The VET Systems of Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania in the context of the Torino Process

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1 Project MIS ETC 2674 MANAGE.EDU: Efficient Education Management Network for LLL in the Black Sea Basin The VET Systems of Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania in the context of the Torino Process Varna, 2014

2 Table of Contents 1. Introduction The Ukrainian VET system in the context of the Torino Process The Moldovan VET system in the context of the Torino Process The Georgian VET system in the context of the Torino Process The Turkish VET system in the context of the Torino Process The Bulgarian VET system in the context of the Torino Process The Romanian VET system in the context of the Torino Process References

3 1. Introduction The Torino Process was launched in 2010 by the European Training Foundation (ETF) based in Turin, Italy, which is an EU agency assisting countries in transition in the implementation of education, training and labor market reforms. The Torino Process has been introduced twice so far in 2010 and It aims at reviewing, optimizing and synchronizing the vocational education and training (VET) systems of the 31 ETF partner countries. This document will examine the influence of the Torino Process on the VET systems of 4 of the ETF partner countries, and namely, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia and Turkey as well as of 2 EU member states - Bulgaria and Romania. 2. The Ukrainian VET system in the context of the Torino Process The VET system in Ukraine consists of initial and continuous VET. The initial VET can be studied after competing primary education and the continuous VET can be studied within the framework of lifelong learning (LLL). Standards of education and training were developed for 205 courses. These included 76 courses for industry, 31 for agriculture and the processing industry, 23 for transport, 22 for construction, 17 for trade and catering, 13 for the mining industry, 10 for utilities and 4 for the Ministry of Emergency Situations kraine_en.pdf, p. 20 2

4 Graph 1: The education system of Ukraine Source: RP%202012%20Ukraine_EN.pdf, p. 20 As of 1 September 2012, 990 vocational schools prepare workers for the needs of the economy, including 868 vocational schools, 75 training centers and penal institutions, and 47 structural units in higher education institutions. 3

5 Graph 2: The network of vocational schools in Ukraine (as of 1 September 2012) Source: RP%202012%20Ukraine_EN.pdf, p of the vocational schools train workers for the industry, 250 for the agricultural sector, 183 for construction, 155 for the service sector, 51 for transport and 6 for communication % of the vocational schools in Ukraine are public and only 3.2 % are private vocational schools. Since the Torino Process in 2010 a number of achievements have been made in the VET system of Ukraine. Thus, new laws on employment, social dialogue, the professional development of employees and the organization of employers, the improvement of the VET management, and the upgrading and retraining of labor force, specialists, scholars, scientists, etc. were introduced. In addition, a few strategic documents have been produced as a result of the Torino Process in 2010: The Concept of the State Targeted Programme of VET Development for (Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, 2010), The State Targeted Programme of VET Development for (Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, 2011a), The National Strategy of Education Development in Ukraine for (Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, 2011d), The Strategy of State Personnel Policy for (President of Ukraine, 2012a). Regulations on the employment of VET graduates and equal opportunities for men and women in the VET system have been adopted as well. Furthermore, changes have been made in the State Order, i.e. in the mechanism for determining the needed in the labor market specialists. Modifications to the VET system have also been introduced to ensure its 4

6 adequacy to the needs of the employers. In this context, more responsibilities have been given to the local authorities by decentralizing the system. The ETF supports the decentralisation initiatives undertaken in Ukraine as well as the pilot project Improvement of vocational education system through forecasting and adaptation of skills, social partnership and improved use of resources introduced in The aim of this project is to recognize and respond to the economic and labor force needs in the Dnipropetrovsk region in terms of the types of economic activity and professions to be covered. Furthermore, the establishment of a single body for evaluating the qualifications and competences within the VET system is envisioned. However, some challenges still remain. Thus, the professional qualifications of the workers in the vocational schools are not yet assessed independently, the standards of the VET system need to be further developed to reach the level of the EU member countries, the certification of the achieved qualifications within the VET system needs to be improved as well as the VET legislation in general. The political declarations made within this area have begun to be put into practice since the last Torino Process. In this context, the law On the organisation of employers, their associations, the rights and guarantees of their activity (Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, 2012b) obliged the regional employers organizations to a mandatory approval of the VET standards introduced in Ukraine. These organizations are also members of the Qualification Commissions deciding upon the legal acts and curricula of the VET. Furthermore, the following priorities have been set by the government: modernization of the VET content; introduction of a quality assurance system; ICT and e-leaning implementation. 3. The Moldovan VET system in the context of the Torino Process As a result of the Torino Process in 2010, the VET has been included among the priorities for receiving EU support in 2011 and it has been added to the top 7 priorities of the National Development Strategy for the period The aim is to synchronize the education system with the demands of the employers by getting entrepreneurial spirit into the schools. 2 Two strategies with relevance to VET have been adopted in Moldova: the Consolidated Strategy for Education Development (CSED) and the VET sector strategy In 2011, the Moldovan Government requested assistance by the EU in the VET reform implementation. The assistance provided in the period Moldova_EN.pdf, p. 3 5

7 2015 is meant to establish a quality assurance framework, a National Qualifications Framework (NQF) and an orientation of the VET content to the needs of the labor market. The Ministry of Education has decided to establish an integrated NQF for VET and higher education. A working group of Ministry staff and VET teaching staff is working on the elaboration of the NQF discussing upon its structure, elements and relevance for the Moldovan education and labor market systems. The 2010 Torino Process has also influenced the labor market situation in Moldova by the introduction of new occupational standards in In addition, a Concept on Validation for Non-formal and Informal Learning was introduced in 2011 as a consequence of the work on the new occupational standards. Furthermore, a draft Law on Professions has been prepared and reviewed by the ETF. The aim of this law is to involve nongovernmental parties in the VET system as well. As to the restructuring of schools, the number of secondary vocational schools has been reduced, whereby 20,300 students were enrolled in VET in 2011/2012 compared to 24,500 in 2007/2008. Table 1: Number of educational institutions and students in 2011/ /2012 Day schools, gymnasiums, lyceés number of institutions 1460 number of students, thousands Secondary vocational education number of institutions 70 number of students, thousands 20.3 Secondary professional education (Colleges) number of institutions 48 number of students, thousands 31.4 Higher education number of institutions 34 number of students, thousands

8 Source: RP%202012%20Moldova_EN.pdf, p. 56 A SME strategy was adopted by the Moldovan Government in September The strategy s chapter Development of HC through promotion of competences and entrepreneurial culture conveys clear messages, such as that training would contribute to a positive impact on the SMEs productivity and competitiveness. The ultimate goal is to improve the business by helping the SMEs grow and generate employment. As obstacles to human capital development the strategy recognises a poor quality of training, an absence of information (about training and access to it, the quality of providers, etc.), and the absence of orientation and consultancy services to SMEs. The ETF is working at policy level with the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Labour, Social Protection and Family, and social partners to enhance the VET system in the country. Since the Torino process in 2010 the Republic of Moldova has shown a great commitment to the VET sector giving priority to decreasing the gap between the education system and the demands of the business structures as well as to quality improvement. As to the Torino Process in 2012, key areas of work were planned to be: better VET governance with a focus on quality assurance, qualifications framework s management, staff qualifications improvement; lifelong orientation of VET; education-related legislation improvement so that more learning opportunities become available, e.g. work-based learning; VET management and funding optimization. 4. The Georgian VET system in the context of the Torino Process Information about the Georgian education system structure can be viewed at Georgia initiated VET reforms in 2007, and 2 years later, the country adopted the VET Strategy However, VET has not been given political support, and public funding declined in both 2010 and The following changes were introduced in the VET system in 2010: VET law amendments were made; the NQF was adopted; a quality assurance framework was introduced. 7

9 The structure of the VET system is based on both centralization and autonomy. The VET providers have to undergo an annual self-assessment. In addition, in the period from 2010 to 2012, Georgia adopted 247 occupational standards for qualifications under the five-level framework of vocational qualifications published in the online registry of the National Centre for Educational Quality Enhancement (NCEQE, 2012b). However, the occupational standards require further improvement. In addition, the VET curriculum and the student assessment need enhancement. Thus, actions on these issues were started in 2012 by national stakeholders and international experts. Key challenges for the VET system in Georgia are constituted by employment and human resource development issues. These are not easy to synchronize; however, the establishment of a VET system based on LLL can be regarded as a possible bridge between them. Currently, limitations are observed in view of the employment opportunities for VET graduates since VET is separated from the general education according to the law of A possible solution would be to redesign the VET programs offering an easier access and a free-of-charge combination with secondary education. Since the VET reforms in 2012 an increase in VET participation of 12,740 students admitted has been noted, which is more than double the 2011 figure. In order that the high level of participation in VET is maintained, a sufficient amount of public funding is required to assure the quality of VET providers as well as the relevance of the VET programs. In addition, the VET colleges have become more attractive because of the improvement of their infrastructure and programs. The new financing model is also likely to attract more candidates to VET colleges. As to the labor market, the employability rates in 2012 showed that 43 % of the 2011 VET graduates were employed in private companies and in government offices, 8 % were self-employed, 15 % were continuing their studies while working and 24 % were unemployed. In order to respond to the labor market needs, the establishment of a link between the VET programs and the occupational standards is planned as well as a practical learning component of at least 40 % of the VET. However, the assessment of the qualifications of VET students hasn t been improved. In reality, the qualifications awarded by the different VET entities don t have the same credibility since there is no common assessment framework. Thus, with regard to the further implementation of VET reforms, the following issues should be taken into consideration: quality assurance of the VET; interaction between the state and the business structures in order to create high quality, co-financed and attractive VET programs with an easy access and relevance to the labor market needs; 8

10 integration of entrepreneurial projects in the VET programs in order to increase the innovation in learning, the VET students entrepreneurial skills and their employability; professional development opportunities for VET teachers and introduction of an initial VET teacher education in relevant higher education institutions; improvement of the public funding of VET providers; greater reform in the VET governance; greater interest in VET by offering Master s degree courses and joint-projects between VET providers, higher education institutions and other entities; greater monitoring and assessment of the results of the introduced reforms. 5. The Turkish VET system in the context of the Torino Process Since the Torino Process in 2010 an improvement has been made in the Turkish VET system. In other words, VET has grown in importance as a policy area. However, there is still a gap between policy decisions and actions. Employers are typically looking for employees with practical experience, occupation-related and key competences, such as computer and foreign languages knowledge. However, the VET system is not really oriented towards the preparation of graduates with the necessary qualifications for an immediate employment. Therefore, there is a tendency that VET graduates proceed to higher education. These groups of graduates stand out, however, with better chances for employment than groups without practical skills, low-skilled individuals, women, people living in rural areas and in areas which are distant from the big cities as well as minority groups. The VET reforms are consistent with the economic situation and levels of unemployment, the skills required in the labor market as well as with the VET-related policies at EU level. The following areas were mostly influenced as a result of the Torino Process: implementation of reforms in quality assurance, teacher training and key competences; production of a NQF; development of entrepreneurship learning in order to meet the labour market demands; use of vocational education as a means of assisting vulnerable groups through an improved social inclusion. With regard to the future development of the VET system, the Torino Process identified the following areas needing improvement: 9

11 involvement of different actors in defining a shared vision about the VET development in terms of integrating economic, social and employment policies; addressing of demographic, economic and labour market needs; addressing of social demands for vocational education and training, and promotion of social inclusion; embedding of key competences in the VET curriculum and improvement of the teachers and trainers capacity; governance and financing of the initial and continuous vocational education and training system. The labor market in Turkey has been characterized by low women participation and employment rates even before the global economic crisis. However, Turkey has managed to reduce the unemployment rates of women since The 2012 Torino Process has influenced Turkey by demonstrating that VET is important for the economic stability of the country in terms of employment as well as of social inclusion. As a result, different strategies and policies have been produced. However, there is no broader context for human capital development due to the lack of an overall long-term vision for the VET system development, mainly due to weaknesses in the governance structures. In this context, the Torino Process pointed to the following challenges: cooperation between the government and the different VET stakeholders in view of achieving a common vision for VET development; visions should be applicable to the situation in the country as well as financially secured; greater availability of information on the economic, social and demographic challenges in order to create relevant VET strategies. 10

12 6. The Bulgarian VET system in the context of the Torino Process Graph 3: 11

13 Source: p. 53 The Bulgarian education, depending on the content, comprises of general and vocational education. The latter focuses on obtaining the general education minimum and acquiring a professional qualification in compliance with the State Educational Requirements. In addition, one should distinguish between initial and continuous vocational training. The initial vocational training can be obtained at school after finishing at least 6 th grade. The continuous vocational education is suitable for people over 16 years aiming at improving their professional qualification, and thus, their chances for employment. 3 The first law on VET adopted in Bulgaria was the Structure of the Training Craftsmen s Workshop Act from The Vocational School Act dates back to 1907, through which the first technical schools in the country were established. In 1999, the Vocational Education and Training Act (VETA) was adopted which gave an opportunity for acquiring a vocational degree and choosing the preferred form of education and training. In Bulgaria, there are the following types of VET institutions vocational schools, vocational secondary schools, art schools, vocational colleges, vocational training centres, including sports schools, information and vocational orientation centers. Table 2: Types of VET institutions in Bulgaria VET institutions in Bulgaria 2007/ / / /11 Total Art schools Vocational secondary schools Vocational colleges Vocational schools From the total number of private schools Source: 3 Definition from the National Strategy for Continuing Vocational Education and Training , Sofia

14 The VET system in Bulgaria can be divided in three basic components - vocational guidance, vocational training and vocational education. According to data of the National Statistical Institute (NSI), 161,536 students participated in VET during the school year of 2010/2011. In view of stimulating LLL, non-formal methods of acquiring VET have been introduced as well. These aim at involving early school leavers, teenage mothers, i.e. social groups with difficulties attaching to the formal education system. The non-formal learning is also meant for those who are already out of the education system but want to upgrade their knowledge and skills. Under the Vocational Education and Training Act (Art. 40) the acquired via non-formal training skills can be validated and a certificate can be awarded. Thus, quite some work was done on the validation of non-formal and informal training within the framework of the Bulgarian German project Promotion of Vocational Training of Adults and Employment in According to a survey of the NSI conducted in the period February 2007 October 2008 within the framework of a Eurostat pilot project financed under the multinational programme PHARE 2005, in 2007, 35.2 % of the people aged between 25 and 64 years participated in non-formal training. Most of the non-formal learning was work-related %, and for 89.5 % of the participants, the non-formal learning took place within their working hours. 50 % of the people with higher education at the age between 25 and 64 years participated in non-formal learning for a period of one year. However, this level of participation decreased with lowering the level of education of the participants. Thus, 38.2 % of the people with upper secondary education and 15.0 % of the people with lower secondary education participated in non-formal training. As to the employed individuals, 49.3 % of them took part in at least one form of non-formal training, while only 6.3 % of the unemployed people participated in non-formal learning programs. The difference in the participation rates of employed vs. unemployed individuals is explained to be caused due to financial reasons mainly. In addition, the place of living affects the participation in non-formal training. Thus, 38.1 % of the residents of cities and towns took part in non-formal learning compared to those living in villages, 27.2 % of whom participated in non-formal training. With regard to the unemployed individuals, a series of measures and programs was implemented. 13

15 Table 3: Measures and programmes for facilitating the access to the labor market for unemployed people N Programs Aim Target groups Results in Start of a Facilitation of the Young 669 young Career transition from individuals with individuals education to higher education were involved, employment and with no 639 of them work experience were with to find jobs in higher the state education and administration 30 with (Ministries, agencies, vocational education regional administrations, municipal administrations), and young individuals with upper secondary education to find a suitable job in private companies 2 New Employment Key Skills for Employment 3 This is My Chance to Find Myself Support to adapt to the labor market in times of economic crisis, by provision of trainings for the acquisition of professional skills and opportunities for career development Opportunities for young individuals under the age of 29 with lower Young individuals who have completed higher education Unemployed young individuals 995 people were involved 70 people were involved 14

16 4 From School to Employment in Tourism 5 Improvement of the Employability of Young Individuals through Continuous Participation in the Labor Market secondary or lower education to overcome the lack of qualification by participating in an apprenticeship scheme for the acquisition of craftsmen s skills Opportunities for work placements in professions in the field of hotel-keeping, restaurants & catering, and travel & tourism to meet the demands of the tourism sector in Bulgaria for professionally trained staff and to reduce the unemployment rate among young individuals Increase of the competitiveness and employability through provision of motivation trainings, foreign language trainings, trainings in ICT and intermediary services in employment, including through the development of individual action plans showing interest in crafts demanded on the labour market Young individuals who have completed their vocational education in tourism Unemployed young individuals under the age of young people were involved 6,225 young individuals undertook a motivation training, 2,327 young people completed successfully a training in a foreign language, and 2,720 youngsters completed an ICT training. After the trainings, 3,296 people were provided with 15

17 6 Increasing the Rate of Employment of Young Individuals through Providing them with Work Placements Introduction of trainings and work placements to assist young people in finding their first job Unemployed young individuals with completed upper secondary or higher education intermediary services and 1,104 individuals were employed as a result of that. 27 young people were involved Source: One of the key policy documents with reference to VET issued in Bulgaria was the National Reform Program It aimed at improving the knowledge and training of manpower through activities associated with LLL. In this context, the main objectives of the program were as follows: reduction of the number of early school leavers below 11 % until 2020; increase of the percentage of people with higher education in the age group between 30 and 34 years up to 36 % by Table 4: Measures and activities implemented under the National Reform Program N Measures Activities 1 Adoption of a Law on 1.1. The new Law on School Education aims at School Education and outlining the new educational environment where Introduction of a New Educational Structure the student is the focus. (A draft version is published on the website of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Science.) 1.2. Introduction of a new educational structure in order to take actions against: the restrained intrasystem mobility, the ineffective implementation of the constitutional provision for compulsory education up to the age of 16, the lack of provisions for formal leave from the system at the age of 16 and for developing the skills of each student, while taking 16

18 2 Development and Introduction of a Quality Management System of Education at Different Levels 3 Increase of the Number of Children Included in Pre-school Education 4 Legislative Changes in Higher Education 5 Development of an Efficient System for Qualification and Career Development of Teachers and Lecturers 6 Implementation of a Students Loan Program into account his/her individual interests, needs and abilities 1.3. Modernization of vocational education, including by providing information about the existing opportunities for education and training at the national education portal and by building a network of career centers 1.4. Introduction of a new educational structure and a system for evaluation and quality control of education The system encourages the participation and the assumption of responsibility, which are directly related to social inclusion and the reduction of social isolation. Introduction of a compulsory pre-school education for children at the age of 5 Reforming of the higher education system in order to provide adequacy and transparency, enhancing the competitiveness and equal access to education, and improving the link between higher education and the labor market 5.1. Development of a compulsory teachers qualification 5.2. Development of a new system for assessing the quality of work of teachers 5.3. Increase of the lecturers competencies in key areas, such as language and ICT skills, and the acquisition of specific professional knowledge and competencies related to the contemporary curricula Creation of conditions for increasing the inflow of public and private resources to higher education 7 Implementation of the National Youth Strategy The analysis and forecasting of the labor market trends as well as the development of tools for support to young people in line with their needs and interests will allow improving the quality of professional and career orientation. This will contribute to overcoming the mismatch between labor demand and supply, creating new skills for new jobs in accordance with the objectives of the Flagship Initiative Youth on the Move. 17

19 Source: Another political document with a reference to LLL was the National Lifelong Learning Strategy aiming at giving the possibility to each individual to develop his / her soft skills and professional knowledge. The Action Plan adopted by the Council of Ministers in 2010 for the implementation of the Strategy comprised of various activities with a focus on greater access and quality of LLL. In addition, employers were motivated to participate in the provision of practical trainings for students. A significant role in the VET development in Bulgaria plays the updated strategy for employment , which aims at facilitating the transition from education to employment as well as at encouraging more individuals to participate in LLL. In this context, the goal is to increase the participation in LLL of people aged between 25 and 64 years up to 7 % by The entire education system of Bulgaria is in development, and thus, the education degrees are being re-defined and the introduction of a credit transfer system in VET is being considered. In addition, a focus is set on the greater autonomy of vocational schools and the professional development of the teaching staff. Apart from the teachers qualifications, innovative pedagogical practices as well as work with ICT and greater internationalization of VET have been encouraged. To sum up, as a result of the Torino Process in 2010, the following has been achieved in Bulgaria: development of a system for quality and control of VET; introduction of remote forms of training; introduction of entrepreneurship modules in the curricula; improvement of the quality of vocational education by enhancing the cooperation between educational institutions and business structures. 18

20 7. The Romanian VET system in the context of the Torino Process Table 5: The education and training system of Romania Source: p. 38 The establishment of the VET system in Romania is related to the production systems of large enterprises. Trainings were implemented both at schools and production 19

21 companies. The schools were preparing employees for the production sector. However, the transition to market economy required a restructuring of the VET system. Thus, the training places at the enterprises were eliminated and the VET system became more school-based. As a consequence, in the beginning of the 90s, the interest for VET decreased. The progression to higher education from vocational schools required completion of a technical high school, which also led to a decreased interest in VET among students. In order to improve the relevance of VET so that it corresponds to the goal of creating a knowledge- and ICT-based society and sustainable and inclusive economic growth, the Romanian Government adopted the Law on National Education. It defines the concept of LLL and VET and sets the recognition and validation of the knowledge and skills acquired through formal, non-formal and informal learning. In addition, the establishment of Community Centers for LLL is envisioned. The Law on National Education foresees the following reforms related to VET: re-founding of vocational education in terms of extending the use of the credit transfer system, giving more opportunities to those who have left school earlier as well as giving the opportunity for acquiring knowledge and skills in accordance with the NQF; equal access to education in order to bring the early school leavers back to school and prevent the students at risk from leaving school; in addition, the state is ready to support the students from economically weak families and from rural areas, and to provide scholarships for VET in accordance with companies or other stakeholders. Moreover, the VET for adults is foreseen to be stimulated by the implementation of ESFfunded projects with an estimated budget in 2011 of EUR 9 million. In order to increase the participation in the labor market, the National Reform Program set a target for improving the vocational skills of workers by providing courses through the National Training Plan Another focus is on increasing the employment quality in rural areas. Thus, in the period from 2011 until 2013, the vocational training of 14,287 people through the European Agriculture and Rural Development Fund was financed. In terms of achieving a greater coherence between VET and the requirements of the business structures, the NQF was developed in such a way so that it integrated the skills which could be acquired through VET. Furthermore, Romania committed itself to including 7 % of the people aged years in continuous vocational training by adopting The Short- and Medium-Term Strategy on lifelong learning The current Lifelong Learning Program implemented in Romania has a two-fold objective: to 20

22 synchronize the school curricula with the labor market demands and to increase the labor force mobility and flexibility. The development of the continuous vocational training has also been supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resource Development It focuses on quality assurance of continuous vocational training, restructuring of the NQF, and development of a system for recognition and validation of skills and knowledge acquired through VET. There is also a debate on the role of VET in the development of the country s economy. This is related to the fact that the number of newly created jobs is lower than the labor market demand. The key VET and LLL areas to which Romania has committed its actions in 2011 as a result of the 2010 Torino Process are: drafting of a National Lifelong Learning Strategy; drafting of a curriculum on skill upgrading; ensuring of a better social system and a greater unemployment security; amendment of the adult professional training; ensuring of the recognition of professional qualifications within the EU member states. 21

23 References 1. Official website of the European Training Foundation (http://www.etf.europa.eu/web.nsf/pages/ev_2013_torino_process_moving_skills _Forward?opendocument) 2. The Torino Process 2014, European Training Foundation, 2014 (http://www.etf.europa.eu/webatt.nsf/0/2090c2f0401ab964c1257c91005aa9e6/$ file/torino%20process% pdf) 3. Torino Process in Ukraine, Analysis of the system of vocational education and training in Ukraine in the framework of the Torino Process, Editor: Olena Lokshyna, Report prepared by: Vyacheslav Suprun, Victoria Karbysheva, Olena Lokshyna, Alla Lutskaya, Liudmyla Scherbak, Olga Scherbak and Inessa Lynnyk (http://www.etf.europa.eu/webatt.nsf/0/7c714c06f59a75e7c1257b5c /$ file/trp%202012%20ukraine_en.pdf) 4. Country Report Torino Process 2012, Republic of Moldova (http://www.etf.europa.eu/webatt.nsf/0/e7f72ef2becbb4aac1257b /$ file/trp%202012%20moldova_en.pdf) 5. Torino Process 2012, Georgia, European Training Foundation, 2013 (http://www.etf.europa.eu/webatt.nsf/0/8e a168bf4c1257b /$ file/trp%202012%20georgia_en.pdf) 6. National Centre for Educational Quality Enhancement, Georgia (http://eqe.ge/eng/education) 7. Torino Process 2012, Western Balkans and Turkey, European Training Foundation, 2013 (http://www.etf.europa.eu/webatt.nsf/0/d3b397f27c4de764c1257b fd8/ $file/trp%202012%20western%20balkans%20and%20turkey.pdf) 8. Bulgaria, VET in Europe Country Report, 2011 (http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2011/2011_cr_bg.pdf) 9. National Strategy for Continuing Vocational Training , Sofia 2005, Developed by: Ministry of Education and Science, Ministry of Labour and Social Policy, Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Finance, National Agency for Vocational Education and Training, Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Bulgarian Industrial Association, Confederation of the Free Trade Unions in Bulgaria (http://www.erisee.org/downloads/2013/2/b/strategy_for_continuing_vocational _Training%20% %20ENG.pdf) 10. National Statistical Institute, Bulgaria (http://www.nsi.bg/en) 11. Romania, VET in Europe Country Report, 2011 (http://www.refernet.de/images_content/romania%282%29.pdf) This publication has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. The contents of the publication are the sole responsibility of its authors and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union. 22

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