (a) Ambient Air Quality with respect to PM 2.5 PM 2.5 (in µg/m 3 ) Location AAQ 1 AAQ 2 AAQ 3 AAQ 4 AAQ 5 Min Max Average Percentile Ambient Air Quality Standard 60 µg/m 3 The values of PM 2.5 in study area are presented in Table 3.3 (a). The seasonal minimum, maximum, average values and 98 percentile of PM 2.5 were observed 43.4 µg/m 3, 62.8 µg /m 3, 57.3 µg/m 3 and 62.4 µg/m 3 respectively at the project site. The seasonal minimum, maximum and average values ranged between µg/m 3, µg/m 3 and µg/m 3 respectively in the study area. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 57

68 Table 3.3 (b) Ambient Air Quality with respect to PM 10 PM 10 (in µg/m 3 ) Location AAQ 1 AAQ 2 AAQ 3 AAQ 4 AAQ 5 Min Max Average Percentile Ambient Air Quality Standard 100 µg/m 3 The values of PM 10 in study area are presented in Table 3.3 (b). The seasonal minimum, maximum, average values and 98 percentile of PM 10 were observed 98.7 µg/m 3, µg /m 3, µg/m 3 and µg/m 3 respectively at the project site. The seasonal minimum, maximum and average values ranged between µg/m 3, µg/m 3 and µg/m 3 respectively in the study area. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 58

69 Table 3.3 (c) Ambient Air Quality with respect to SO 2 SO 2 (in µg/m 3 ) Location AAQ 1 AAQ 2 AAQ 3 AAQ 4 AAQ 5 Min Max Average Percentile Ambient Air Quality Standard 80 µg/m 3 The values of SO 2 in study area are presented in Table 3.3 (c). The seasonal minimum, maximum, average values and 98 percentile of SO 2 were observed 5.1 µg/m 3, 7.6 µg/m 3, 6.1µg/m 3 and 7.6 µg/m 3 respectively at the project site. The seasonal minimum, maximum and average values ranged between µg/m 3, µg/m 3 and µg/m 3 respectively in the study area. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 59

70 Table 3.3 (d) Ambient Air Quality with respect to NO 2 NO 2 (in µg/m 3 ) Location AAQ 1 AAQ 2 AAQ 3 AAQ 4 AAQ 5 Min Max Average Percentile Ambient Air Quality Standard 80 µg/m 3 The values of NO 2 in study area are presented in Table 3.3 (d). The seasonal minimum, maximum, average values and 98 percentile of NO 2 were observed 14.1 µg/m 3, 21.7 µg/m 3, 17.7 µg/m 3 and 21.6 µg/m 3 respectively at the project site. The seasonal minimum, maximum and average values ranged between µg/m 3, µg/m 3 and µg/m 3 respectively in the study area. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 60

71 Table 3.3 (e) Ambient Air Quality with respect to CO CO(in µg/m 3 ) Location AAQ 1 AAQ 2 AAQ 3 AAQ 4 AAQ 5 Min Max Average Percentile Ambient Air Quality Standard 4000µg/m 3 The values of CO in study area are presented in Table 3.3 (e). The seasonal minimum, maximum, average values and 98 percentile of CO were observed 810 µg/m 3, 1110 µg/m 3, µg/m 3 and µg/m 3 respectively at the project site. The seasonal minimum, maximum and average values ranged between µg/m 3, µg/m 3 and µg/m 3 respectively in the study area. While air quality data is compared with standards, it is observed that the values of SO 2, NO 2 and CO are below the standard, while PM 10 and PM 2.5 exceed standard of must a place due to human urban activity. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 61

72 3.4.3 Noise Levels Noise is one of the most undesirable and unwanted by-products of our modern life style. It may not seem as insidious or harmful as air and water pollutants but it affects human health and wellbeing and can contribute to deterioration of human well-being in general and can cause neurological disturbances and physiological damage to the hearing mechanism in particular. It is therefore, necessary to measure both the quality as well as the quantity of noise in and around the site Methodology The intensity of sound energy in the environment is measured in a logarithmic scale and is expressed in a decibel, db (A) scale. In a sophisticated type of sound level meter, an additional circuit (filters) is provided, which modifies the received signal in such a way that it replicates the sound signal as received by the human ear and the magnitude of sound level in this scale is denoted as db (A). The sound levels are expressed in db (A) scale for the purpose of comparison of noise levels, which is universally accepted by the international community. Noise levels were measured using an Integrating sound level meter manufactured by Pulsar Instruments Plc, Model NO. 91 (SL.No.B21625). It has an indicating mode of Lp and Leq. Keeping the mode in Lp for few minutes and setting the corresponding range and the weighting network in A weighting set the sound level meter was run for one hour time and Leq was measured at all locations. The day noise levels have been monitored during 6.00 am to pm and night noise levels, during pm to 6.00 am at all the 4 locations, which covers residential areas, commercial area and silence zones, if available within 10 km radius of the study area Sampling Locations Preliminary survey was undertaken to identify the major noise generating sources in the area. The noise survey was conducted to assess the background noise levels in different zones. Gazettes Notification (S.O. 123(E)) of MoEF dated Dec 14, 2000 on ambient air quality B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 62

73 standards has different noise levels for different zones viz. project site, industrial, commercial, and residential and silence zones. Four sampling locations were selected for the sampling of noise levels. The sampling locations are given in Table-3.4 and the same is attached as Annexure XI (b). Table 3.4: Noise Level Monitoring Stations in the Study Area Code Locations Type of Direction Distance area NQ1 Project Site Silence Zone Center 0.0 km NQ2 Hanumant Nagar Residential Zone WNW 0.36 km NQ3 Gandhi Bazaar Commercial NE 0.75 km Zone NQ4 Meditech Hospital Silence Zone West 0.57 km Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) has notified the noise standards vide gazette notification dated Dec 14, 2000 for different zones under the Environment Protection Act (1986). These standards are given in Table-3.5. Table 3.5 Ambient Quality Standards in respect of Noise Area Noise db (A) L Category of Area eq Code Daytime* Night time* A Industrial Area B Commercial Area C Residential Area D Silence Zone Note: 1. Daytime is from 6.00 am to pm and Nighttime is from pm to 6.00 am. 2. Silence zone is defined as area up to 100 meters around premises of hospitals, educational institutions and courts. Use of vehicle hours, loud speakers and bursting of crackers are banned in these zones. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 63

74 Results and Discussion The noise data compiled on noise levels during Dec-2014 is given in Table It can be seen that the night time Leq (Ln) varies from db (A) and the daytime Leq (Ld) varies from 52.1 to 62.3 db (A) within the study area. Table 3.6: Hourly Leq Noise Level in the Study of Dec-2014 S.No. PROJECT SITE ZONE LIMIT as per CPCB Guidelines Observed value Leq, db(a) Leq, db(a) DAY* NIGHT* DAY* NIGHT* 1 PROJECT SITE silence Zone Hanuman Nagar Residential Area Gandhi Nagar commercial Area Medical Hospital Silence zone * Day time Leq(6.00AM TO 10.00PM) Night time Leq(10.00PM TO 6.00AM) The status of noise quality within the 10 km zone of the study area is, therefore, slightly more than CPCB standards. Mitigation: DG set will be fully acoustically enclosed during construction phase & operation phase. Workers working on noisy will be fully equipped with earmuffs. Shock absorber for vibratory machine will be used as far as possible. Shelter belt will be provided along the boundary of the project to act as a natural sound barrier Water Environment Water Quality Water quality assessment is one of the essential components of EIA study. Such assessment helps in evaluating the existing health of water body and suggesting appropriate mitigation measures to minimize the potential impact from development projects. Water quality of ground water has been studied in order to assess proposed water-uses in construction, drinking, cooling and horticulture purpose. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 64

75 The water quality at the site and other locations within the 10 km impact zone was monitored during Dec, 2014 to Feb, The locations of the monitoring sites are given in Annexure XI(c) and the result of the monitoring and analysis of ground water and surface water is presented in the Table 3.9 (a,b,c) and Table 3.10 (a,b,c) Sampling Frequency and Sampling Techniques Parameters for analysis of water quality were selected based on the utility of the particular source of water as per MoEF guidance. Hence quality of ground water was compared with IS: 10500: 1991 (Reaffirmed 1993 With Amendment NO -3 July 2010) for drinking purposes. Surface water quality was analyzed for parameters as mentioned in the Methods of Monitoring & Analysis published by CPCB (in Annexure IV of CPCB guidelines) and it was rated according to the CPCB Water Quality Criteria against A, B, C, D & E class of water based on parameters identified in the criteria. Water samples were collected in a 5 liter plastic jerry can and 500 ml sterilized clean glass bottles for physio-chemical and bacteriological tests respectively. GW sampling was done after flushing out the source (minimum 10 minutes) to get the fresh ground water and grab sampling method was used. River water samples were collected about 10cm below the water surface. All sampling, preservative and sample handling techniques were in accordance with APHA for Examination of Water & Wastewater/ IS: 3025 (Part-1)/ IS:1622. The samples were analyzed as per Indian standard /APHA latest The surface water quality is compared with CPCB water quality criteria mentioned in Table 3.7: Table 3.7: Water Quality Criteria as per Central Pollution Control Board Designated-Best-Use Drinking Water Source without conventional treatment but after disinfection Class of water A Criteria Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100ml shall be 50 or less ph between 6.5 and 8.5 Dissolved Oxygen 6 mg/l or more Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20 C 2 mg/l or less B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 65

76 Outdoor bathing (Organised) Drinking water source after conventional treatment and disinfection Propagation of Wild life and Fisheries Irrigation, Industrial Cooling, Controlled Waste disposal B C Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100 ml shall be 500 or less; ph between 6.5 and 8.5; Dissolved Oxygen 5mg/l or more Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20 C 3mg/l or less Total Coliform Organism MPN/100ml shall be 5000 or less; ph between 6 to 9; Dissolved Oxygen 4mg/l or more Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20 C 3mg/l or less D ph between 6.5 to 8.5 Dissolved Oxygen 4mg/l or more Free Ammonia (as N) 1.2 mg/l or less E ph between 6.0 to 8.5 Electrical Conductivity at 25 C micro mhos/cm Max.2250 Below-E Sodium absorption Ratio Max. 26 Boron Max. 2mg/l Not Meeting A, B, C, D & E Criteria As per the standard practice, one sample from each station was taken each month in the study period. Sampling was done by standard sampling technique as per the Standard Methods. Necessary precautions were taken for preservation of samples. The sampling locations for ground water and surface water are given in Table-3.8. Location No. Ground Water Samples GW 1 GW 2 GW 3 Surface Water Samples SW 1 Table 3.8: Location of Water Sampling Sites Sample collected from Project site Hanumantha Nagar SBM Colony Yediyur Lake B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 66

77 The water quality in the impact zone was assessed through physico- chemical and bacteriological analysis of ground and surface water samples. The results have been compared with the drinking water quality standards specified in IS: B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 67

78 Table 3.9 (a) Ground water quality in study area during Dec-2014 S.No Parameter Limit (IS-10500:2012) Unit GW1 GW2 GW3 Desirable Limit Permissible Limit P.S. Hanumantha Nagar SBM 1 Colour 5 15 Hazen <5 <5 <5 2 Odour Agreeable Agreeable - Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable 3 Taste Agreeable Agreeable - Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable 4 Turbidity 1 5 NTU <1 <1 <1 5 ph No Relaxation Total Hardness (as CaCO 3 ) mg/l Iron (as Fe) 0.3 No Relaxation mg/l Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l Fluoride (as F ) mg/l TDS mg/l Calcium(as Ca 2+ ) mg/l Magnesium (as Mg 2+ ) mg/l Copper (as Cu) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Manganese(as Mn) mg/l Sulphate (as SO 4 ) mg/l Nitrate(as NO 3 ) 45 No Relaxation mg/l Phenolic Compounds (as C 6 H 5 OH) mg/l <0.001 <0.001 < Mercury (as Hg) No Relaxation mg/l <0.001 <0.001 < Cadmium (as Cd) No Relaxation mg/l <0.001 <0.001 < Selenium ( as Se) 0.01 No Relaxation mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 M Sreenivasaiah Education Trust Page 68

79 21 Arsenic (as As) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Cyanide (as CN) 0.05 No Relaxation mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Lead (as Pb) 0.01 No Relaxation mg/l < < Zinc (as Zn) 5 15 mg/l Anionic Detergent (as MBAS) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Chromium (as Cr 6+ ) 0.05 No Relaxation mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Mineral oil 0.5 No Relaxation mg/l <0.1 <0.1 < Alkalinity (as CaCO 3 ) mg/l Aluminum (as Al) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Boron (as B) mg/l Bacteriological Parameter Not Detected Not Detected Not Detected 1 Total Coliform Shall not be detectable MPN/100ml (<2) (<2) (<2) 2 E.coli Shall not be detectable E.coli /100ml Absent Absent Absent B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 69

80 Table 3.9 (b) Ground water quality in study area during Jan-2015 S.No Parameter Limit (IS-10500:2012) Unit GW1 GW2 GW3 Desirable Limit Permissible Limit P.S. Hanumantha Nagar SBM 1 Colour 5 15 Hazen <5 <5 <5 2 Odour Agreeable Agreeable - Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable 3 Taste Agreeable Agreeable - Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable 4 Turbidity 1 5 NTU ph No Relaxation Total Hardness (as CaCO 3 ) mg/l Iron (as Fe) 0.3 No Relaxation mg/l Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l Fluoride (as F) mg/l TDS mg/l Calcium (as Ca 2+ ) mg/l Magnesium (as Mg 2+ ) mg/l Copper (as Cu) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Manganese(as Mn) mg/l Sulphate (as SO 4 ) mg/l Nitrate (as NO 3 ) 45 No Relaxation mg/l Phenolic Compounds (as C 6 H 5 OH) mg/l <0.001 <0.001 < Mercury (as Hg) No Relaxation mg/l <0.001 <0.001 < Cadmium (as Cd) No Relaxation mg/l <0.001 <0.001 < Selenium (as Se) 0.01 No Relaxation mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 70

81 21 Arsenic (as As) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Cyanide (as CN) 0.05 No Relaxation mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Lead (as Pb) 0.01 No Relaxation mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Zinc (as Zn) 5 15 mg/l Anionic Detergent (as MBAS) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Chromium (as Cr 6+ ) 0.05 No Relaxation mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Mineral oil 0.5 No Relaxation mg/l <0.1 <0.1 < Alkalinity (as CaCO 3 ) mg/l Aluminum (as Al) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Boron (as B) mg/l Bacteriological Parameter Not Detected Not Detected Not Detected 1 Total Coliform Shall not be detectable MPN/100ml (<2) (<2) (<2) 2 E.coli Shall not be detectable E.coli /100ml Absent Absent Absent B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 71

82 Table 3.9 (c) Ground water quality in study area during Feb-2015 S.No Parameter Limit (IS-10500:2012) Unit GW1 GW2 GW3 Desirable Limit Permissible Limit P.S. Hanumantha Nagar SBM 1 Colour 5 15 Hazen <5 <5 <5 2 Odour Agreeable Agreeable - Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable 3 Taste Agreeable Agreeable - Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable 4 Turbidity 1 5 NTU ph No Relaxation Total Hardness (as CaCO3) mg/l Iron (as Fe) 0.3 No Relaxation mg/l Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l Fluoride (as F ) mg/l TDS mg/l Calcium(as Ca2+) mg/l Magnesium (as Mg2+) mg/l Copper (as Cu) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Manganese(as Mn) mg/l Sulphate (as SO4) mg/l Nitrate(as NO3) 45 No Relaxation mg/l Phenolic Compounds (as C6H5OH) mg/l <0.001 <0.001 < Mercury (as Hg) No Relaxation mg/l <0.001 <0.001 < Cadmium (as Cd) No Relaxation mg/l <0.001 <0.001 < Selenium ( as Se ) 0.01 No Relaxation mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 M Sreenivasaiah Education Trust Page 72

83 21 Arsenic (as As) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Cyanide (as CN ) 0.05 No Relaxation mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Lead (as Pb) 0.01 No Relaxation mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Zinc (as Zn) 5 15 mg/l Anionic Detergent (as MBAS) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Chromium (as Cr6+) 0.05 No Relaxation mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Mineral oil 0.5 No Relaxation mg/l <0.1 <0.1 < Alkalinity (as CaCO3) mg/l Aluminum (as Al) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 < Boron (as B) mg/l Bacteriological Parameter Not Detected Not Detected Not Detected 1 Total Coliform Shall not be detectable MPN/100ml (<2) (<2) (<2) 2 E.coli Shall not be detectable E.coli /100ml Absent Absent Absent B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 73

84 Table 3.10 (a) Surface water quality in study area during Dec-2014 S.No. Parameter Unit S.W.1 Yediyur Lake 1 ph Dissolved Oxygen mg/l BOD (3 Days at 27 C) mg/l Free Ammonia (as N) mg/l Sodium Adsorption Ratio Boron mg/l <0.1 7 Conductivity µmhos/cm Temperature ( C) 18 9 Turbidity NTU Magnesium Hardness (as mg/l 61 CaCO 3 ) 11 Total Alkalinity (as CaCO 3 ) mg/l Chloride (as Cl) mg/l Sulphate (as SO 4 ) mg/l Nitrate(as NO 3 ) mg/l Fluoride(as F) mg/l Sodium (as Na) mg/l Potassium(as K) mg/l TKN (as N) mg/l Total Phosphorous (as P) mg/l COD mg/l Phenolic compounds (as mg/l <0.001 C 6 H 5 OH) 22 Lead (as Pb) mg/l < Iron (as Fe) mg/l Cadmium (as Cd) mg/l < Zinc (as Zn) mg/l Arsenic (as As) mg/l < Mercury (as Hg) mg/l < Chromium (as Cr) mg/l < Nickel (as Ni) mg/l < TDS mg/l 431 Bacteriological Parameters 30 Total Coliform MPN/100ml Fecal Coliform MPN/100ml 750 M Sreenivasaiah Education Trust Page 74

85 Table 3.10 (b) Surface water quality in study area during Jan-2015 S.No. Parameter Unit S.W.1 Yediyur Lake 1 ph Dissolved Oxygen mg/l BOD (3 Days at 27 C) mg/l Free Ammonia (as N) mg/l Sodium Adsorption Ratio Boron mg/l <0.1 7 Conductivity µmhos/cm Temperature ( C) 19 9 Turbidity NTU Magnesium Hardness (as mg/l 65 CaCO 3 ) 11 Total Alkalinity (as CaCO 3 ) mg/l Chloride (as Cl) mg/l Sulphate (as SO 4 ) mg/l Nitrate(as NO 3 ) mg/l Fluoride(as F) mg/l Sodium (as Na) mg/l Potassium(as K) mg/l TKN (as N) mg/l Total Phosphorous (as P) mg/l COD mg/l Phenolic compounds mg/l <0.001 (asc 6 H 5 OH) 22 Lead (as Pb) mg/l < Iron (as Fe) mg/l Cadmium (as Cd) mg/l < Zinc (as Zn) mg/l Arsenic (as As) mg/l < Mercury (as Hg) mg/l < Chromium (as Cr) mg/l < Nickel (as Ni) mg/l < TDS mg/l 390 Bacteriological Parameters 30 Total Coliform MPN/100ml Fecal Coliform MPN/100ml 510 B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 75

86 Table 3.10 (c) Surface water quality in study area during Feb-2015 S.No. Parameter Unit S.W.1 Yediyur Lake 1 ph Dissolved Oxygen mg/l BOD(3Daysat27 C) mg/l Free Ammonia(as N) mg/l Sodium Adsorption Ratio Boron mg/l <0.1 7 Conductivity µmhos/cm Temperature ( C) Turbidity NTU Magnesium mg/l 58 Hardness(asCaCO3) 11 Total Alkalinity (ascaco3) mg/l Chloride (as Cl) mg/l Sulphate (as SO 4 ) mg/l Nitrate(as NO3) mg/l Fluoride(as F) mg/l Sodium (as Na) mg/l Potassium(as K) mg/l 7 18 TKN (as N) mg/l Total Phosphorous (as P) mg/l COD mg/l Phenolic compounds mg/l <0.001 (asc 6 H 5 OH) 22 Lead (as Pb) mg/l < Iron (as Fe) mg/l Cadmium (as Cd) mg/l < Zinc (as Zn) mg/l Arsenic (as As) mg/l < Mercury (as Hg) mg/l < Chromium (as Cr) mg/l < Nickel (as Ni) mg/l < TDS mg/l 438 Bacteriological Parameters 30 Total Coliform MPN/100ml 7.8 X Faecal Coliform MPN/100ml 1.5 X 10 4 B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 76

87 ph has found to be in the range of in ground water samples and from in surface water samples. Dissolved oxygen has found to be in the range of 6.5 mg/l to 7.8 mg/l in surface water samples BOD has found to in range of 5.8 to 8.5 mg/l in surface water samples. The water quality of yediyur lake lies in category C as per CPCB norms. The Ground water quality complied drinking water standard and thus fit for use as drinking water standard and thus fit for use as drinking and domestic water Land environment Land is the most vital resource for sustenance of life and degradations of land due to industrialization, urbanization and population growth is a matter of concern. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the existing land use pattern to optimize the land use as well as minimize degradation due to the developmental activities. Also it is necessary to the landform of the project site and the quality of the soil as soil erosion further deteriorates the quality of the land. Soil erosion can be prevented by following methods: Planting vegetation which stabilizes the soil and prevent erosion. Applying a layer of mulch/fertilizer to the soil top which allows the soil to slowly soak up water, protects against rain impact. Using geotextiles which helps in stabilizing soil Topography The landform of the project site is a plain land with average elevation of about m above MSL. The land environment is described by landuse / landcover of the study area within 10 km radius and soil environment of the study area within 5 km radius. Main crops grown in the district are Paddy, Jowar, Bajara, Maize, Oilseeds like groundnut, sunflower and cash crop like vegetables fruits and other. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 77

88 Land use description The landuse / landcover of the project site were done to identify the landuse pattern and landcover pattern of the study area. The study of land use in the area enables one to know about the land that can be used for various development activities envisaged in post project scenario. It also enables to envisage the scenario emerging due to the increase in demand for land with increase in population and the impacts arising due to the interface with the various project activities. Objectives of the Study The objectives of the present study are: To map the study area with respect to various land use/land cover change over the past 10 years. To identify the sensitive areas within 10 km radius around the project site. Rachenahalli Lake and Nagavara Lake is the source of surface water. The settlement areas near to the project site covers mainly the villages like Rachenahalli, Naganhalli, Guddadahalli and Thanisandra. The project site and its surroundings are mainly settlement and agricultural field. Change as required Methodology The landuse / landcover pattern has been established based on the analysis of the data received from satellite imagery by making landuse/landcover map with the help of GIS technique. Also the data based on Census of India, 2001 was referred and landuse study was done within 10 km radius area with limited ground truth verifications. Ground and ancillary information have been used to identify the sensitive places within 10 km radius of the project. Land Use Pattern Classification and description B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 78

89 The classification of land use / land cover pattern of the study area is mainly dominated by the types - agricultural land, water bodies, vegetation, settlements and open land. The settlement covers the majority of the land which is about 79.92% of the study area. As the project site is located within the Municipal limit hence the agricultural land use cover the second highest pattern of the land use covering about 0.069% of the total land within 10 km radius. The land use data are presented in Table The land use /land cover map is attached as Annexure XII. Table 3.11: Land use/land cover Pattern of the Study area Type Area (ha) Area (in acres) Area Percentage (%) Settlements Water Bodies Forest Vegetation Open Land Open Scrub Agricultura l Land Total % The composite soil samples were collected from site and the study area and were analyzed for characterization. The locations of the monitoring sites are depicted in Table 3.13 and the result of the monitoring and analysis is presented in the Table 3.14 Methodology The soil samples were collected once during the study period from each location. The sampling was done using Augur Sampler and samples were filled in polythene bags, labeled in the field with number and site name and sent to laboratory for analysis. Sampling & Analysis of soil was done as per ISO/ IS:2720/ Soil Chemical Analysis by M.L. Jackson.Location of soil sampling sites is attached as Annexure XI (d). B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 79

90 Table 3.12: Frequency and Methodology for Soil Sampling & Monitoring Particulars Frequency Methodology Details One *grab sample from each station once during the Study Period Composite grab samples of the topsoil were collected from 3 depths, and mixed to provide a representative sample for analysis. They were stored in air tight Polythene Bags and analyzed at the laboratory *Grab sample- a single sample or measurement taken at a specific time or over as a short period as feasible Table 3.13: Soil Sample Collection Points Location No. Sample collected from Direction SQ- 1 Project site Center SQ- 2 Hanumanta Nagar West North West SQ- 3 SBM Colony WSW SQ- 4 Gandhi Bazaar NE SQ- 5 Meditech Hospital West B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 80

91 Table 3.14: Phyisco-Chemical Properties of Soil S.No. Parameter Unit Project Site Hanumanta Nagar Sbm Colony Gandhi Bazar Meditech Hospital 1 Texture - Sandy Clay Loam Clay Loam Sandy Clay Loam Sandy Clay Loam Sandy Clay Loam Sand % Silt % Clay % ph (1:2) Electrical Conductivity 3 (1:2) µmhos/cm Cation exchange capacity meq/100 gm Exchangeable Potassium mg/kg Exchangeable Sodium mg/kg Exchangeable Calcium mg/kg Exchangeable Magnesium mg/kg Sodium Adsorption Ratio Water Holding Capacity % Porosity % Physical characteristics of soil were characterized through specific parameters viz bulk density, porosity, water holding capacity, ph, electrical conductivity and texture. Soil ph plays an important role in the availability of nutrients. Soil microbial activity as well as solubility of metal ions is also dependent on ph. In the study area, variations in the ph of the soil were found to be from (7.26 to 7.91). Electrical conductivity (EC) is a measure of the soluble salts and ionic activity in the soil. In the collected soil samples, the conductivity ranged from 365 to 532 µmhos/cm. The cation exchange capacity ranged from meq/100gm. Thus the soil having the medium fertility. The sodium adsorption ratio shws that soil are normal not sodic in nature. M Sreenivasaiah Education Trust Page 81

92 3.4.6 Biological Environment Biological Environment Literally environment stands for the totality of surrounding conditions. Animals and plants form a vital part of this sum total. Flora and fauna of an area are inter-related to each other and have a very crucial impact on human life. With changes in environmental conditions, structure, density and composition of plants and animals undergo changes as well. The present study was carried out in two separate headings for floral and faunal community. The aspects to be covered in the study for the project are given in Table Table 3.15: Aspects to be covered in the study for the Project Aspect of Environment Likely Impacts A. Terrestrial Ecology Impacts on terrestrial flora and fauna Impacts on wildlife Impacts on socially/economically/genetically/ biologically important project species B. Aquatic Ecology Impacts on aquatic fauna/flora Impacts on spawning and breeding grounds for aquatic species The relevant environmental impacts out of the entire gamut of issues outlined in the Table 3.15 were identified. For these impacts or aspects, environmental baseline data has been collected from primary as well as secondary data sources. As a part of the study, detailed field studies on various aspects were conducted. The baseline status has been ascertained for the following aspects: Biological Environment: Terrestrial Ecology/Aquatic Ecology The information presented in this Chapter has been collected through field studies, consultation with various government departments and collation of available literature with various institutions and organizations. The summary of data collected from various sources as a part of the EIA study is outlined in Table M Sreenivasaiah Education Trust Page 82

93 Table 3.16: Summary of data collected from various sources Aspect Mode of data collection Terrestrial Ecology Primary secondary and field survey Parameters monitored Floral and Faunal Inventory/ Importance Aquatic Ecology Primary and secondary Presence of various species/importance Frequency Source(s) One Season (Winter) One Season (Winter) Field studies, Forest Department and literature review Field studies, Forest Department and literature review A. Floral Community: The study area was divided into two zones as given below; i) Core Zone: within the project area. ii) Buffer Zone: (A) 100 m radius around the project site. (B) 10 km radius around the project site. General Vegetation Pattern: The prevailing vegetation cover over the area is mainly of tropical dry deciduous forest as per the Champion and Seth (1968) Classification of forest type of India. i) Core Zone: There was no vegetation within the core zone. Only a few species of Parthenium, Acacia nilotica and Cynodon dactylon were seen. ii) Buffer Zone: In 100 m radius around the project area: The list of plants recorded in Buffer Zone (100 m Radius) is given in Table There is no forest area in this zone. The vegetative community of the area is mainly under open scrub forest and because of urbanization area is usually surrounded with planted varieties. The dominant Species are Gulmohar (Delonix Regia), Rain tree, Ashoka, Teak Tree (Tectona Grandis), Kadam (Neolamarckia cadamba), & neem (Azadirachita Indica). The prominent grass is Cynodon dactylon. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 83

94 No threatened, rare, endangered or endemic species were observed during the survey in this Buffer Zone (100 m radius around the project area). Table 3.17: List of Plants in Buffer Zone (100 m Radius) S. No. Local Names Botanical Names 1. Gulmohar Delonix regia 2. Rain Tree Samanea saman 3. Ashoka Ployalthia longifolia 4. Teak Tree Tectona grandis 5. Kadam Neolamarckia cadamba 6. Neem Azadirachita indica In 10 km radius around the project site: The list of plants recorded in Buffer Zone (10 km Radius) is given in Table There is no protected forest area in this zone. The vegetative community of the area is mainly under open scrub forest and because of urbanization area is usually surrounded with planted varieties. The dominant species are Gulmohar (Cassia sp.), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Safeda (Eucalyptus), Carrot grass (Parthenium sp.), Amaltas (Cassia tora), Dhatura (Datura sp.), Arandi (Ricinus communis), Bougainvellia, Peepal (Ficus religiosa), shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), bottle palm, bottle bush, etc. The prominent grass species is Cynodon dactylon. Table 3.18: List of Plants in Buffer Zone (10 km Radius) S. No. Local Names Botanical Names 1. Neem Azadirachta indica 2. Safeda Eucalyptus 3. Dhatura Datura sp. 4. Arandi Ricinus communis 5. Peepal Ficus religiosa 6. Bougainvelia Bougainvelli sp. 7. palm Beaucarnea recurvata 8. Amaltas Cassia fistula 9. Shisham Dalbergia sissoo 10. Bottle brush Callistemom sp. 11. Carrot grass Parthenium sp. 12. Gulmohar Cassia sp. 13. Oak Quercus sp B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 84

95 Agricultural land Agriculture land is covered least area in 10 km buffer zone. Mainly Tube wells are used for irrigation. Raj Kulve storm water drainage is also used for irrigation. Grassland Grassland in the study area is secondary in origin. The common species found in the area are Euphorbia spp. Desmodium spp., Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus spp., Ipomoea spp. etc. Vegetation in and around human settlement The common species grown near urban settlement are Mangifera indica, Madhuca indica, Sizygium cumini, Bambusa sp., Azadirachta indica, Albezzia sp. Delonix regia, Tamarinds indica, Eucalyptus spp. Ficus religiosa, etc. Avenue trees and projection The roadside along in the study area are projected with trees in single to double rows. The common trees are Azadirachta indica, Syzigium cumini. Mangifera indica, Delonix regia, Albezia spp. Eucalyptus spp., Leucaena leucocephala, Saraca asoca etc. Agricultural crops Land at some places is used for agriculture purpose. The main crops are maize, bajra, groundnut, jowar, ragi, coconut and vegetables. No threatened, rare, endangered or endemic species were observed during the survey in Buffer Zone (10 km radius around the project area). B. Faunal Community: A general faunal study was carried out for the core zone and buffer zone separately as given below: B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 85

96 (i) Core Zone: There was no unique faunal community within the core zone of the project site (ii) Buffer Zone: In 100 m radius around the project site: The species observed in Buffer zone (100 m around the project area) are given in Table No threatened, rare, endangered or endemic species were observed during the survey in Buffer Zone (100 m radius around the project site). Table 3.19: List of Species in Buffer Zone (100 m radius) Sl. No. Local Names Zoological Names Amphibians 1. Toad Bufo sp 2. Frog Rana tigrina Reptiles 3. Indian garden lizards Calotes versicolor 4. house lizards Hemidactylus sp. Mammals 5. Indian palm squirrel Fumambulus pennanti 6. Cat Felis sp. 7. Dog Canis familiaris 8. Cow Bos sp. 9. Rat Rattus rattus Aves 10. Crow Corvus splendens 11. Sparrow Passer domesticus 12. Baya Ploceus philippinus 13. Parrot Psittacula krameri In 10 km radius around the project area list of species observed in this buffer zone is given in Table B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 86

97 Table 3.20: List of Species in Buffer Zone (10 km Radius) Sl. Local Names Zoological Names No. Amphibians 1. Toad Bufo sp. 2. Frog Rana tigrina Reptiles 3. Indian garden lizards Calotes versicolor 4. House lizards Hemidactylus sp. Mammals 5. Indian palm squirrel Fumambulus ponnanti 6. Cat Felis sp. 7. Dog Cuon sp. 8. Cow Bos sp. 9. Buffalo Babulus arnae 10. Rat Rattus rattus Aves 11. Crow Corves splendens 12. Sparrow Passer domesticus 13. Baya Ploceus philippinus 14. Parrot Psittacula krameri 15. Peafowl Pavo cristatus 16. Pigeon Columba livia 17. Egretta Egretta sp 18. Myna Acridotheres tristis C. Protected Areas There are no, Wildlife Sanctuary, National Park and/ or Biosphere Reserve within 10 km of the study area. D. Wild life and avifauna Methodology Detailed survey was conducted to evaluate faunal composition of the study area (core and buffer zone) within the project area. Primary data like faunal composition was recorded during site visit and secondary data was collected from the Forest department to get the correct picture of the study area. The major portion of the study consists of agricultural field and human settlements which support wildlife habitat insignificantly. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 87

98 The survey methods used for faunal assessment are: 1. Walkthrough method 2. Direct Count Method- birds, mammals 3. Pugmark method mammals The major part of the study area lies under agriculture field and human settlements which restricted the wildlife habitat significantly. Most of the mammalian species reported in the study area are common fox, and Indian hare. There is neither any wildlife sensitive area nor any corridor for the movement of wildlife present in the study area. There are many small ponds present in the buffer zone of study area which are the major attraction sites for avifauna. Common Maina, Kingfisher, Spotted dove, Piltail and Pond Heron are some dominant bird species present in the study area. There is no information regarding migratory movement of birds in the study area. As far as the reptiles community was concerned, Krait and house lizard are reported from the study area Aquatic life The Phytoplanktons in the lakes are basically dominated by filamentous forms. The dominant ones are Chaetophora sp., Cladophora sp., Spirogyra sp. The Zooplanktons are basically dominated by Crustaceans and Rotifers SOCIO ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT INTRODUCTION Socio-Economic Impact Assessment (SEIA) refers to the systematic analysis of various social and economic characteristics of the human beings living in a given geographical area during the period of study. The geographical area is called Study Area or Impact Area. SEIA is carried out separately but concurrently with Environment Impact Assessment (EIA). The study area consists of core and buffer area encircling the project area. The Socio-Economic Impact Assessment focuses on the likely effect of the project on social and economic well-being of the community. The impact may be direct or indirect, positive or negative. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 88

99 In this part of the EIA report an attempt has been made to assess the Socio-Economic Impact of construction of BMS College of Engineering located at Basavanagudi, Bangalore, Karnataka. OBJECTIVES OF SEIA The prime objective of the current study is to assess the likely impact of the project on socioeconomic characteristics of people living in the study area. Further, it is to be established whether the impact would be direct or indirect. Furthermore, it is to be examined whether the said impact would be positive or negative. Lastly, it is to be comprehended if the impact is positive how long it would sustain or if it is negative how soon the same could be eased. SCOPE The Scope of the study is as follows: a) To collect baseline data of the study area b) To comprehend socio-economic status of the people living in the study area. c) To assess the probable impact of the project on social and economic aspects in the study area. d) To evaluate the likely impact of the project on Quality of Life of the people living in the study area. e) To ensure sustainability of the positive impact. f) To suggest mitigation measures and agency responsible for taking action in case of adverse impact Approach & Methodology A mixture of both quantitative and qualitative approach was adopted in the current socioeconomic study. Since the qualitative information is hypothetical in nature and cannot be analyzed directly they were converted into numerical facts prior to data analysis. The study was conducted based on primary and secondary data. The primary data was collected by organizing field survey. The questionnaires formulated for collection of primary data contained both open and close ended questions. While primary data was collected through a sample survey of selected households, the secondary data was collected from the administrative records and published literatures Sample Survey of Households B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 89

100 Study Area The project is located at Basavanagudi, Bangalore in the state of Karnataka. There are 123 identified habitations in the study area out of which 51 habitations falling in the rural area and remaining 72 habitations falling in the urban areas which are in the form of various municipal wards and colonies. All the habitations are spread over in district Bangalore of the state Karnataka Sample Design Two-Stage Sampling Design was adopted in the study area. The First Stage Units were Census village(s)/town(s) and the Ultimate Stage Units were households in the selected village(s)/town(s) Sampling unit The households in selected localities are the ultimate sampling units. Primary data was collected from the sample households through face to face interviews Respondents The head of the selected household was treated as respondent for collection of information through face to face interview. The respondents were of either sex. Further, it was ensured that he/she must be an adult member of the selected household. However, where the head of the household was not present at his/her dwelling unit or refused to participate in the interview, one of the remaining adult members of the household ready to provide the information through face to face interview was treated as respondent Reference period The reference period for the survey was last 365 days from the date of survey Selection of localities and number of households selected B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 90

101 For collection of information through household survey eight localities were selected. Of these four were selected purposely. These localities are Rachenahalli, Kempapura, Guddadahalli, Thanisandra, Dasarahalli, Yelahanka, Chelakere and Byataryanapura Questionnaire For collection of information GRC developed two structured questionnaire (1) Locality Questionnaire and (2) Household questionnaire. All the two questionnaires are divided into several blocks. Besides identification particulars the Household questionnaire had provision for collecting information on following aspects: (i) House structure (ii) Socio-economic profile of the household (iii) Details regarding BPL families (iv) Household assets. (v) Details of household members. (vi) Potable water and Sanitation facilities (vii) Storm water and solid waste/ garbage disposal facilities (viii) Details about personal and hygiene facilities (ix) Awareness level of the household regarding upcoming Institutional project (x) Respondent s perception about the project. The locality Questionnaire carried questions on demographic particulars of the locality, infrastructure and other facilities available in the area Conduct of field work For collection of primary data two experienced Investigators were imparted in-house training. During the short training program both the questionnaires were discussed in detail and the investigators were asked to fill up the same in a nearby locality which was not selected for the study. Immediately, after the completion of the training program the field work was taken up and the same was completed in a fortnight. The team members visited each selected locality and collected data from the randomly selected households. In case of non-responses due to house- B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 91

102 locked, household refused to provide information or household shifted outside the locality substituted households were approached for collection of information Findings of the survey Demographic particulars of the study area Population Composition According to 2001 Population Census the study area has a total population of 5,15,150 persons, of which 4,93, (95.82 percent) live in the urban areas and the remaining (4.18 percent) in the rural areas. Further, percent of the total population are in the age-group 0-6 years. In the study area, 53.9 percent of the total population is male and the 46.1 percent are female. The overall Sex ratio in the study area is 854 females per 1000 males. This is less than the national figure of 933. Table 3.21: Demographic Particulars of the Study Area S. No. Description Number Percentage to Respective Total 1 Gender wise Total Population 5, 15, Male 2, 77, Female 2, 37, Sex Ratio Gender wise Total Population (0-6 age group) 69, Male 36, Female 32, Sex Ratio Total Population of Scheduled Caste Community 74, Male 38, B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 92

103 Female 36, Sex Ratio No. of Households 1, 24,029 Average Household Size 4 Highest Avg. Household Size 6 Lowest Avg. Household Size 3 5 Total Population of General Community (including OBC) 4, 31, Male 2, 34, Female 1, 96, Sex Ratio Total Literates 3, 52, Male 2, 06, Female 1, 46, Overall Literacy Rate 79.1 Male 85.3 Female 71.8 Gender Gap in Literacy Rate Total Workers 2, 18, Male 1, 70, Female 48, Overall Gender Gap in Work Participation Rate Total Main Workers 1, 99, Male 1, 58, Female 40, B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 93

104 Overall Gender Gap in Work Participation Rate of Main Workers Total Marginal Workers 19, Male 11, Female 7, Overall Gender Gap in Work Participation Rate of Marginal Workers Total Household Industrial Workers 9, Male 6, Female 2, Total Agricultural Workers 11, Male 8, Female 3, Total Cultivators 6, Male 4, Female 1, Total Agricultural Labour 5, Male 3, Female 2, Total Other Workers 1, 97, Male 1, 55, Female 41, Source: Census 2001 Households and Household size B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 94

105 There are 1,43,154 households in the study area and the average household size is 4. The Sector wise distribution of households is 4990 in the rural areas and 1,38,164 in the urban areas. The average household size in rural areas is 5 and that in urban areas is 4. Social groups In the study area the number of persons belonging to Scheduled Caste community is 68,125 which form 11.3 per cent of the total population. About percent of people belonging to Scheduled Caste community reside in urban areas and the remaining in rural areas. The literate Schedule castes are engaged in trade, commerce, industry private and government services including police and even in the armed forces. The Schedule caste people are further divided in groups, subgroups, castes and sub-castes. In the study area the population of Schedule Tribe community is 11,101 which is 1.8 percent of the total population. About percent of people belonging to Scheduled Tribe community reside in urban areas and the remaining in rural areas. Literacy status of people All persons aged 7 years and above who can both read and write with understanding in any language have been considered as literate for this study. Based on the above criteria 82.1 percent of the total population living in the study area has been found literate. The gender wise distribution of literacy rate is 87.7 percent for male and 75.7 percent for female, creating a gender gap of 12.0 percent Workers A worker has been defined as a person who participates in a productive activity with or without compensation, wages or profit and such participation may be physical and/or mental in nature. A worker may be a main worker or a marginal worker. The main workers are those workers who had worked for the major part (more than six months) of the reference period (i.e. 365 days from the date of survey). The marginal workers are those who had worked for less than six months during the last 365 days from the date of survey. Secondary research has revealed that slightly above than one third of the total population is worker. While main workers constitute 91.0 percent of the total work force the marginal workers constitute only 9.0 percent of the total working population. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 95

106 Distribution of workers by Category In the study area workers engaged in various activities can be classified into agricultural workers, industrial workers and other workers. Those who are engaged in agriculture can be classified further as cultivators and land less labour. In the study area the total number of workers engaged in agriculture is 5558, which is less than one percent of the total population and 2.2 percent of the total workers in the study area. Of the total number of workers engaged in agriculture nearly 51.1 percent are cultivators who own land and the remaining 48.9 percent are either land less agricultural labour or un-economic land holders. These agricultural labour work in the farm owned by others. Further, 3.7 percent of the total workers in the study area are engaged in household industries. The field survey has revealed that most of these industrial units are Own Account Enterprises (OAE) with no hired worker. Furthermore, about 94.1 percent of the total workers fall in the category of other workers. They are engaged in undefined activities that form part of the informal sector encompassing petty traders, casual and irregular wage workers, employed in personal services or in small-scale enterprises engaged in manufacturing and services. It also includes white collar people including professionals like teachers, doctors etc Amenities Drinking water facilities In the study area almost every household has been provided with filtered drinkable water. Municipal water is the main source of drinking water. The tap water is used in almost every house. There is however low water pressure in certain colonies especially in summer months, due to shortage of water at the source Electric power All the areas in the study area have been provided with electric power for domestic and industrial use. In the rural areas the electric power is also available for agricultural operations Education Facilities B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 96

107 There are large number of schools of all categories, colleges including medical colleges, important universities, and other educational institutions. This project itself providing high class education facility in engineering. Some of the educational institutions located in the study area are of national and international reputation Medical Facilities There are large numbers of government and non-government health institutions in the study area. They provide multi-disciplinary health facilities to the patients from all over the state. The facilities provided to the patients are comparatively cheap and of high quality. Most of them are world Class having superb infrastructure and utmost care. This is why patients from distant places are getting attracted more and more Impact of the project on existing land use The project site is for government and semi government use. It is anticipated that the construction activities of the project will not have any adverse effect on the land use pattern of the project area. The site is earmarked for Institutional development as per the Development Plan of the Bangalore Revised Master Plan, Impact of the project on Employment Employment opportunities are expected to be generated during the construction and post construction period of the project. However, discussion with the project authority reveals that as many as 200 people will be provided with employment in the upcoming project. There is also an opportunity for indirect employment for another 100 people of both sex Awareness of BMS Engineering College Project Since, this project is existing almost 100 years & one of the first private Educational Institution in South India. Almost most of the persons know about the project around the study area People s Perception about the Project B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 97

108 About 80 percent of the people interviewed during the sample survey welcomed the project, while the remaining 20 percent refused to make any comment on it. Those who supported the upcoming project believed strengthening the infrastructure of college can lead to better quality of education. They also agreed that the project will definitely create opportunities for both direct and indirect employment Conclusion The Socio-Economic standard of people living in the study area will improve due to employment opportunities created due to the project. This will lead to better quality of life and will also set a standard for future development in the study area. Due to the project, the standard of education and infrastructure of the study area will improve. It is expected that basic facilities in the study area will also improve by setting up hospitals & dispensaries, banks & post offices, bus shelters and by the development of roads, parks, play grounds etc. This will give a boost in the quality of life of people of the study area. In the study area, still there is scope of improving health and educational facilities. It is expected that same will improve with the combined effect of the project, promoting the Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) as per need and associated industrial & business activities. The overall impact of the project is expected to be positive for the habitants of the area and the persons associated with the project. B.M Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 98

109 CHAPTER-4 ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS & MITIGATION MEASURES 4.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses identification and appraisal of various environmental impacts due to the Project. Generally, the environmental impacts can be categorized as either primary or secondary. The development construction and functional phase of the project comprise various activities, each of which may have some impact on environmental parameter. Various impacts during the development construction and operation phase on the environmental parameters have been studied to estimate the impact on environment. This project will be constructed and developed gradually in the time span of 2-3 years (approx.). This project will be constructed in four phases. In development phase, basic infrastructure facilities like internal road, sewerage system, storm water drainage, street lighting etc. will be developed. For proper evaluation and assessment of the environmental impacts due to development & construction and functional phase of project, understanding to the various activities associated with the Project is essential. Various activities related to the project would be different, in terms of nature during the development, construction and functional phase. The impact identification and prediction process aims to: Identify potential source or cause of impact throughout the life of project. Characterize the potential impacts affecting a target or receptor (physical, human and socio-economic). Assess the potential of changing likely-hood of impact through Environmental Management Plan (EMP) Prediction of the impacts due to the development, construction and functional activities encompass the developmental processes to be undertaken during construction and functional phases. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 99

110 For each category of environmental receptor (such as, ambient air quality, water quality, soils, land, etc,), the potential impacts of activities during development & construction and functional phases have been identified. Pollution sources & its characteristics, the potential impacts and magnitude of the impacts have been assessed and discussed in detail in following sub sections. In each case, cognizance has been taken to mitigation measures inherited in the development & construction and functional phase. 4.2 IMPACT MATRIX Various activities from the Engineering College are likely to have some impact on the environmental constituents during its construction as well as operational phase. The impact assessment matrix given in Table 4.1 reveals the impact associated with each activity of the project on various environmental parameters during construction and function phase respectively before any mitigation measures are implanted. To assess the severity of the impacts, they are categorized as follows: B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 100

111 Environmental Parameters Nature of Potential Impacts during Construction and Operation Phases Local Regional Short Long No Reversible Irreversible Adverse Beneficial Term Term Impact Significant Insignificant Topography Drainage Soil Water Resources Water Quality Land Use Air Quality Noise Flora Fauna Employment Aesthetic B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 101

112 4.3 POLLUTION SOURCES Pollutants generated in the development of Engineering College project during both the construction and functional phases are solid, liquid and gaseous in nature. Also, the generation of pollution could be continuous, periodic or accidental. Sources of pollutants and their characteristics during the construction and functional phase are given below in Table 4.2. Table 4.2: Pollutant Sources SI. No. Activity / Area Pollutant Sources Frequency CONSTRUCTION PHASE 1. Site Air emission- Dust from Temporary during preparation SO 2, & NO 2 construction construction phase and activities and only. construction excavation. Bulk of the activities Particulates matter, emissions is NO 2 and CO from expected from vehicle exhaust ground work and leveling. Earth/Solid waste Solid waste from Periodic. construction activity and excavation. Hazardous waste From D.G. Sets and Periodic and generation such painting of the temporary as used oil and buildings. paints. Noise Noise generated Temporary lasting from construction the construction equipment and phase. machinery 2. Demolition of Respiratory Solid waste by Temporary during Existing particles, demolition of construction phase. Building PM 2.5,PM 10 existing structure 3. Labour Sewage Sewage generated Temporary-during Camps from temporary the initial labor camps on site. construction phase Solid Waste Solid Waste Temporary- during generated from the initial temporary labor construction phase camps on site. OPERATIONAL PHASE B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 102

113 SI. No. Activity / Area 1. Vehicular movement Pollutant Sources Frequency Air emissions and noise Vehicle emissions exhaust Continuous 2. Diesel generators Air emissions SO 2, NO 2, PM, CO from fuel burning Occasional- during power failure Noise Noise due to Occasional - during running of power failure equipment Hazardous waste Used oil generation Occasional- during oil changes 3. Maintenance / Wastewater Floor washing Continuous Housekeeping Solid waste sewage Hostel, commercial Continuous and garden wastes 5. Vehicle Oil spills Minor oil leaks Continuous Parking parking space 6. Storm water Rainwater Contamination During rainy drains discharge from sitemainly season suspended solids 7. Laboratory E-Waste Electrical & Periodic electronic lab Hazardous waste Chemistry lab Biological waste Biotech lab Solid Waste Civil & mechanical lab 4.4 IMPACT IDENTIFICATION The areas of environmental concerns for which the impacts and their predictions are taken into consideration are mainly: Air environment Water environment Noise environment Land environment Biological environment Socio economic environment and Aesthetics environment B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 103

114 The impacts can be further categorized as positive impacts and negative impacts depending upon their nature, potential and magnitude Environmental Aspects of Development & Construction Operations Generation, storage and disposal of construction wastes; Noise pollution due to plant, machinery, equipment and vehicle movement; Air pollution due to plant, machinery, equipment and vehicle movement; Generation and disposal of wastewater; Impact on ecology; Consumption of resources such as water, electricity, and diesel. Physical change in landscape due to earth work excavation and related activities. Soil erosion caused due to loss of vegetation and other construction activates Environmental Aspects of Building Planning and Use Impacts identified during operation of the project and their use includes major concerns such as: Disposal of domestic (sewage) effluent generation from hostel. Disposal of solid wastes generated in the project from hostel, administration, offices & labs. Increase in noise levels due to transport. Consumption of water and impact on water resources Impact on traffic on the road Storm water during rains Management and maintenance project Environmental aspects of the project are not just limited to impact of sources of pollution but also relate to energy conservation, water conservation and other issues, which are mentioned in Table 4.3. Table 4.3: Environment aspects of BMS Engineering College Project other than source of Pollution S.No. Area Aspect I. Energy conservation Solar heating, day lighting, design natural ventilation, thermal transfer value of building material, energy efficient building B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 104

115 services and equipment, Public area lighting and Exterior lighting II. Water Reuse of recycled water conservation Gardening water sources Rainwater harvesting III. Internal Roads and Accesses Pedestrian access ramps for disabled persons road painting and signage speed breakers IV. Material Use Construction materials selection Paint selection Use of recycled materials Use of timber Use of recycled material from demolished building V. Aesthetics Clothes drying facilities during Visitors parking functional Use Playground for children Service roads for walking Flower bed water disposal Floor washing arrangements Air conditioning arrangements Standby power supply Provision for garden & play ground Maintenance staff VI. Facilities for Servant quarters Building complex servants Rest rooms with toilets for security persons. 4.5 ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS DURING DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION PHASE Topography Impact: Topography around the project is almost plain. Therefore, topography and physiography of the area will not be affected during the construction and post construction phase of the project. Hence, no significant impact is anticipated on the topography and physiographic from BMS Engineering College project by B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust. It is further proposed to maintain 33.11% of the total area as green through plantation of various local and aesthetic species to improve the vegetation covers of the area. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 105

116 Mitigation Measure: Since, there is no significant impact on topography from the project, no detailed mitigation measures are proposed. It is however proposed that apart from the proposed plantation greens, turfing with local species will be carried out extensively Land Use Pattern Impact: Currently project site has been used for the institutional purpose. Land use of the project will be same in future. So, there is no change in landuse has been anticipated Land Environment Impact: Vegetative cover will be removed so soil erosion is anticipated. Soil would be excavated at project site for foundations of building. During the disposal of redundant overburden, soil of filling area would be covered and lost permanently. Mitigation: The impact on soil during construction phase will be marginal and reversible in the nature. It is proposed to remove vegetative cover only from the specific site on which construction is to take place and allowing minimal disturbance to the vegetation in adjacent areas. Land clearing activities only confined to necessary areas. The top soil will be stripped from constructional areas and stockpiled for later reuse in landscaping. The number, frequency and area of movement of heavy machinery will also be restricted Water Environment Proper drainage system shall be provided to deal with the storm water in case of rain Surface Water Quality Impact: The primary concerns relating to surface water quality associated with construction activities are pointed out below: Runoff related to unpaved and excavated areas during the rain shower. Sediments transported to runoff from the construction site. Run off related to area where lubricant, fuel other materials are stored, used and disposed, off. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 106

117 Surface water quality may be affected with the discharge of the runoff from the project site. The impact to the surface water bodies could arise from the increased soil erosion from excavated site only causing increase in the suspended particles and turbidity of runoff water from the site. Mitigation Measures: During the construction phase, surface water quality is likely to be affected due to soil erosion during first rain and generation of wastewater mainly from construction labour camp. However, this phenomenon will be temporary and restricted to close vicinity of construction site. The impact on surface water quality can be minimized by adopting following measures; Excavation during dry season and proper management of excavated soils, Clearing all debris from site as soon as construction is over. By providing proper hutment and toilet facilities for construction labour, Through the proper disposal of waste water generated at site Ground water Quality Impact: No hazardous chemical and material will be used in the development and construction phase of the Engineering College project. Mitigation: A well planned solid waste management plan will be followed during the construction phase including timely collection, segregation and disposal as per legal requirements. Debris and wastes generated during this phase will be collected and disposed suitably. Therefore, possibility of contamination of ground water will be negligible. Hence, no impact is anticipated on the ground water quality during the construction phase Surface and Ground Water Hydrology Surface Water Hydrology Impact: The project site is outside any flood plain. Runoff during rains takes way to natural drain and in storm water drains laid in the area. During construction phase, there is no impact anticipated on the drainage pattern of the project area. Mitigation Measures: Project proponent will ensure no interception on water runoff flow routes and drainage pattern of the area throughout the construction of the Engineering College by providing adequate water channel. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 107

118 Ground Water Hydrology Impact: In the area around the Engineering College, rich aquifers are present. Water requirement during construction phase will vary depending upon construction activities and will be met by authorized private water supply at the site. Water will be required for site preparation activities dust settlement, consolidation, compaction and curing as well as building construction and drinking water requirement. The requirement of construction water will not put sudden pressure on the available ground water resources of area. Therefore, impact on ground water resources will be insignificant during construction of Engineering College project. Mitigation Measures: Although no significant impact is anticipated on the groundwater regime, it is proposed to carry out the following to further minimize the demand on freshwater resources: Curing water will be sprayed on concrete structures and free flow of water not allowed. After liberal curing on the first day, all concrete structures will be painted with curing chemical to save water to stop daily water curing hence save water. Concrete structures will be covered with thick cloth/gunny bags and then water sprayed on them to avoid water rebound and ensure sustained and complete curing. Ponds will be made using cement and sand mortar to avoid water flowing away from the flat surface while curing. Water ponding will be done on all sunken slabs. This will also highlight the importance of having an impervious formwork Air Environment Emissions Source: The potential sources of air emissions during the construction and development phase of the project will be as follows: Dust from earth works (during site clearance and preparation); Emissions from power generator at site; Emissions from the operation of construction equipment and machines; Fugitive emissions from vehicles running to site; B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 108

119 Fugitive emissions during the unloading of material at the site; Fugitive emissions during mixing of cement with other building materials during development and construction activities; Air emissions other than dust arise from combustion of hydrocarbons. The pollutants of concerns are NO 2, SO 2, CO, particulate etc. Potential Impacts: Ambient air quality effects are normally assessed in relation to their potential to cause; Health deterioration and nuisance in local communities Health deterioration amongst onsite workers Assessment of the impacts from Dust Emissions: During the excavation of channels, foundations, unloading of construction material, cement bags and mixing of cement with other building materials such as brick and silica dust, wood dust, fugitive dust emissions may be emitted at construction site. During construction, curtaining floors from all sides will be done to prevent cement dust from becoming airborne. It may be noted that all the emissions will be in the form of coarse particulate matter and settle down ultimately in closed vicinity of construction site. Therefore, no significant impact is anticipated due to dust emission during development and construction phase. Assessment of the impact from Diesel Generators: Emissions from the D.G. set during construction phase may cause some localized impact on ambient air quality for short duration, as it will be operated during power failure only. It may be noted that the D.G. set power will be used to operate construction equipment only if required. Adequate height of stacks and acoustic erective will be provided to the D.G. set as per guidelines of CPCB to facilitate the dispersion of flue gases into the atmosphere. Mitigation Measures: It is proposed to provide adequate dust control systems in the form of installation of batch plants, and loose material handling in covered sheds. Dust suppression system is also to be provided where necessary. Provision for release of DG Flue Gas emissions through a tall stacks will be considered. It is further proposed to cover scaffolding, hosing down road surfaces and cleaning of vehicles especially during the dry season. Avenue and curtain plantation on the internal roads and peripheral plantation around the site will also be developed. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 109

120 4.5.6 Noise Environment During the construction phase of project, noise will be generated from the various sources. Some major sources of noise generation at project site are listed here under: Generation of noise during movement of vehicles carrying materials and loading & unloading activities. Generation of noise from excavation machines, concrete mixer and other construction machines, Generation of noise during the operation of D.G. set Generation of noise during concreting, hammering, etc. All the above-mentioned sources of construction activities at project site would be intermittent and experienced occasionally. It may also be noted that the most of the construction activities would be carried out only during the daytime. The expected noise levels from various activities are given hereunder: From vehicles bringing materials to the site 70 db (A) D.G. Set Excavation Concrete Mixtures Hammering 85 db (A) 80 db (A) 80 db (A) 85 db (A) Resultant Noise Level: The combined effect of above sources can be determined as per the following equation: L p (total) = 10 log (10 (Lp l /10) + 10 (Lp2/10) + 10 (Lp3/10) +..). (1) Where: L p1, L p2 and L p3 are noise pressure level at a point due to different sources in db (A). The resultant maximum noise level for the above sources as calculated using equation 1 is 89.3dB(A). For an approximate estimation of dispersion of noise in the ambient air from the sources point, a standard mathematical model for sound wave propagation is used. The sound level generated by noise source decrease with increasing distance from the source due to wave divergence. An B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 110

121 additional decrease in sound pressure level from the source is expected due to atmospheric effect or its interaction with objects in the transmission path. For hemispherical sound wave propagation through homogenous loss of free medium, noise levels at various locations can be calculated due to different sources using model based on the first principles as per the following, equation: L r2 = L r1-20 log (r 2 ) /r 1. (2) Where: L r2 and L r1 Sound Pressure Level (SPLs) at points located at 1m from sources and at distance of r 2 from the source respectively in db (A). Assuming no environmental attenuation factors, noise modeling has been done, which shows that noise level will be mingle with baseline noise level with in 150 m. As difference between L 1 and L 2 is more than 9. It shows that no impact will be caused by the project to the background noise level at a distance of 150 m and more. The noise produced during, development and construction phase will have temporary impacts on the existing, ambient noise levels at project site but restricted to small distance (maximum up to 150 m) and only during daytime. Therefore, the impact of noise levels on surrounding area will be insignificant during the development and construction phase Terrestrial Ecology Impact: There is no loss of forestland due to the construction of the project. No tree felling is involved, as the site is devoid of vegetation. Birds and other domesticated biodiversity observed near the project site are common and already adapted to thrive in human - colonized habitats. The project will not have any major negative ecological impact. There is no forest near the project site and therefore there will be no effect on the ecology of the area. Mitigation Measures: However, it is to develop extensive green areas in the project site to improve the aesthetics of the area which will also help in reduction of air pollution, noise pollution and provide suitable habitat for local birds and animal species. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 111

122 4.5.8 Economic Impacts Impact: Relatively long-lived economic impacts of the development and construction phase are likely to be experienced in local area for the duration of construction phase of 2 years as workers make everyday purchases from local traders in nearby areas. This is likely to give a short-lived stimulus to the traders that may disappear as soon as the construction is complete. Noticeable, flow-on economic impacts will be experienced in other sectors of economy as a result of purchase of construction materials and the payment of wages and salaries to the personnel engaged in the development and construction of project. Once the development and construction of Engineering College will complete, there will be some long-term positive impact on the economic structure of the area. People in the area will get direct and indirect employment opportunities Therefore, overall positive impact is anticipated on economy of the area due to development and construction activity of the Engineering College Socio-Economic During the development and construction of Engineering College, about 100 to 150 skilled and semiskilled and unskilled workers per day will get direct employment opportunity, which will have beneficial impact on the local people and improve socio-economic conditions of the area Construction Camp Impact: During the development and construction phase, most of the laborers will be from local areas as Engineering College will be developed gradually in the time span of about 5-7 years. Therefore, laborer camps will be constructed to accommodate the laborers at the project site. This may lead to sanitation problems in the absence of adequate facilities. Mitigation: Suitable measures will be taken at the construction camps to mitigate anticipated impacts due to temporary accommodation of laborers such as provision of clean drinking water, adequate toilet facilities, water and solid waste disposal system. Other safety precautions to be maintained at work site including provision of PPEs, guarding of dangerous machine parts, maintenance of equipments as hoists and lifts etc, and adequate provision of different types of fire extinguishers will be made. All applicable rules and regulations pertaining to workplace health and welfare of workers will be adhered to. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 112

123 Solid Waste Management Impact: The construction and demolition waste includes debris, concrete (often recycled and reused at the site), steel and other metals, pallets, packaging and paper products, fluorescent tubes, wood beams, joists, studs, baseboards, cabinets and cupboards, railings, brick, doors and casings, interior windows, bathroom fixtures, light fixtures, ceiling grid and tile, furnishings, replant trees, shrubs. All wastes generated during the construction phase shall be collected and segregated for disposal as per the standard practice. During the development and construction phase, some amount of debris, cuttings of construction materials may be observed at construction site. However, the quantity of these waste materials would be very small and limited up to the construction site only. There will be no contamination due to this waste as it will be collected time to time during construction phase and disposed accordingly. Mitigation Measures: Recyclable wastes will be sold off to scrap dealers and vendors, while inert wastes will be disposed off in landfills. Hazardous wastes will be disposed off as per the provisions of the Hazardous Wastes (Management & Handling Rules, Transport Linkage and Traffic Impact: During development and construction phase, construction labour and construction materials bringing vehicles will approach the project site. The Engineering College is well connected to neighborhood, where public transport facility, like, buses and minibuses are easily available in the area as transport linkage. During construction phase, some impact is anticipated on the transport linkage of the area, however increase in traffic will not adversely affect the local traffic pattern since the site is well connected by broad road and present traffic load on these road are not significant. Mitigation: Through careful planning, the movement of the heavy vehicles will be scheduled to reduce load on existing traffic such that the peak hours are avoided. It shall also be ensured that all the vehicles to the site will be provided with parking space such that there is no waiting time along the access roads. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 113

124 4.6 ASSESSMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS DURING POST CONSTRUCTION PHASE Land Environment Impact: During the operation phase of the project, the soil may get polluted/ contaminated from littering of various kinds of wastes generated within the site such as food items, paper, wood pieces, paints, pesticides, oil & grease etc. However, owing to the proposed solid waste management system, no significant impact is anticipated. Mitigation Measures: To ensure against any chances of soil pollution, it is imperative to establish a well planned solid waste collection system covering all areas of the project site apart from door to door for the residential units. An identified area shall be designated for storage and segregation of the wastes which will be treated/ disposed as per their characteristics Water environment Surface water hydrology Impact: During the post construction phase, no water will be taken from surface water bodies in the area. Further, adequate drainage will be provided at the project site to channelize the storm water for rainwater harvesting. The sewage effluents generated from the project will be collected through the sewer line network provided in the project site for treatment in the Sewage Treatment Plant (STP), and the treated wastewater reused within the site thereafter. Therefore, impact on the surface water hydrology will be insignificant during the post construction phase. Mitigation: It is proposed to provide rainwater harvesting across paved area and green area of the project site. The roof tops of buildings will also be connected to the rainwater collection system. This will not only reduce the pressure of storm water management system of the city but also recharge groundwater Ground water hydrology Impact: The requirement of water will be met by bore wells after CGWB approval and from tankers. Also BWSSB supply is expected very shortly. The developer shall make internal B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 114

125 distribution network of water in the College project. Underground water tank of required capacity will be provided and over head tanks will provided for water storage. Mitigation Measures: To recharge the ground water level will be collected in tanks for use and over flow stage go to rainwater harvesting pit for recharge. To minimize the fresh water demand treated water will be recycled and reused for landscaping and flushing. To further lower the water consumption, options of Low flow flushing systems, sensor based fixtures, waterless urinals, and tap aerators etc will be explored. Water meters conforming to ISO standards should be installed at the inlet point of water uptake and at the discharge point to monitor the daily water consumption. Therefore, no significant impact is anticipated on ground water resources due to the project as it will be sufficiently compensated by ground water recharge Surface Water Quality Impact: Surface water contamination is anticipated from the waste water discharge. Mitigation Measures: Waste water will be treated in a STP of 1000 KLD. Only surplus water will be discharged after meeting the quality of wastewater to general standards for discharge of environmental pollutants part-a: effluents (schedule VI of The environment (protection) rules, 1986) Ground Water Quality Impact: Storm water contains silts, oil, grease and pesticides. Ground water contamination has been anticipated by inadequate storm water recharging Mitigation Measures: The storm water from the site will be used for recharging groundwater resources after adequate treatment of the storm water through oil and grease traps and filtration. The water will be collected in RWH tanks and over flow will go to recharge pit. First spell of rain will not be used for the harvesting and it will be flushed out. By using the diversion valve first flush will not be allowed to enter the harvesting system. In first flush all the water soluble chemicals/pesticides will dissolve and it will reduce the concentration of the chemicals and pesticide in significant manner. The wastewater from the site is proposed to be used for landscaping only after adequate treatment in proposed Sewage Treatment plant. Hence, no B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 115

126 adverse impact is anticipated on the groundwater quality form the project. Solid waste management practices will be adopted and followed to prevent groundwater pollution through leaching Air Environment Impact: During the post construction phase, cars, scooter/motorcycle will be carried by the student, staff and lecturer of College. Vehicular emissions will be major source of air pollution in addition to DG set. Quantum and dispersion of pollutants form vehicular emission will depend upon the following: Volume of traffic on the roads, Meteorological conditions. Emission sources from D.G. Sets. From vehicular emissions, PM, NO 2, SO 2 and CO is pollutants of primary concern. The dispersion of vehicular emissions would be confined within 300 m from the road and from the line source model it is observed that concentration will decrease with the increase in distance from road. It is anticipated that the contribution of vehicular emissions in ambient air quality will be marginal but well within the stipulated National Ambient. 2 DG sets of 1500 KVA & 500 KVA will be provided for back up electricity supply during power failure. This will cause emission of PM, SO 2, NO 2 and CO. However, since the D.G. sets will be operational only during power failure and low sulphur diesel will be used, therefore, pollutants incremental load in the ambient air environment will be expected to be minimal. However, an adequate stack height of D.G. Sets will be provided as per the stipulated guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) to facilitate proper dispersion of exhaust gases as given below considering height of the building: Atmospheric dispersion modeling of pollutants from DG sets is carried out using the USEPA approved air quality model ISCST3. Hourly meteorological data as monitored at site is used for impact assessment study. Mixing height data are taken from publication of IMD Atlas of Hourly Mixing Height in India, The GLC is predicted on the impact zone of 2 km x 2km at grid spacing 100x100m. The predicted GLCs of PM 10, CO and SO 2 are found insignificant. The resultant GLC in the form of isopleths for NO 2 is given in Figure 4.2. Based on the observed meteorological condition, the 24-hours average maximum predicted GLC of NO 2 is to be 1.95 B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 116

127 µg/m 3 and will occur at (-500,0) m from the DG sets location, if the DG set operates 24 hrs a day. As the DG set will operate for maximum 6 hours a day, the maximum 24 hours additional GLC will be µg/m 3. Pollution Source Details Stack No. 2 DG set Capacity (KVA) Stack Characteristics SO 2 NO Height velocity Temp CO PM 10 2 (m) (m/s) (k) Diameter (m) Table 4.5: Meteorological Data for the 24-hours average maximum predicted Concentration Year Month Day Hour Wind direction Wind speed (m/s) Temperature (K) B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 117

128 Figure 4.1: Three monthly wind rose for the month of December 2014 to Feb 2015 B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 118

129 Figure 4.2: Spatial distribution of 24-hours average NO2 concentrations (µg/m 3 ) Mitigation Measures: In the Engineering College Project will develop a green belt inside the premises of the project site and along the internal road, which will work as barrier for the movement of pollutants and help in pollution control Noise Environment Impact: The main sources of noise from the project are running of D.G. sets and vehicular traffic. D.G. sets installed in the Engineering College will provide emergency electricity supply during power failure. This will be intermittent and for short durations. The vehicles playing B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 119

130 within the site will be mainly of staff and studentsand are hence not expected to cause unnecessary noise. Hence, during this phase, no major impact on noise environment is anticipated. Mitigation Measures: D.G. sets will be fitted in acoustic enclosures to control the noise generated within 75 db(a) at 1 m distance from the DG set as per MoEF notification. Adequate personnel protective equipment (PPE) will be provided to the personnel engaged in D.G. set room. The traffic noise will diminish within a short distance from the source of origin. Honking within the site will be discouraged. Proposed rows of plantation will further restrict the noise on other side of the plantation i.e. outside the boundary Terrestrial Ecology Impact: The project proposes 17, m 2 of green area (50 % of which will be tree plantation) that will be planted with local species with aesthetic appeal that will attract local bird and insect species. As against the existing barren stretch of land, the project will add to the greenery and beauty of the region. Mitigation Measures: Various kinds of plantation such as curtain, avenue and ornamental plantation and lawns will be started during the construction phase itself and maintained during the operation phase. Open space and parks will be fenced through the grasses and ornamental plants. Local and low water demanding plants that will also be effective as sinks for various pollutants and attract birds will be grown in the site that will contribute in positive to the local ecology Socio-economic Impact Impact: During operational phase of Engineering College, more than 150 persons will get employment opportunities as staff for management, maintenance and security. As an estimate, during post construction phase, more than 150 persons will get marginal employment opportunities from the Engineering college who would work as domestic helpers, caterer, & office staff. This will help in improving the quality of life of economically weaker sections of the local area. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 120

131 Mitigation Measures: To further improve the socio-economic conditions of the area, it may be proposed to employ mainly local people as workers. Much of the maintenance arrangements may also be made with local companies and purchase of new parts from the local market Transport Linkage and Traffic Impact: The vehicle from the project will increase car and two wheeler traffic load along the road during peak hours. However, since present load is lean, increase in traffic load may not lead to traffic congestion problem. Traffic Impact assessment studies and management proposal has been attached as an Annexure- XIII. Mitigation Measures: As per the conceptual plan, the entrance to the project site is proposed along the road. The available width provided shall have sufficient merging space for the vehicles while meeting the road Energy Resources Impact: During the operation phase of the project, electric supply will be provided from Bangalore Electricity Supply Company (BESCOM). The proponents will make arrangements for meeting any electricity shortage for the project. Therefore, energy resources of the region will not be affected significantly. Mitigation Measures: To promote energy conservation, it is proposed to provide the buildings with low energy consuming fixtures maximize availability of natural light B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 121

132 CHAPTER-5 SPECIFIC STUDIES 5.1 TRANSPORTATION A well planned road network is proposed within the project premises. Adequate parking will be provided during construction phase to ensure that all heavy vehicles visiting the site are provided parking space within the site. There will be no parking on the accessible roads. The movement of the vehicles will also be scheduled such that the peak hours are avoided. In the operation phase, entry and exits will be from separate gates to minimize disturbance to the approach roads to the BMS College project. To avoid congestion of the approach roads, space will be provided for vehicles waiting checking. Adequate parking is also proposed to ensure there is no parking along the roads. Within the site, 6 m wide roads are proposed. To achieve the same, speed humps will be provided TRAFFIC STUDY The traffic study has been carried out at major traffic intersections in order to arrive at the traffic density in the study area. Two stations were selected. 1. Bull Temple Road (BMS College Front Gate) 2. 2 nd Cross Road (BMS College Back Gate) Traffic study has been done on these two locations considering all vehicles flow in these two locations and traffic study consists of general prediction for overall city traffic increment in next 5 years on these two locations. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 122

133 Figure 5.1: Location of survey station The methodology adopted for carrying out the traffic study was to select the major roads around the project site and count the various categories of vehicles moving on the roads. IRS (Indian Road congress) has recommended a set of Passenger Car Units for various vehicle types based on their characteristics, both physical and mechanical. These factors are different for rural and urban conditions. Passenger Car Units is used for traffic study is given below: TABLE 5.1. VEHICLE EQUIVALENT PCU FACTORS MODE EQUIVALENT FACTOR CAR/JEEP/VAN/TAXI 1 TWO WHEELERS 0.75 B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 123

134 AUTO 2 LCV 2 TRUCK /BUS 3.7 TRACTOR TRAILER 5 CYCLE 0.5 CYCLE RISHAW 2 TABLE 5.2 VOLUME TO CAPACITY RATIO AT (TVC LOCATION-1) EXISTING DIRECTION Thyagraja Nagar (D- 1) BMS Front Gate (D- 2) TRAFFIC VOLUME (PCU PER HOUR) LANE DESIGN SERVICE VOLUME (PCU PER HOUR) TYPE OF PCU CARRIAGEWAY UNDIVIDED (TWO WAY) 41 2-LANE (TWO WAY) V/C LEVEL OF SERVICE C A Bull Temple (D-3) LANE UNDIVIDED (TWO WAY) C TABLE 5.3 VOLUME TO CAPACITY RATIO AT (TVC LOCATION-2) EXISTING DIRECTION TRAFFIC VOLUME (PCU PER HOUR) DESIGN SERVICE VOLUME (PCU PER HOUR) TYPE OF CARRIAGEWAY PCU V/C LEVEL OF SERVICE Gane sh Bhavan (D-1) BMS Back Gate (D- 2) LANE UNDIVIDED (TWO WAY) LANE (TWO WAY) C 0.23 B Vidyapeeta (D-3) Circle LANE UNDIVIDED (TWO WAY) C B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 124

135 Projected traffic load after commissioning of the project: DIRECTION Thyagraja Nagar (D- 1) TABLE 5.4 VOLUME TO CAPACITY RATIO AT (TVC LOCATION-1) TRAFFIC VOLUME (PCU PER HOUR) 2034 DESIGN SERVICE VOLUME (PCU PER HOUR) TYPE OF CARRIAGEWAY 4-LANE UNDIVIDED (TWO WAY) BMS Front Gate (D- 2) LANE (TWO WAY) PCU V/C LEVEL OF SERVICE 0.67 D 0.25 B Bull Temple (D-3) LANE UNDIVIDED (TWO WAY) D TABLE 5.5 VOLUME TO CAPACITY RATIO AT (TVC LOCATION-2) DIRECTION Ganesh Bhavan (D- 1) BMS Back Gate (D- 2) TRAFFIC VOLUME (PCU PER HOUR) DESIGN SERVICE VOLUME (PCU PER HOUR) TYPE OF PCU CARRIAGEWAY LANE UNDIVIDED (TWO WAY) LANE (TWO WAY) 1500 V/C LEVEL OF SERVICE C 0.40 B Vidyapeeta (D-3) Circle LANE UNDIVIDED (TWO WAY) C There is minor increment in traffic due to our project. Following Traffic Management measures will be implemented for increased traffic: 1.) Enhanced parking space will be provided. 2.) Separate Entry and Exit system. Wide space will be provided at entry and exit point. 3.) Bull temple road is 24 m wide which will be sufficient to carry the increased traffic load. 4.) In case there is high traffic density at front road (Bull temple Road), rear side road is proposed for traffic diversion, whose width is 18 m for smooth traffic flow. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 125

136 5.) Encourage for public transport instead of use of personal vehicle & also encourage for sharing Cabs. Detailed Traffic study report is enclosed as Annexure-XIII. Traffic circulation plan is attached as Annexure-VII. 5.2 BUILDING MATERIALS The choice of building materials plays an important role in terms of energy efficiency of the building. The manufacture of building materials should also be assessed to ensure the use of environment friendly and recycled/ recyclable construction materials Wall Conventionally, sun burnt clay bricks are cemented in the construction of walls. The strength of these construction materials cannot be compromised which will otherwise pose a threat to the life and property of the occupants. However, presently, materials with similar properties are easily available that are made of waste products, thereby reducing the waste burden and conserving natural resources. Thus, the project proposes the use of the following for walls: Brick and block products with waste and recycled contents such as fly ash (15 to 35%), blast furnace slag (20 to 25%), sewage sludge, waste wood fiber etc. Fly ash based lightweight aerated concrete blocks flyash being a waste product of thermal power plant poses the challenge of disposal. Hazardous in powder form, it is rendered harmless when moulded as bricks. Fal-G products are manufactured by use of two waste products being fly ash, calcined gypsum (a byproduct of phosphogypsum or natural gypsum) along with lime. Perforated bricks. Materials proposed for use in the wall openings such as doors and windows include: Precast thin lintels, use of ferro cement-sunshade cum lintel etc. Renewable timber Steel manufactured from recycled content. Aluminum manufactured from verified recycled content. Saw dust based doors and window frames. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 126

137 Ferro cement shutters, PVC doors and windows, Rice husk boards, Natural fibrereinforced. Polymer composite door panels. Bamboo based products, bamboo strips boards. The finishing for the openings will be by the use of Fly ash, Ceramic tiles, Terrazzo floors Roof The conventional material used for roofing is RCC, as it is suitable for longer spans. The constituents of RCC, i.e. cement, sand, aggregate and steel are energy intensive materials and high embodied energy content. Alternately, it is proposed to use lightweight synthetic aggregates such as fly ash based aggregates, which is suitable for manufacture of brick, blocks, and is good substitute for clinker and natural aggregates. When pre-cast/aerated cellular concrete walling blocks and roofing slabs are used in multi- storied structures, they reduce the weight, resulting in a more economical design. They have high rating to fire resistance and provide better insulation and thus improved energy efficiency. These are manufactured by the aerated cellular concrete manufacturing process Superstructure Structural frame of building comprises of footing, columns, beams and lintels, over which the envelope of building is supported. A variety of metals are used in buildings, but the major building material used structurally is steel. Steel has a high-embodied energy and recyclable content, as well as scrap value. Aluminum forms the second most common material used for roofing sheets, window frames, and cladding systems, which has the highest recyclable content. Hence, bulk of the metal needs for the building will be met by steel and aluminum. RCC is having some certain problems. The choice of cement will be: Ferro cement: The composite Ferro cement system is simple to construct and is made of Ferro cement a rich mortar reinforced with chicken or/and welded wire mesh. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 127

138 Use of fly ash: The amount of cement used in concrete can be reduced by replacing a portion of the cement with coal fly ash (waste material from coal burning power plants) and/or GGBF (ground granulated blast furnace) slag in conventional mixes. Recycled aggregates: Recycled aggregates include crushed concrete, brick, glass, or other masonry waste can also be used in conventional mixes Lightweight concrete: Aluminum powder when added to lime reacts and form hydrogen bubbles, and a lightweight cementitious material is formed which could be used in conventional mixes Roads and open spaces Roads and open spaces consist of compound walls, grills, roads, sidewalks, parking lots, drains, curbs, landscaped areas, street furniture, tree covers, and flowerbeds. In line with environment friendly design, it is proposed to provide: Permeable paving- Permeable (porous) paving will be provided to control surface water runoff by allowing storm water to infiltrate the soil and return to the ground water. The traffic areas will however continue to be impermeable. Gravel/crusher fines - Loose aggregate materials from masonry wastes will be used to cover pedestrian surfaces. Use of grass pavers on the road, parking and pedestrian areas to reduce the heat island effect. Use of steel in fencing, grills, tree covers, and benches and even in streetlights will be replaced by bamboo in the parks and green landscaped areas. 5.3 ENERGY CONSERVATION Energy conservation will be one of the focuses during the BMS College planning and operation stages. Energy conservation for the BMS campus has been approached in a three stepped manner B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 128

139 1. Reducing energy demand through passive design of building minimizing solar heat gains, maximizing usable daylight and natural ventilation, minimizing the number of days air conditioning is required and the cooling demand. 2. Reducing energy demand by designing efficient air conditioning and artificial lighting systems 3. Augmenting energy required with renewable energy systems Step 1 Minimizing Demand through Passive design of buildings Orientation and shape of the building Orientation is simply what compass direction the building faces. Successful orientation rotates the building to minimize solar heat gains and maximize daylighting, and harness the free energy from the sun and wind for passive cooling. The form of BMS Academic building is rectangular with two atriums. The main front façade is undulating and faces E and NE. most of the classrooms face North, South and towards the two atriums. The east façade has been serrated towards the north and shaded so that only diffuse daylight enters the classrooms. All classrooms on the E, S and N facades have been designed to maximize usable daylight with no requirement for blinds (with the use of tall windows with external shading). The central corridor is aligned in the E W axis to catch western winds. All corridors have been left open at external several locations and into the atriums in order to naturally ventilate them both through cross ventilation and stack ventilation. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 129

140 Building envelope (wall and Roof) Mass in a building has a function of increasing thermal capacity. The objective for insulation is to increase the thermal resistance within the walls that are exposed to solar gains and reduce the cooling loads of the building. However, over insulation has a negative impact by accumulating heat over a period of time. The external walls of BMS are cavity walls so that there is an increase in the thermal capacity as well as an increase in thermal resistance to heat gains. Thermal Sensitivity studies have been conducted and insulation requirement assessed. Based on this, insulation has been provided in select external walls and the roof to ensure reduced heat gains and enhanced heat losses. It is limited to the areas which experience direct solar gains; for e.g. the northern façade does not include insulation in its wall assembly as it has no incident solar radiation. The building roof is provided with insulation and a highly reflective coating. Windows and Shading All the windows are high in order to allow for deeper penetration of daylight into the rooms. The windows on the north and south facade are 2.4mm wide, 3 m high and 450mm deep-set in the wall. Shading has been provided in the form of external shading and internal light shelves to ensure no direct sun enters the rooms from 9am to 5pm when most of the classrooms are occupied, thereby avoiding the use of blinds. The internal light shelves helps in reflecting daylight deeper into the space lighting up the ceiling that result in diffuse and well lit spaces. This strategy provides good diffuse uniformly distributed daylight in all the rooms. The strategy to avoid blinds ensures the maximum use of daylight in all the rooms. Glazing To reduce solar heat gains from windows and provide optimum daylight (avoid excessive amount that could lead to glare), different types of glazing having low SHGC values and high VLT values have been used. Glazing has been chosen based on orientation and external shading to reduce solar gains and maximize daylight. Step 2 Minimizing demand through efficient systems B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 130

141 Efficient HVAC system The Academic building on the BMS campus have been designed to be operated in a mixed mode setting, i.e., naturally ventilated during the cooler winter and monsoon months, Air conditioned during the hotter summer months. Advanced dynamic thermal simulations has been used to achieve this and to optimise design Efficient Artificial Lighting systems Most rooms have been designed to have adequate daylight on campus. As such, during the day, more than 75% of the occupied rooms in the building will have adequate daylight through most of the year. For the times when the buildings will be used during late evenings and at night, artificial lighting has been efficiently designed as follows Use of efficient LED and CFL fixtures Use of occupancy sensors in faculty rooms and toilets Use of timers in all corridors and external spaces Calculated EPI The BMS campus is predicted to have an EPI of around 65 kwh/sqm/annum. This is 55% more efficient than the benchmark EPI of 140 kwh/sqm/annum for similar buildings Sub metering and monitoring In order to ensure the predicted energy savings are achieved during operation, elaborate sub metering has been provided on the campus. This will be supported by a measurement and verification plan that will allow for the occupants to constantly check their consumption against calculations. Behavioral change of occupants All the staff would be trained on methods of energy conservation and to be vigilant to such opportunities. Awareness drives will be conducted constantly to inform the students Step 3 Use of Renewable energy systems B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 131

142 Solar Photovoltaic systems Solar PV system is being installed on site. The amount will depend on the final roof area available Detail of U Values Type of Construction U values (in W/m 2 deg C) Walls: Plastered both sides-114 mm 3.24 Solid, Unplastered- 228 mm 2.67 Plastered both sides-228 mm 2.44 Concrete, ordinary, Dense: -152 mm mm 3.18 Concrete block, cavity, 250mm Single skin, outside render Aerated Concrete Blocks 1.19 Hollow Concrete bloc, 228 mm, single skin, outside renedered, inside plastered Aerated Concrete Blocks 1.70 Roofs Pitched: Tiles or Slates on boarding and felt with plaster ceiling Roofs Flat: Reinforced concrete slab, 100 mm, 63-12, 3 layers bituminous 3.35 felt. Floors: Concrete on ground or hardcore fill Grano, Terrazzo or tile finish Wood block finish 0.85 Windows: Exposure South, Sheltered: Single glazing 3.97 Double glazing 6mm space 2.67 B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 132

143 CHAPTER-6 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAM 6.1 INTRODUCTION The purpose of the monitoring programme is to ensure that the specified mitigative measures defined in the EMP are complied with and leads to the desired benefits for the target area and its population. To ensure the effective implementation of the EMP and gauge the efficiency of the mitigative measures, monitoring shall be undertaken both during the construction and operation period of the project. 6.2 PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (PIs) The physical, biological and social components are of particular significance to the project is as listed below: Air quality Water quality Noise levels Solid waste management Replantation success / survival rate Of these, the following are selected as the Performance Indicators (PIs) and shall be monitored, since these are well known and comparative data series exist: Air quality Noise levels Water quality Flora To ensure the effective implementation of the mitigation measures and environmental management during construction and operation phase of project road, it is essential that an effective Environmental Monitoring Plan be designed and followed as given in Table Ambient Air Quality (AAQ) Monitoring Ambient air quality parameters recommended for monitoring with regard to constructional activities are PM, CO, SO x, and NOx. Monitoring shall be carried out twice a week for one B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 133

144 month in each season during construction phase in accordance to the National Ambient Air Quantity Standards. The locations with the pollution parameters to be monitored are detailed out in the Environmental Monitoring Plan (Table 6.1) Noise Level Monitoring The measurements of noise levels will be carried out at all designated locations in accordance to the ambient noise standards formulated by MoEF as given. Noise level will be monitored on twenty-four hourly bases. Noise should be recorded at A weighted frequency using a slow time response mode of the measuring instrument. The measurement location, duration and the noise pollution parameters to be monitored are detailed in the Environmental Monitoring Plan (Table 6.1) Success of Vegetation To ensure the proper maintenance and monitoring of the proposed plantation activities, a regular survey of the survival rate of the planted trees is being up to a period of 2 years from the start of operation of the project. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 134

145 Table 6.1: Environmental Monitoring Plan Environment Component Ground Water Quality Project stage Parameter Standards Location Duration / Frequency Construction Stage Drinking water parameters Drinking water standards (IS 10500) Private water tanker Six monthly Operation Phase Drinking water parameters Drinking water standards (IS 10500) Bore well &BWSSB Once every year during the dry season Drinking water Construction Stage Drinking water parameters Drinking water standards (IS 10500) Supply water after treatment Six monthly Operation Phase Drinking water parameters Drinking water standards (IS 10500) Supply water after treatment Quarterly Surface water body Treated wastewater Air Construction Phase Operation Phase Construction Phase ph, BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, DO, Oil & Grease and the pesticide being used ph, BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, DO, PM, SO2, NOx, CO Category C Yediyur Lake Summer season, before the onset on monsoon every year. General Standards for discharge of effluents National Ambient Air Quality Standards Outlet of the Sewage Treatment Plant Project Site Hanumantha Nagar SBM Colony Gandhi Bazaar Meditech Hospital Every three months during the project life cycle Continuous 24-hourly, twice a week for 12 weeks B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 135

146 Environment Component Noise Rainwater harvesting Project stage Parameter Standards Location Duration / Frequency Operation Phase Construction Phase Operation Phase Operation Phase PM, SO 2, NO 2, CO, O 3 Noise Level in db (A) Noise Level in db (A) Inspection of stormwater drains and rainwater harvesting pits National Ambient Air Quality Standards As per Ambient Noise Standards As per Ambient Noise Standards Project Site Hanumantha Nagar SBM Colony Gandhi Bazaar Meditech Hospital Project Site Hanumantha Nagar Gandhi Bazaar Meditech Hospital Project site Continuous 24-hourly, twice a week for one month, once in a year (summer). Ozone 8 hourly, twice a week for one month, once in a year (summer). One day hourly measurement, quarterly One day hourly measurement, annual Design parameters Project site Prior to monsoons B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 136

147 6.3 DATA MANAGEMENT The monitoring shall be carried out through MoEF/ NABL approved laboratory. All results shall be maintained at the project site and submitted to the SPCB as per the reporting requirements in the Environmental Clearance. 6.4 REPORTING SCHEDULES The environment management cell shall be responsible for timely conduct of the monitoring activities. The results of the analysis shall be intimated to the project head. Any anomaly in test results shall be investigated into and proper corrective actions shall be undertaken. A complaint register shall also be maintained to note any complaints. Corrective actions taken against the complaints shall also be noted. 6.5 EMERGENCY Alarming levels of pollutants in any of the monitored component may raise alarm in the College. However, such information should be made available to the student, staff and through notices. The latter may also be consulted on necessary steps to be taken on an immediate and long term basis to tide over the problem. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 137

148 CHAPTER-7 ADDITIONAL STUDIES 7.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter broadly looks at various aspects related to disaster management, resource conservation. 7.2 RISK ASSESSMENT AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN Engineering College project encompasses the lives of a large number of people. It also involves installation of various structures and machineries that meet the comfort and needs of its population but may also pose serious threat to the occupants in case of an accident. It is thus considered necessary to carry out a risk assessment and disaster management plan for the project Risk Hazard & its control measures It is attempted to plan and construct the buildings following all safety norms. However, it is not always possible to totally eliminate such eventualities and random failures of equipment or human errors. An essential part of major hazard control has therefore, to be concerned with mitigating the effects of such emergency and restoration of normalcy at the earliest. A detailed table showing activities during construction and operation phase along with mitigation measures are given in Table 7.1 Table 7.1: Activities during construction and operation along with mitigation measures HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH ACTIVITIES (During Construction & Operation) During Demolition Accident due to falling object. CONTROL/MITIGATION MEASURES Keep safe distance from demolition site. PPE equipment will be provided B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 138

149 Accident due to ignorance. Manual Handling Strains and sprains - incorrect lifting - too heavy loads -twisting - bending - repetitive movement - body vibration. Falls - Slips - Trips Falls on same level - falls to surfaces below - poor housekeeping - slippery surfaces uneven surfaces -poor access to work areas climbing on and off plant - unloading materials into excavations wind - falling objects. Fire Flammable liquids/gases like LPG, Diesel Storage area and combustible building materials - poor housekeeping - grinding sparks - open flames, absence of Fire hydrant net work. to each worker. Proper safety training will be given to labours. Precaution Sinage board will be provided at demolition site. Exercise/warm up - get help when needed - control loads - rest breaks/no exhaustion - no rapid movement/twisting/ bending/repetitive movement - good housekeeping. Housekeeping - tidy workplace - guardrails, handholds, harnesses, hole cover, hoarding, no slippery floors/trip hazards - clear/ safe access to work areas - egress from work areas - dust/water controlled - PPE. Combustible/flammable materials properly stored/used - good housekeeping - fire extinguishers made available & Fire hydrant Network with reserve Fire water (As per NFPA Code) - Emergency Plan in case of Fire or collapse of structure. Absence of Personal Protective Equipment Lack of adequate footwear - head protection -hearing/eye protection - respiratory protection - gloves -goggles. Defective or wrong Hand Tools Head/face - footwear - hearing/eye - skin respiratory protection provided - training - maintenance. Right tool for the job - used properly - good B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 139

150 Wrong tool - defective tool - struck by flying debris - caught in or on - missing guards - carbon monoxide - strains and sprains - dust. Electricity Electrocution - overhead/underground services- any leads damaged or poorly insulated - temporary repairs -no testing and tagging - circuits overloaded - non use of protective devices. condition/ maintenance guards - isolation - eye/face protection - flying debris controlled. Leads good condition and earthed - no temporary repairs - no exposed wires - good insulation - no overloading - use of protective devices - testing and tagging -no overhead/ underground services Scaffolding Poor foundation - lack of ladder access insufficient planking - lack of guardrails and toe boards - insufficient ties or other means - all scaffolds incorrectly braced or stabilized to prevent overturning. Ladders Carrying loads - not secured against dislodgement -defective ladders - not sufficient length - wrong positions - incorrectly placed (angles, in access ways, vehicle movements. All scaffolds correctly braced and stabilized - 3:1 height to base ratio - firm foundation, plumb and level - ladder access provided and used - proper platform (3 planks/675 mm) - planks secured - guardrails and toe boards - 900mm to 1100mm high, within 200mm of working face, mid-rail. Secured against movement or footed - ladders in good condition - regularly inspected - extend 1m above platform - 4:1 angle - out of access ways, vehicle movements - climbing - no carrying loads - 3 points of contact - no higher than 3 rd step down - use for access only, not working platforms. Excavations Trench collapse - material falling in undetected underground services - falls - hazardous atmosphere struck by traffic and Soil stability known - no water accumulation - existing services known - material 600mm from edge - clear of suspended loads - hardhats/ppe - ladders - public protection atmospheric testing B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 140

151 mobile plant. Gas Cutting and Welding Fire - welding flash, burns, fumes, electrocution in wet conditions - flashback in oxygen set, leaking cylinders, acetylene cylinders lying down - poorly maintained leads. Noise Unknown noise levels - known noise levels over 85 decibels Falling Material Fall during carrying/lifting materials- dislodged tools and materials from overhead work areas. Craneage & Lifts Display of carrying capacity i.e load (No. Of person), incorrectly slung, defective lifting equipment, unsecured loads, craning in close proximity to building people and plant - falls - falling materials. Visitors Presence at site Falls - struck by - dropped materials - roading accidents -insufficient hoarding or fencing - pedestrian access past site - mechanical plant movement on and off site. Decommissioning of Laboratory - traffic controls - Emergency Plan. Welding flash and burns controlled with PPE and shields -fumes controlled with ventilation and PPE (in good condition and properly positioned), Gas cylinders be kept upright & secured position (properly tied) - combustible materials to be kept at secured place to avoid fire & Fire Extinguishers to be kept in fire prone area with training to people for its use. Levels below 85 decibels - proper protection. Materials to be secured kept away from edge - toe boards Use of hard hats. Periodic testing by competent authority - correctly slung/secured loads, lifting equipment good condition - use of proper hand signals - falls while unloading controlled. Sufficient hoarding - fencing and barricades - safe pedestrian access past site traffic management for loading and delivery - construction separated from occupied areas of projects. Decommissioning of Laboratary will done by B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 141

152 Spillage of Hazardous Chemical, Handling sharp Equipment from Biotech Lab, spillage of Bio active materials the help Laboratory technician under the guidance of Laboratory HOD with considering all precautionary measures Emergency Response Plan (ERP) The overall objective of an Emergency Response Plan (ERP) is to make use of the combined resources at the site and outside services to achieve the following: 1. To localize the emergency and if possible eliminate it; 2. To minimize the effects of the accident on people and property; 3. Effect the rescue and medical treatment of casualties; 4. Safeguard other people; 5. Evacuate people to safe areas; 6. Informing and collaborating with statutory authorities; 7. Initially contain and ultimately bring the incident under control; 8. Preserve relevant records and equipment for the subsequent enquiry into the cause and circumstances of the emergency; 9. Investigating and taking steps to prevent reoccurrence The ERP is therefore related to identification of sources from which hazards can arise and the maximum credible loss scenario that can take place in the concerned area. The plan takes into account the maximum credible loss scenario - actions that can successfully mitigate the effects of losses/ emergency need to be well planned so that they would require less effort and resources to control and terminate emergencies, should the same occur. Main hazards identified for the project include hazards pertaining to fires in buildings and fire in diesel storage areas, earthquake and LPG leakage and an ERP pertaining to these is described in the following section. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 142

153 7.3 RESPONSE IN CASE OF EARTHQUAKE Response Procedures for Occupants If indoors: 1. Take cover under a piece of heavy furniture or against an inside wall and hold on. 2. Stay inside: The most dangerous thing to do during the shaking of an earthquake is to try to leave the building because objects can fall on you. If outdoors: Move into the open, away from buildings, streetlights, and utility wires. Once in the open, stay there until the shaking stops. If in a moving vehicle: Stop quickly and stay in the vehicle. Move to a clear area away from buildings, trees, overpasses, or utility wires. Once the shaking has stopped, proceed with caution. Avoid bridges or ramps that might have been damaged by the quake. After the quake 1. After the quake be prepared for aftershocks. 2. Although smaller than the main shock, aftershocks cause additional damage and may bring weakened structures down. Aftershocks can occur in the first hours, days, weeks, or even months after the quake. Help injured or trapped persons. 1. Give first aid where appropriate. Do not move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. Call for help. 2. Remember to help those who may require special assistance--infants, the elderly, and people with disabilities. 3. Stay out of damaged buildings. 4. Use the telephone only for emergency calls. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 143

154 7.3.2 Response Procedure for Emergency Team 1. Formulate an Emergency Response Team for earthquake response. Using the public address system, inform residents of response procedures discussed above. 2. Inform the necessary authorities for aid. 3. Ensure no person is stuck beneath any debris, in case of a structural failure. 4. Ensure that all occupants standing outside near the buildings are taken to open areas. 5. Ensure that the first aid ambulance and fire tender vehicles are summoned if necessary. 6. Inform the nearby hospitals if there are any injuries. 7. Check the utilities and storage tanks for any damage. 7.4 RESPONSE FOR LPG LEAKAGE 1. The affected area should be evacuated and cordoned off immediately 2. Initiate an Emergency Response Team for LPG leakage. 3. Shut down the main valves in the gas bank. 4. Ensure that only concerned personnel are present in the affected area and all other personnel and visitors are moved to the nearest assembly points. 5. Rescue trapped personnel, also check if any personnel are unconscious in the area and immediately move them outside and provide first aid. Ambulance should be summoned to take injured personnel to the nearest hospital. 6. Personnel in the nearby buildings to close all doors and windows to prevent entry of the leaked gas. 7. Source of leakage to be traced and isolated from all the other areas. And if required use pedestal fans to bring down the gas concentration. 8. In case of a fire follow the instructions in case of fire. 7.5 RESPONSE IN CASE OF FIRE 1. Required response during in the event of a fire should be described in signs located in the lobby. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 144

155 2. On sighting a fire, it should be immediately informed to the environment manager giving the exact location and type of fire in detail. 3. Initiate the Emergency Response Team for fires. 4. If the fire is small, engage in extinguishing the fire using the nearest fire extinguisher. 5. Guide the Emergency Response Team staff to the emergency assembly point. 6. The Emergency Response Team should immediately inform the nearest dispensary and security force. If required a fire tender should be summoned. 7. The response team should immediately move to the point of fire and take all necessary steps to stop the fire. If the fire is not controllable and spreads then the manager in charge should inform the district authorities and call for external help. 8. The Emergency Response Team will provide immediate relief to the injured residents at the scene of incident. Any injured persons should be evacuated on priority to the dispensary or one of the nearest hospitals based on their condition. Instructions for occupants 1. Get out of buildings as quickly and as safely as possible. 2. Use the stairs to escape. When evacuating, stay low to the ground. 3. If possible, cover mouth with a cloth to avoid inhaling smoke and gases. 4. Close doors in each room after escaping to delay the spread of the fire. 5. If in a room with a closed door. 6. If smoke is pouring in around the bottom of the door or if it feels hot, keep the door closed. 7. Open a window to escape or for fresh air while awaiting rescue. 8. If there is no smoke at the bottom or top and the door is not hot, then open the door slowly. 9. If there is too much smoke or fire in the hall, slam the door shut. 10. Stay out of damaged buildings. 11. Check that all wiring and utilities are safe. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 145

156 A state of the art fire fighting system is proposed for the project to prevent and control fire outbreaks. The fire fighting system will consist of portable fire extinguishers, hose reel, wet riser, yard hydrant, automatic sprinkler system, and manual fire alarm system. The College buildings will also be provided with automatic fire detection and alarm system. 7.6 RESOURCE CONSERVATION The project will lead to utilization of various natural resources. As an environmentally responsible corporate, the developers endeavor to conserve these resources by judicious management and recycling and strive to build up these resources where possible. Water Resources: The project will use groundwater resources during both the construction and operation phases of the project. Given the national water scenario, where availability if fresh water is fast dwindling, judicious use of the same cannot be over emphasized. Following means are proposed to be adopted for conservation of this life sustaining resource: Limited withdrawal of groundwater: The project is as per Bangalore City Development Plan. The project will be supplied water from private tankers and Bore wells. Also BWSSB supply is expected shortly. Only shortcomings in the water requirement of the site will be met from groundwater abstraction. Reduced use of water: To further minimize the use of available freshwater, various low flow fixtures may be provided such as Low flow flushing systems, sensor based fixtures, waterless urinals, tap aerators. Awareness will also be spread amongst the residents on the following lines: Timely detection and repair of all leakages; Turning off tap while brushing teeth; Use of mug rather than running water for shaving; Avoiding/minimizing use of shower/bath tub in bathroom; Turning off faucets while soaping and rinsing clothes; Using automatic washing machine only when it is fully loaded; Avoiding use of running water while hand-washing; Avoiding use of running water for releasing ice tray ahead of time from freezer; Turning off the main valve of water while going outdoor; B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 146

157 Avoiding use of hose for washing floors; Use of broom may be preferred; Watering of lawn or garden during the coolest part of the day (early morning or late evening, hours) when temperature and wind speed are lowest. This reduces losses due to evaporation. Planting of native and/or drought tolerant grasses, ground covers, shrubs and trees. Once fully grown, they need not to be watered frequently. Avoiding over watering of lawns. Good rains eliminate the need for watering for more than a week. Setting sprinklers to water the lawn or garden only, not the street or sidewalk; Avoiding installation or use of ornamental water features unless they recycle the water and avoiding running them during drought or hot weather; Installation of high-pressure, low-volume nozzles on spray washers; Replacement of high-volume hoses with high-pressure, low-volume cleaning systems; Equipping spring loaded shutoff nozzles on hoses; Installation of float-controlled valve on the make-up line, closing filling line during operation, provision of surge tanks for each system avoid overflow; Washing vehicles less often, or using commercial car wash that recycles water; Treatment and Recycling: The wastewater generated from the sites will be treated in an on-site Sewage Treatment Plant upto tertiary level. This will enable the treated wastewater to be used for flushing, landscaping, and DG set cooling, thereby reducing the requirement of freshwater for these purposes. Rainwater harvesting: The increased hard surface of College increases the runoff as compared to the otherwise barren land. It is proposed to harvest this rainwater runoff that will recharge the groundwater resource while reducing the burden of storm water management of the city and eventually natural water bodies. Apart from the open spaces, it is proposed to harvest the roof top rainwater. The storm water will be treated through an oil and grease trap and allowed to flow through layers of sand and gravel for filtration prior to reaching the water table, to avoid any possibility of groundwater contamination. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 147

158 Construction materials: As an College project will require various kinds of natural construction materials such as sand, gravel etc. It is proposed for prior estimation of required quantities of these materials and procurement only as per requirement. This will also result in cost-efficiency. Excavated soil from the project site will be used within the site to the extent feasible. Excess soil will be made available to the construction sites, as per need. Energy: To conserve the energy resources, good practices will be followed during the construction phase such as turning off lights and equipments when not in use, ensuring fuel efficiency of motors and vehicles through proper maintenance and minimal work at night. The principles of energy conservation will also be embedded in the buildings through use of energy efficient fixtures, maximum availability of natural light and use of solar energy for street lighting. 7.7 RESETTLEMENT AND REHABILITATION The project will not result in displacement of any local population and hence, does not require a resettlement and rehabilitation study. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 148

159 CHAPTER-8 PROJECT BENEFITS 8.1 GENERAL The project site is located at Survey no. 52/1, Old ward no. 49, New ward no. 154, K.G Nagar, Bull Temple Road, Bangalore The project will be developed on a total plot area of acres. The project has a wide road network with close proximity and easy accessibility to the retail outlets, schools, hospitals, etc. The salient features of the project include: Academic Block Admintration and research block Proposed Auditorium and library Hostels Food court and play ground Rain Water Harvesting Fire Fighting system as per NBC Emergency Alarm System Basement parking Centralized Water Waste Management Multi-tiered security Advanced fire protection systems Seamless telecommunication networks Optical fiber connectivity Backup power supply 8.2 PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE The institutional project will help in meeting the growing needs of education. Care has been taken to provide the student and staff with necessary facilities as power, water supply, parking spaces, and broad roads that are safe and secure. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 149

160 8.3 SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE An institutional project of this scale sets in an overall development of the region, maintenance of existing roads, power supply and water supply, since a large construction generally brings the focus of the development authorities in the locality. 8.4 ECONOMIC BENEFITS The project will entail positive impact on the local economy in a convenient way. The construction phase of the project will engage a large number of construction workers, whether skilled, semi-skilled or unskilled. The project will provide jobs to 500 people at various levels posts in the college and thousands will bet employment indirectly. It will provide various business opportunities to cater the demand of students and staff visiting the college. The project will help in infrastructure development, education and professional course for weaker sections of society and others as required after need based survey from CSR as per standards from the project cost. Project will provide an value added benefit to local people. Workers will also be ensured welfare facilities such as drinking water, sheds for resting, medical facilities. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 150

161 EIA/EMP Report CHAPTER-9 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN 9.1 INTRODUCTION Identification and prediction of impacts further needs to suggest the mitigation measures which would play a vital role in prevention of environmental degradation during construction and operational phase of the institutional project. This leads to preparation of Environmental Management Plan (EMP), therefore EMP forms an imperative part of EIA process. The Environmental Management plan is a site specific plan developed to ensure that the project is implemented in an environmentally sustainable manner where all contractors and subcontractors, including consultants if any, understand the potential environmental risks arising from the project and take appropriate actions to minimize those risks. EMP also ensures that the project implementation is carried out in accordance with the planned design and by taking appropriate mitigates actions to reduce adverse environmental impacts during project s life cycle. The project will create certain inevitable impacts, mainly during construction phase, although within permissible limits as mentioned in Chapter 4 and can be reduced significantly with the help of effective implementation of a well-designed EMP. The potential environmental impacts, which need to be regulated, are mentioned below: Air pollution due to the emission of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants from operation of D.G. sets during power failure and vehicular movement; Noise pollution due to various noise generating equipment as well as vehicular movement; Water resource management to ensure continuous water supply. Sullage generation from sanitary/domestic activities; and Generation of municipal solid wastes from institute, campus maintenance of roads, parks, common areas including constructional, electrical and plumbing wastes. Energy conservation methods. Maintenance of Building Management Systems and emergency aids. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 151

162 EIA/EMP Report To ensure better environment in and around the project site, effective EMP is developed separately for construction and operational phase. 9.2 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Strategy for environmental management in construction work should be based on three-pronged approach comprising of: Pollution prevention Pollution control Protection of pollution recipients Topography and Physiography During the construction and post construction phase of the institutional project, no significant impact is anticipated on local or regional topography and physiography, hence exhaustive management plan is not required. It is however proposed to carry out extensive turfing with local species apart from proposed plantations and greens Soil Development & Construction Phase During the construction phase, various kinds of wastes are generated that will be disposed in varied ways. The following measures will be taken to prevent soil contamination at site and ensure waste management: Vegetation and top soil management: Remove vegetative cover only from the specific site on which construction will take place. Plantation as proposed shall be started at the earliest. The top soil will be stripped from constructional areas and stockpiled for later reuse in landscaping. Promote use of organic fertilizers. Construction of erosion prevention troughs, as deemed necessary. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 152

163 EIA/EMP Report To prevent the erosion of excavated loose soil produced as a result of excavation, site preparation activities and excavation work would be undertaken during dry season after monsoon is over. Construction Debris: Fuel and oil would be stored in cement lined storage yard and handled carefully to prevent soil contamination through leakage or spillage. All metal, paper, plastic wastes, debris and cuttings would be collected from site as soon as particular construction activity is over. During construction of flexible pavement, bitumen wastes will be collected (if any) and disposed in environmentally sound manner. The number, frequency and area of movement of heavy machinery will also be restricted. Recycling of construction wastes into aggregates for use in the project site. Used oil from DG sets should be stored in HDPE drums in isolated covered facility and disposed off as per the Hazardous Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules, Wastes from the labor camps will be collected and disposed as per the existing practices in the site Operational Phase To prevent soil contamination at site, the most important aspect is to manage the solid wastes that will be generated during the operation phase. The Environmental Management Plan for the solid waste focuses on three major components during the life cycle of the waste management system i.e. collection, transportation, and treatment or disposal. Collection and segregation of wastes Solid waste generated from project would be collected and segregated into decomposable, recyclable and inert wastes. Decomposable wastes will be decomposed and converted to manure to be used for horticulture. Recyclable waste would be sold to vendors. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 153

164 EIA/EMP Report Inert waste which comprises a very small amount of the total solid waste generated would be temporarily stored within the project premises. Waste bins would be placed at the strategic locations such as inter section of internal roads, parks, common places, etc. To minimize littering and odors, waste will be stored in well-designed containers/ bins that will be located at strategic locations to minimize disturbance in traffic flow. Care would be taken such that the collection vehicles are well maintained and generate minimum noise and emissions. During transportation of the waste, it will be covered to avoid littering. Transportation: Only the non-recyclable and non-biodegradable waste will be transported to the Govt. approved agency. The segregation, transportation and disposal of wastes will be done by the authorized agency that will take care of the waste management of the project during the operational phase of the project. Figure 9.1: Waste Management Flow Diagram B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 154

165 EIA/EMP Report Disposal With regards to the disposal/ treatment of waste, the management will take the services of the authorized agency for waste management and disposal of the same on the project site during its operational phase Hydrology Surface water Hydrology Development & Construction Phase To ensure adequate passage of the storm water as per the regional drainage pattern, water channels will be provided. It is also suggested to avoid excavation during monsoons. Chemicals such as paints,varnishes and oil/ grease will be stored under covered and cemented areas. Wash offs containing these chemicals will be drained into impervious for disposal as hazardous wastes. Operational Phase It is proposed to provide rainwater harvesting across the project site. The roof tops of buildings will also be connected to the rainwater collection system. This will not only reduce the pressure of storm water management system of the city and eventually the water bodies but also recharge groundwater Ground water Hydrology Development & Construction Phase The water requirement during the construction period will be met by water from BWSSB. The following are also proposed to further reduce the demand of freshwater: Curing water will be sprayed on concrete structures and free flow of water not allowed. After liberal curing on the first day, all concrete structures will be painted with curing chemical to save water to stop daily water curing hence save water. Concrete structures will be covered with thick cloth/gunny bags and then water sprayed on them to avoid water rebound and ensure sustained and complete curing. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 155

166 EIA/EMP Report Pools will be made using cement and sand mortar to avoid water flowing away from the flat surface while curing. Water ponding will be done on all sunken slabs. This will also highlight the importance of having an impervious formwork. Operational Phase It is proposed to conserve groundwater resources through the combined means of water resource development, minimized water consumption and reuse of treated sullage to reduce freshwater demand Water Resource Development Keeping in view the rainfall, storm water drainage system will be developed to carry the runoff. The storm water collection system for the premises shall be self-sufficient to avoid any collection/stagnation and flooding of water. The amount of storm water run-off depends upon many factors such as intensity and duration of precipitation, characteristics of the tributary area and the time required for such flow to reach the drains. The drains shall be located near the carriage way along either side of the roads. Taking the advantage of road camber, the rainfall run off from roads shall flow towards the drains. Storm water from various areas shall be connected to adjacent drain by a pipe through catch basins. Therefore, it has been calculated to provide 43 rainwater harvesting pits at selected locations, which will catch the maximum run-off from the area. 1) Since the existing topography is congenial to surface disposal, a network of storm water pipe drains is planned adjacent to roads. All building roof water will be brought down through rain water pipes. 2) Storm water system consists of pipe drain, catch basins and seepage pits at regular intervals for rain water harvesting and ground water recharging. Rain water harvesting has been catered to and designed as per the guideline of CGWA. Peak hourly rainfall has been considered as 25 mm/hr. The recharge pit of adequate diameter and depth is constructed for recharging the water. Inside the recharge pit, a recharge bore is constructed having adequate diameter and depth. The bottom of the recharge structure will be B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 156

167 EIA/EMP Report kept 5 m above this level. At the bottom of the recharge well, a filter media is provided to avoid choking of the recharge bore. Design specifications of the rain water harvesting plan are as follows: Catchments/roofs would be accessible for regular cleaning. The roof will have smooth, hard and dense surface which is less likely to be damaged allowing release of material into the water. Roof painting has been avoided since most paints contain toxic substances and may peel off. All gutter ends will be fitted with a wire mesh screen and a first flush device would be installed. Most of the debris carried by the water from the rooftop like leaves, plastic bags and paper pieces will get arrested by the mesh at the terrace outlet and to prevent contamination by ensuring that the runoff from the first minutes of rainfall is flushed off. No sewage or sullage would be admitted into the system. No sullage from areas likely to have oil, grease, or other pollutants has been connected to the system. Storm water management system Since the storm water on site will be harvested for ground water recharge, proper management of this resource is necessary to prevent contamination. Hence, regular inspection and cleaning of storm drains shall be carried out. Use of fertilizers and pesticides will be avoided prior to and during monsoons. Clarifiers or oil/ water separators shall also be installed in all the parking areas. Minimal Water Consumption To reduce the water consumption, awareness along the following lines will be spread amongst the management and maintenance team: Installation of water meters conforming to ISO standards at inlet and outlet point of water supply. To further lower the water consumption, options of Low flow flushing systems, tap aerators etc. will be explored. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 157

168 EIA/EMP Report Leak detection Drip irrigation for shrubs and trees Use of low-volume, low-angle sprinklers for lawn areas The message of water conservation will be spread amongst the residents through awareness campaigns and pamphlets. Following tips shall be provided to the residents for conserving water. Timely detection and repair of all leakages; Turning off tap while brushing teeth; Avoiding use of running water while hand-washing; Turning off the main valve of water while going outdoor; Avoiding use of hose for washing floors; Use of broom may be preferred; Watering of lawn or garden during the coolest part of the day (early morning or late evening, hours) when temperature and wind speed are lowest. This reduces losses due to evaporation. Planting of native and/or drought tolerant grasses, ground covers, shrubs and trees. Once fully grown, they need not to be watered frequently. Avoiding over watering of lawns. Good rains eliminate the need for watering for more than a week. Setting sprinklers to water the lawn or garden only, not the street or sidewalk; Avoiding installation or use of ornamental water features unless they recycle the water and avoiding running them during drought or hot weather; Installation of high-pressure, low-volume nozzles on spray washers; Replacement of high-volume hoses with high-pressure, low-volume cleaning systems; Equipping spring loaded shutoff nozzles on hoses; Installation of float-controlled valve on the make-up line, closing filling line during operation, provision of surge tanks for each system avoid overflow; Washing vehicles less often, or using commercial car wash that recycles water. Re-use of treated sullage B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 158

169 EIA/EMP Report It is expected that the project will generate approx 822KLD of sullage. The sullage will be treated in the STP of capacity 1000 KLD provided within the complex generating 740 KLD of recoverable water from STP which will be recycled within the project & 389 KLD will be discharge to sewer. The treated sullage conforming to standards for effluent discharge on land will be reused to meet various non-potable and non-contact requirements of the institutional project Surface Water Quality Development & Construction Phase To mitigate the impacts of soil erosion during first rain and generation of sullage from construction labor camps, the following measures are proposed; Excavation during dry season and proper management of excavated soils, Clearing all debris from site as soon as construction is over, Provision of proper hutment and toilet facilities for construction labor, Proper disposal of sullage generated at site Ground water Quality Development and Construction Phase To ensure against any groundwater pollution through leaching of soil, solid waste management plan ensuring timely collection of wastes will be followed. The collected wastes will be stored at designated area and disposed as per the standard procedures in line with the statutory requirements. Post Construction Phase The ground water pollution can arise from improper waste handling or by recharge of groundwater through contaminated storm water. A well planned solid waste management as discussed in chapter 2 is proposed for the operation phase that will ensure against any chances of soil or groundwater pollution on this account. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 159

170 EIA/EMP Report Storm water collects dirt and garbage along its flow. Contamination of this water with spilled oil/ grease is especially of concern when recharging is proposed. Hence, preliminary treatment for oil and grease and filtration through layers of sand and gravel is proposed prior to recharge of the groundwater. Landscaping water enters the soil and finally the groundwater. It is thus of utmost importance that only clean water is used for horticulture purposes. The water from the households will contain significant amounts of detergent and soap that is undesirable for plants, soil and in groundwater. Hence, it is proposed to treat sullage from the sites up to tertiary level, and be used for landscaping only thereafter. Regular monitoring of treated sullage shall be carried out to ensure that all parameters are within acceptable levels Air Quality Development and Construction Phase The construction phase for the institutional project is about 5-7years, causing only marginal impact on ambient air quality from constructional activities, unloading of construction materials, cement, soil and vehicular movement etc. Project will be constructed in four phases so demolition and construction will be done by phase by phase manner, Since demolition process will not so rapid, particulate matter generated from demolition will be minimum. Most of the main pollutant of concern is PM 2.5, PM 10 (dust). Likewise, following mitigation measures will be adopted during this phase to mitigate the impacts on ambient air: Installation of batch plant at isolated place and providing cover shed around plants. Loading and unloading of cement and other material in covered shed. Providing dust suppression system in unloading area (as per requirement). Developing avenue and curtain plantation on the internal roads and peripheral plantation around the site to protect the movement of dust and other pollutants. Cover scaffolding, hosing down road surfaces and cleaning of vehicles. On-Road- Inspection for black smoke generating machinery. Vehicles having pollution under control certificate will be allowed to ply. Use of covering sheets for trucks to prevent dust dispersion from the trucks. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 160

171 EIA/EMP Report Reducing the speed of a vehicle to 20 km/hr to reduce emissions on site. All material storages will be adequately covered and contained. Training to the workers to reduce idling time of machines that otherwise tends to produce hydrocarbons ad carbon monoxide. Best practices for maintenance and repair of all machineries and equipments Operational Phase The source of supply will be BESCOM (Bangalore Electricity Supply Company Limited). The maximum demand for the Institutional Project will be approx KVA; which shall be supplied by 2 Nos. of transformer of 2500 KVA each. Details of D.G Sets There is provision of 2 no. of DG sets of 2000 KVA capacity i.e 1500 KVA KVA each for power back up in the Institutional Project. The DG sets will be equipped with acoustic enclosure to minimize noise generation and adequate stack height for proper dispersion. Traffic pollution management: Internal roads would be maintained in good conditions to control the dust emissions. Awareness will be raised amongst the student and staff for use of low sulphur fuel. Plantation development: Vegetation is an effective means for controlling air pollution due its dual action of acting as a barrier between the source of emission and receptors and also as a sink for various pollutants. It is proposed to develop plantation of species effective in absorption of expected pollutants at site, along the internal roads and on the periphery of the Institutional project. Suggested species for plantation are: Cassia fistula (Amaltas) Delonix regia (Gulmohar) Bauhinia purpurea (Kachnar) Dalbergia sissoo (Shisham) B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 161

172 EIA/EMP Report Noise Levels Development and Construction Phase During the construction phase, some noise will be generated through the operation of construction machines, excavators, DG sets, etc. Following measures would be taken; into consideration to mitigate the noise at construction site: Use of well-maintained equipment fitted with silencers and providing noise shields near the heavy construction operations Acoustic enclosures would be provide to DG sets at the construction site, Earmuff and other protection devices shall be provided to laborers working in high noise generating machines. High noise activities shall be carried out during daytime Operational Phase The main sources of noise during this phase are the intermittent use of DG sets and traffic. The principles of noise emission control and screening are proposed for the two different scenarios of noise generation Noise emission control All the D.G. sets will be provided with acoustic enclosures ensuring 25 db (A) insertion loss or for meeting the ambient noise standards whichever is higher as per CPCB norms. It will be ensured that the manufacturer provides acoustic enclosures as an integral part with Diesel Generator sets. Barriers: Trees having thick and fleshy leaves with flexible petioles having capacity to withstand vibration are suitable. Heavier branches and trunk of the trees also deflect or refract the sound waves. The following species are proposed to be used in a greenbelt along the periphery of the project. Antocephalous cadamba (Kadam) Polyathia longifolia (Ashok) B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 162

173 EIA/EMP Report Terminalia arjuna (Arjun) Biological Environment Development and construction phase During the construction and post construction phase, no tree will be cut and therefore no impact is anticipated on terrestrial ecology. Site clearing shall be carried out strictly as per plan. Workers shall be advised against cutting, uprooting, coppicing of trees or small trees present in and around the project site for cooking. Workers shall also be discouraged from wandering in nearby areas with plantation or dense vegetation. Further, green belt will be developed on the periphery and along the internal roads of project site during the construction phase itself that will act as a curtain to restrict the movement of pollutants from either side of the project and improve site aesthetics Operational phase During the post construction phase, green belt will be developed and maintained. Ornamental plant species and grasses will be planted in open space within the premises % area of total area is proposed to be maintained green in the project site. Proposed list of species for plantation is given below in Table 9.1: Table 9.1: Plantation List LIST OF SPECIES OF PLANTS Sl. No. Common Name Scientific Name 1. Neem Azadirachta indica 2. kali maina Carissa carandas 3. Tamarind Tamarindus indica 4. Palaash Butea monosperma 5. Peepal Ficus religiosa B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 163

174 EIA/EMP Report 6. Kumbhi Careya arborea 7. Jackfruit Artocarpus heterophyllus 8. Bakli Anogeissus latifolia 9. Ashoka Polyalthia longifolia 10. Mahuwa Madhuca indica 11. Arjuna Tree Terminalia arjuna 12. Ichalu Tree Phoenix sysvestris Demographic and Socio-Economic Environment Development and Construction Phase During the construction phase of the institutional project, skilled, semiskilled and unskilled workers will get direct and indirect employment opportunities which will have beneficial impact on the socio-economic conditions of the area. Following suggestions are given to strengthen the beneficial impacts on the socio-economical environment. All the applicable guidelines under relevant acts and rules related to labor welfare and safety shall be implemented during the construction work activities. Proper sanitary and drinking water facilities should be provided to workers living in the construction camps within the project premises. Workers will be provided with appropriate PPEs during work. Guarding of dangerous machine parts, maintenance of equipments as hoists and lifts will be ensured. Adequate provision of different types of fire extinguishers will be made. Construction Camps will be provided with clean and safe drinking water and toilet facilities. Domestic refuse generated at the construction camps will be disposed off on a regular basis. First Aid Medical facilities will also be provided for the construction workers. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 164

175 EIA/EMP Report Operational Phase The project envisages addressing the wider goal of environmental protection through a social investment strategy for the communities around the project. The project seeks to increase the benefits to the local population and contribute towards meeting community s expectation of benefits from the project. Some of the concerns raised by local people relate directly to the project. Concerns and aspirations not directly related to the project were also solicited so as to identify areas that could be addressed through socially responsible initiatives and interventions. These were: a) Demand for employment opportunities. b) Infrastructure development The proposed strategy envisages addressing the wider goal of sharing benefits with the local community. The following activities would be undertaken. Income Generation Opportunity for local community The local people will be given preference, although they will be recruited on their individual merit. Tender specification for post construction services will include favorable employment opportunities towards the local population. The main principles of employment are outlined below: Employment strategy will provide for preferential employment during operation phase. General recruitment procedures will be transparent, public and open to all. Recruitment procedures will be publicized at locally prominent locations in advance. There will be no discrimination on basis of gender, caste or other factors. Contractors would be required to abide by the Indian labor laws regarding standards on employee working conditions, minimum wages for workers, safety and welfare measures. Following the appointment of the contractor, information on employment will be available to the local community or other prominent places like the school, frequently visited spots in the village etc. Information on the following aspects would be providedscale and duration of employment, type of available work and demand projection. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 165

176 EIA/EMP Report Improved working conditions The project would provide safe working conditions for the labor and other workers employed at the facility during construction and operation phase. Conditions of employment should address issues like minimum wages and medical care for the workers Vehicle Parking and Traffic Management Development and Construction Phase To ensure that the heavy vehicles transporting construction material to the site does not burden the local traffic, it is proposed to: Plan the movement of the heavy vehicles avoiding the peak hours (day time). All the vehicles to the site will be provided with parking space such that there is no waiting time along the access roads Operational Phase It is to be ensured that there will not be any sudden influx of vehicles from the institutional Project at the entrance to the project site from access road. The available width will provide sufficient merging space for the vehicles while meeting the road. Adequate provision has been made for car/vehicle parking for the institutional areas of the project. Besides, wide internal road will also provide space for off street parking. Following traffic Management plan for increased traffic: 1.) Enhanced parking space will be provided. 2.) Separate Entry and Exit system. Wide space will be provided at entry and exit point. 3.) Bull temple road is 24 m wide which will be sufficient to carry the increased traffic load. 4.) In case high traffic density at front road (Bull temple Road), rear side road is proposed for traffic diversion, whose width is 18 m for smooth traffic flow. 9.3 ENERGY CONSERVATION The Project will be designed in such a way that natural light and air will be enhanced in the Project. Institutional project will be energy efficient through use of low energy consuming fixtures. Energy conservation will be achieved through various means as given below. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 166

177 EIA/EMP Report Site Plan and building design: Orientation and shape of building have been designed to minimize solar heat gains and maximize day lighting, and harness the free energy from the sun and wind for passive cooling. All classrooms on the E, S and N facades have been designed to maximize usable daylight with no requirement for blinds (with the use of tall windows with external shading). The central corridor is aligned in the E W axis to catch western winds All corridor have been left open for natural ventilation Building envelope (wall and Roof) The external walls of BMS are cavity walls so that there is an increase in the thermal capacity as well as an increase in thermal resistance to heat gains. The building roof is provided with insulation and a highly reflective coating. Windows and Shading The windows on the north and south facade are 2.4mm wide, 3 m high and 450mm deepset in the wall. Use of solar photovoltaic system. to such opportunities 9.4 MANAGEMENT AND MAINTENANCE SYSTEM Management and maintenance system is an important issue for the institutional project. During the construction phase BMS Engineering College Environmental Committee will take care for the implementation of environmental management plan for the project. They will review the effectiveness of implemented mitigation measures adopted by contractors and sub-contractors from time to time. The occupancies will be provided with water sprinklers and fire alarms and there will be provision of adequate number of fire extinguishers. Back up service will be provided for all emergency equipments and machineries. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 167

178 EIA/EMP Report Post construction, management and maintenance of the internal services laid in institutional project will be done by BMS Engineering College Institutional Capacity Building a. Reporting: For effective implementation of any system/ plan, a systematic reporting system is essential. An Environmental Management Cell shall be set up for implementation of the proposed Management Plan. Reporting of the results of all the management and monitoring plan shall be submitted to the designated Project Head. The reports shall be reviewed and parameters exceeding their limits should be identified and the reason for the same investigated. Any requisite mitigation plan shall be taken up accordingly. The Environment Management Cell will be a permanent organizational set up charged with the task of ensuring its effective implementation of mitigation measures and conduct environmental monitoring. The major duties and responsibilities of Environmental Management Cell shall be as given below: To implement the environmental management plan To assure regulatory compliance with all relevant rules and regulations To ensure regular operation and maintenance of pollution control devices To minimize environmental impact of operations as by strict adherence to the EMP To initiate environmental monitoring as per approved schedule b. Review and interpretation of monitored results and corrective measures in case monitored results are above the specified limit. c. Maintain documentation of good environmental practices and applicable environmental laws for a ready reference d. Maintain environmental related records e. Coordination with regulatory agencies, external consultants, monitoring laboratories B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 168

179 EIA/EMP Report f. Maintenance of log of public complaints and the action taken Hierarchical Structure of Environmental Management Cell Normal activities of the EMP cell would be supervised by a dedicated person who will report to the project Head Awareness and Training Training and human resource development is an important link to achieve sustainable operation of the facility and environment management. For successful functioning of the project, relevant EMP would be communicated to residents and contractors. Students and residents must be made aware of the importance of waste segregation and disposal, water and energy conservation. The awareness can be provided by periodic meetings. They would be informed of their duties Environmental Audits and Corrective Action Plans To assess whether the implemented EMP is adequate, periodic environmental audits will be conducted by the project proponent s Environmental division. These audits will be followed by Correction Action Plan (CAP) to correct various issues identified during the audits. 9.5 Overall mitigation measures and environmental management plan Overall impact assessment of anticipated environmental impacts and mitigation measures & environmental management plan to mitigate the potential impacts during construction and operation phase are summarized in Table 9.2. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 169

180 EIA/EMP Report Table 9.2:Environmental Management Plan during construction and operation phases of the project. Sl. No. Environmental Components Potential Impacts Potential source of Impact Controls through EMP & Design Impact Evaluation Remedial Measures 1. Groundwater Ground water Construction Phase Quality contamination Sullage generated Modular STP/ Mobile No significant from Labor camps. toilets. impact as majority of laborers would be locally deployed. Operation Phase Sewage treatment, Sewage will be No significant In an unlikely event sludge disposal on treated in Sewage negative impact on of soil and ground land. Treatment Plant. ground water water Sludge will be used quality envisaged. contamination, for horticultural remediation purpose as manure. measures shall be implemented. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 170

181 Sl. No. Environmental Components Potential Impacts Potential source of Impact Controls through EMP & Design Impact Evaluation Remedial Measures 2. Groundwater Ground Water Construction Phase 43 number of Not significant on RWH Pits will be Quantity Depletion Ground water will RWH pits will ground water Provided to be used for be provided to quantity is replinish ground construction replenish the envisaged. water table. activity. ground water level. Water curing compound will be used to minimize water quantity. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 171

182 Sl. No. Environmental Components Potential Impacts Potential source of Impact Controls through EMP & Design Impact Evaluation Remedial Measures Operation Phase Water will be Recycling of treated No significant Shortage water is supplied by sullage to reduce impact on ground met by ground BWSSB & freshwater water quantity water for which 43 remaining requirement envisaged. number of RWH pit will be met by Storm water will be provided to Ground water collection for water replenish ground harvesting. water table. Awareness campaign for reduced water use by occupants. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 172

183 Sl. No. Environmental Components Potential Impacts Potential source of Impact Controls through EMP & Design Impact Evaluation Remedial Measures 3. Air Quality Dust Construction Phase Emissions Demolition Dust suppression Not significant activities through water because dust All heavy sprinkling using generation will be construction water trucks, temporary and will activities. handheld sprays and settle fast due to automatic sprinkler dust suppression systems. techniques used. Vehicles transporting loose construction material should be covered. Contractors will be advised to provide dust masks for the employed labor. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 173

184 Sl. No. Environmental Components Potential Impacts Potential source of Impact Controls through EMP & Design Impact Evaluation Remedial Measures Emissions of Construction Phase PM, SO 2, NO 2 Operation of Rapid on site Not significant Regular monitoring and CO construction construction of emissions and equipment and Improved control measures to vehicles during site maintenance of reduce the emission development. equipment s. levels. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 174

185 Sl. No. Environmental Components Potential Impacts Potential source of Impact Controls through EMP & Design Impact Evaluation Remedial Measures Operation Phase Power generation Use of low sulphur Not significant as through D.G. Set diesel. D.G. set would be Operation. Stacks will be used as power provided of adequate back-up only. height as per CPCB guideline. Emissions from Green belt to be vehicular traffic. provided with specified species to help reduce PM levels. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 175

186 Sl. No. Environmental Components Potential Impacts Potential source of Impact Controls through EMP & Design Impact Evaluation Remedial Measures 4. Noise Noise Construction Phase Equipments should Environment emissions be fitted with Operation of silencers, where construction applicable and equipment and maintained well. vehicles during site Providing noise development. shields near heavy construction operations. Construction activity will be limited mostly to daytime hours only. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) like earmuffs and earplugs during construction activities. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 176

187 Sl. No. Environmental Components Potential Impacts Potential source of Impact Controls through EMP & Design Impact Evaluation Remedial Measures Operation Phase Noise from Peripheral Not significant vehicular plantations. movement. Providing acoustic Short-term Noise from D.G. enclosures on D.G. exposure within sets operation. sets. permissible limit. 5. Land Soil Construction Phase Environment contamination Disposal of Construction and Impact will be construction and demolition debris local, as any waste Demolition debris. will be collected and generated will be suitably used on site reused for as per construction construction waste management activities. Not plan. significant. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 177

188 Sl. No. Environmental Components Potential Impacts Potential source of Impact Controls through EMP & Design Impact Evaluation Remedial Measures Operation Phase Solid waste from site Dumping of will be collected on Not Significant municipal solid a daily basis and waste on land. disposed as municipal wastes. The segregation, transportation and disposal of wastes will be handled by a private agency authorized by Negligible impact Handling of used government. oil from D.G. sets. Used oil generated will be sold to authorized recyclers B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 178

189 Sl. No. Environmental Components Potential Impacts Potential source of Impact Controls through EMP & Design Impact Evaluation Remedial Measures 6. Biological Removal of Construction Phase Environment Flora and Site development The site comprises No negative impact (Flora and Fauna on site. during of small grasses. Fauna) construction. Operation Phase Increase of Green Cover Plantations along the periphery of Plantations of species that are Beneficial impact the project. native to the area, fast growing and with good canopy cover. 7. Socio -Economic Population Construction Phase Environment displacement No relocation is The land has been No negative impact -- and economic involved. gifted for impact institutional purposes Employment for Beneficial impact Constructional laborers activities B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 179

190 Sl. No. Environmental Components Potential Impacts Potential source of Impact Controls through EMP & Design Impact Evaluation Remedial Measures Operation Phase -- Site operation. Project will provide Beneficial impact employment opportunities. Boost education.. 8. Traffic Pattern Increase of Construction Phase Heavy vehicular Vehicular Heavy vehicular movement will be No negative impact traffic movement during restricted to daytime construction. only and adequate parking facility will be provided. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 180

191 Sl. No. Environmental Components Potential Impacts Potential source of Impact Controls through EMP & Design Impact Evaluation Remedial Measures Operation Phase Increased traffic Vehicular movement Moderate negative from the project. will be regulated impact inside the site Adequate parking space provided. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 181

192 CHAPTER-10 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 10.1 PROJECT BACKGROUND B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust intends to construct a new building & infrastructure for BMS College of Engineering at Basavanagudi, Bangalore south in the state of Karnataka. The project spreads over an area of 53,298.01m 2 of which 17, m 2 shall be maintained green.. Built up area of the project will be 1, 65, m 2. As per EIA Notification, 2006 & its amendments for all construction and area development projects covering an area of 50 ha and/ or built up area greater than 1, 50,000 m 2 are designated as category B1 projects and are required to obtain prior environmental clearance from respective State Environmental Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA). The project is thus categorised as 8(b) under schedule of the Environmental Impact Assessment Notification and requires Environmental Clearance from the State Environment Impact Assessment Authority, Karnataka. The EIA/EMP study has been carried out by Grass Roots Research & Creation India (P) Ltd. For this study, the impact zone shall confine within an angular radius of 5 km from the project boundary. For the purpose of certain environmental components, the radius has extended up to 10 km as well. The EIA is conducted to establish the baseline environmental setting in the study area, assessment of potential impacts on different environmental components, design of mitigation measures so as to keep impacts within acceptable limits and strengthen the positive impacts. The Executive Summary summarizes the findings of the EIA study to aid in decision making and provides project related information and environmental impacts to non-technical sections of society. The summary highlights the baseline environmental status, key environmental issues and their likely impacts and also lists the major recommended mitigation measures to attenuate the impacts. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 182

193 10.2 PROJECT SITE The engineering college is located at Basavanagudi, Bangalore, Karnataka. The geographical coordinates of the project site are E & N. Project site is 4 km away from Banglore city railway station in north direction & National College Metro Station 1.24 km from NNE. The site falls under earthquake seismic zone II on the MSK scale indicating less intensity PROJECT FEATURES The design population of the site is 16,711. Salient features of the project are: Table 10.1: Salient Features of the project S. No. Facility Value 1. Power Supply 4,121 KVA 2. D.G. Set 2 DG sets of capacity of 1500 KVA &500 KVA each 3. Parking Required -913ECS Proposed ECS 4. Water Supply Municipal corporation/ Bore well 5. Water Demand Total water 1140 KLD 6. Wastewater generation 820 KLD 7. STP Capacity 1000 KLD Fresh water 669 KLD 8. Solid waste generation 4,637 kg/day 9. Manpower requirement persons The project will be implemented over a span of four to six years from the commencement of construction ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING OF THE STUDY AREA The baseline environmental status was assessed based on primary and secondary data collected either through in-site field observation or obtained from agencies such as Irrigation Department, India Meteorological Department (IMD), Central Ground Water Board, Geological Survey of India, State Ground Water Department, State Pollution Control Board, Census of India and Local B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 183

194 Forest Department, Non -Governmental Agencies. The baseline status established from analysis of secondary and primary data and predicted impacts are discussed below. The proposed mitigation measures are also provided along with Land Environment The land use pattern of the study area is mainly residential, agricultural,open & degraded vegetation. The site falls under residential land use as per Bangalore City Development Plan When awarded to the project proponent, the land was a barren stretch. The project will be developed as per the provisions of the Bangalore Development Authority. The construction phase of any construction project poses the threat of soil contamination and soil erosion, mainly during the construction phase. Inadequate solid waste management may also cause soil contamination during operation phase. The estimated waste generation during operation phase is 4,637 kg/ day. During construction phase, excavation related work will be avoided during the monsoons and site clearing will be carried out for specific areas being developed. All wastes from site will be regularly removed and disposed/ sold. An efficient solid waste management is proposed comprising door-to-door waste collection, segregation of solid waste management facility within the site, and their disposal. Solid waste will be disposed by sale of recyclable wastes to vendors Water environment The project site is located in Bangalore South. Yediyur Lake is 1.35 km South East of the project site. The water requirement during construction phase will be met by private water tank. A combination of efficient water management to reduce water consumption, reuse of treated wastewater to reduce freshwater demand and rainwater harvesting to replenish groundwater is proposed to have a positive bearing on the water environment of the region. A Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) of capacity 1000 KLD with primary, secondary and tertiary treatment will be set up to treat waste water Air Environment During construction phase, the major air pollutant of prime concern is PM 2.5, PM 10 as impacts of other emissions such as SO 2, NO 2, and CO will not be significant because the nature of sources B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 184

195 is such that the emissions are distributed spatially as well as temporal. Monitored average PM 2.5, PM 10 level exceeded NAAQS at all the five locations. The levels of PM 2.5, PM 10, NO 2, SO 2 and CO at all the five locations were within the standards prescribed by NAAQS at all the five locations. Thus dust emissions from construction activities shall require comprehensive mitigation measures and best construction practices. Adequate stack heights will be proposed for D.G. Sets (1500 kva & 500 kva) has 51 m above the ground to provide for sufficient dispersion of pollutants. Water sprinklers will be used to suppress dust during construction. During the operation phase, green belt and green area development is proposed to restrict and absorb air pollutants Noise Environment Noise levels were observed at five locations within the study area. Levels of background noise monitored in exceed the limits at 55 db (A) and 45dB (A) for daytime and night time respectively. The noise emitted from heavy-duty construction equipments during construction period being high shall require occupational preventive measures and temporary noise barriers for noise attenuation. The construction period being about four to five year duration, will require significant mitigation measures such as restricted loud noise activities to daytime, provision of PPEs and acoustic enclosures for D.G. set. In the operation phase, noise pollution will be checked through acoustic enclosures of DG sets and green belt plantation Biological environment There is no protected area, reserved forest or sanctuary in the study area. There is also no tree cutting involved in the project. However, the project will have 17, m 2 of green area. Additionally, there will be avenue plantations, green walls and roof tops. The proposed landscaping will include native species that will attract local birds and insects, reduce pollution and improve aesthetics and micro-climate of the region. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 185

196 Socio-economic environment The institutional project does not call for any land acquisition and no change in the existing land use pattern. The execution of the project will not disturb the people living in area as there will be no blasting and large scale digging. The project will generate employment opportunities for both skilled and unskilled workers in the vicinity, which will produce multiple effects on the life and economy of the local people. Thus from socio-economic point of view the project is beneficial to the people and can be executed with little hesitation Energy efficiency The total energy demand of 4,121 KVA for the project will be met by BESCOM. There is provision of 2 no. of DG sets of total 2000 KVA capacity i.e 1500 KVA KVA each for power back up in the Institutional Project. Various provisions are made to reduce the energy efficiency of the building to attain the distinction of Green Building, such as use of solar energy, provision of low energy fixtures, design features to maximise sunlight and use of materials to improve energy efficiency Other Resource Conservation: A concerted effort is made towards resource conservation by way of using recycled building materials, fly-ash bricks (up to 35%), reduced water consumption and improving energy efficiency of the building. Indoor Air Quality: Special attention will be given to maintaining indoor air quality through use of low VOC paints, provision of adequate ventilation, proper storage of chemical and cleaning materials. Safety: A network of manned security gates, security men, closed circuit TV and intercom facilities are proposed to ensure safety of the occupant. The buildings will also be provided with adequate fire tenders, fire alarms and water sprinklers. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 186

197 10.5 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN Adequate environmental management measures will be incorporated during the entire planning, construction and operating stages of the project to minimize any adverse environmental impact and assure sustainable development of the area. For the effective and consistent functioning of the campus, an Environmental Management System (EMS) will be established at the site including an Environmental Management cell for implementation of the EMP and monitoring plan, training and awareness, audits and maintenance of records. The project cost is 350 Crores. Based on the environmental assessment, the associated potential adverse environmental impacts can be mitigated to an acceptable level by adequate implementation of the measures as stated in the EIA and the EMP. Some of the benefits from the project are: Use of solar energy for street lighting Provision of green walls and green terraces Use of fly ash bricks. Use of steel manufactured from recycled content Provide permeable paving to control surface water runoff Rainwater harvesting Meet all requirements for buildings in moderate earthquake prone areas. Provision of fire alarms and water sprinklers Provision of welfare schemes to workers Extending educational and healthcare facilities to the local people Commitment to engaging local people and businessmen for maintenance and repair work Hence, it may be concluded that the project will have significant positive economic and social impact on the local communitywithout bearing any significant adverse environmental impacts. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 187

198 Table 10.2 : Summary matrix of predicted impacts and mitigation measures Sl. Environmental No. Components 1. Groundwater Quality 2. Groundwater Quantity Potential Impacts Ground water contamination Ground Water Depletion Potential Source of Impact Construction Phase Waste water generated from labor tents. Operation Phase Sewage treatment, sludge disposal on land. Construction Phase Ground water will not used for construction activity. Private water tanks Controls through EMP & Design 1. Modular STP/ Mobile toilets Sewage will be treated in sewage treatment plant. Sludge will be disposed with municipal wastes. Impact evaluation No significant impact as majority of laborers would be locally deployed. No significant negative impact on ground water quality envisaged. Not applicable. No significant impact on ground water quantity envisaged. Remedial Measures In an unlikely event of soil and ground water contamination, remediation measures shall be implemented. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 188

199 Sl. No. Environmental Components Potential Impacts 4. Air Quality Dust Emissions Potential Source of Controls through Impact EMP & Design Operation Phase Bore wells and Recycling of treated private tankers. wastewater to reduce BWSSB supply is freshwater expected shortly. requirement Storm water collection for water harvesting. Awareness campaign for reduced water use. Construction Phase All heavy Dust suppression construction through water activities. sprinkling using water trucks, handheld sprays and automatic sprinkler systems. Vehicles transporting loose construction material should be covered. Contractors will be advised to provide dust masks for the employed labour. Impact evaluation No significant impact on ground water quantity envisaged. Not significant because dust generation will be temporary and will settle fast due to dust suppression techniques used. Remedial Measures B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 189

200 Sl. No. Environmental Components Potential Potential Source of Impacts Impact Emissions of Construction Phase PM, SO 2, NO 2 Operation of and CO construction equipment and vehicles during site development. Controls through EMP & Design Rapid on site construction Improved maintenance of equipments. Impact evaluation Not significant Remedial Measures Regular monitoring of emissions and control measures to reduce the emission levels. Operation Phase Power generation through D.G. Set Operation. Use of low sulphur diesel, if available. Stacks will be provided of adequate height. Not significant as D.G. Set would be used as power back-up only. Emissions from vehicular traffic. Green belt to be provided with specified species to help reduce PM levels. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 190

201 Sl. Environmental No. Components 5. Noise Environment Potential Impacts Noise emissions Potential Source of Controls through Impact EMP & Design Construction Phase Equipments should be fitted with Operation of silencers, where construction applicable and equipment and maintained well. vehicles during site Providing noise development. shields near heavy construction operations. Construction activity will be limited mostly to daytime hours only. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) like earmuffs and earplugs during construction activities. Operation Phase Noise from vehicular movement. Noise from D.G. sets operation. Peripheral plantations. Providing acoustic enclosures on D.G. sets. Impact evaluation Not significant Short-term exposure within permissible limit. Remedial Measures B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 191

202 Sl. Environmental No. Components 6. Land Environment Potential Impacts Soil contamination Potential Source of Impact Construction Phase Disposal of construction debris. Controls through EMP & Design Construction debris will be collected and suitably used on site as per construction waste management plan. Impact evaluation Impact will be local, as any waste generated will be reused for construction activities. Not significant. Remedial Measures B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 192

203 Sl. No. Environmental Components 7. Biological Environment (Flora and Fauna) Potential Impacts Removal of Flora and Fauna on site. Potential Source of Controls through Impact EMP & Design Operation Phase Solid waste from site Dumping of will be collected on municipal solid a daily basis and waste on land. disposed as municipal wastes. The segregation, transportation and disposal of wastes will be handled by a private agency. used oil generated Handling of used will be sold to oil from D.G. sets. authorized recyclers Bio-medical wastes Bio-medical waste from the Biotech generation Labs will be collected and stored Solid Waste from separately. All mechanical Lab, provisions of the Civil Lab, & Bio-medical wastes Workshop. (Management and Construction Phase Site development during construction. Handling) Rules, 2003 shall be adhered to. The site comprises of abandoned agriculture land. Impact evaluation Remedial Measures Not Significant Negligible impact No negative impact -- B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 193

204 Sl. No. Environmental Components 8. Socio -Economic Environment Potential Potential Source of Controls through Impacts Impact EMP & Design Operation Phase Increase of Plantations along Plantations of Green Cover the periphery of species that are the complex. native to the area, fast growing and with good canopy cover. Population displacement and economic impact 9. Traffic Pattern Increase of Vehicular traffic Construction Phase No relocation is involved. Constructional activities Operation Phase Site operation. Construction Phase Heavy vehicular movement during construction. Employment labourers for Project will provide employment opportunities. Boost to local market for increased demand in goods of daily need. Heavy vehicular movement will be restricted to daytime only and adequate parking facility will be provided. Impact evaluation Beneficial impact No negative impact Beneficial impact Beneficial impact No negative impact Remedial Measures B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 194

205 Sl. No. Environmental Components Potential Impacts Potential Source of Impact Operation Phase Increased traffic from the project. Controls through EMP & Design Vehicular movement will be regulated inside the site Adequate parking space provided. Impact evaluation Moderate negative impact Remedial Measures B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 195

206 . BMS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER-11 DISCLOSURE OF CONSULTANTS ENGAGED Project Name: BMS College of Engineering Name and address of the Consultant Base line data GRC, India (P) Ltd. F-374,375, Sector: 63, Noida, India GRC, India Training and Analytical Laboratory Sector: 63, F- 375, Noida, India ISO 9001:2008 Certified, QCI-NABET Accredited. NABL & MoEF Accredited Laboratory. A unit of GRC, India (P) Ltd. FOLLOWING COORDINATORS & FUNCTIONAL AREA EXPERTS: EIA Coordinator FAE-WP FAE-AP FAE-AQ FAE-LU FAE-EB FAE-NV FAE-SE FAE-HG FAE-G FAE-SC FAE-RH FAE-SHW Mr. K.D. Choudhury Dr. P.R. Chaudhari Mr. K.D. Choudhury Dr. Mary Sukanya Mr. P. Radhakrishnamoorthy Dr. P.R. Chaudhari Mr. K.D. Choudhury Mr. Vinit Pandey Prof. Tapan Majumdar Prof. Tapan Majumdar Dr. S.R. Maley Dr. Rekha Singh Mr. Rajesh B ACCREDITION/ FROM QUALITY COUNCIL OF INDIA, QCI AND LIST OF COORDINATORS GRASS ROOTS RESEARCH & CREATION INDIA (P) LTD HAS GOT ACCREDITION FROM QCI AS PER MOEF, GOI REQUIREMENTS. B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 196

207 . BMS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 197

208 . BMS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 198

209 . BMS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING B.M. Sreenivasaiah Educational Trust Page 199

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