1 Teacher Education in China : Current Situation & Related Issues Dr. Tingjie YU Zhejiang Normal University
2 2 Institute of Educational Science (IES) of Zhejiang Normal University IES, established in June 2007, now is a research institution which also offers postgraduate programs at both master and doctor level. We have five research centers: Centre of Comparative Education, Centre of University Culture, Centre of Taiwan Higher Education, Centre of Classroom Teaching and Learning Evaluation and Centre of Educational Theory and Educational History. There are also three university-wide research centers affiliated to the Institute: Center for Higher Education, Center for Teacher Education, which are listed as two key humanities and social sciences research bases in Zhejiang Province and Centre of Ukraine Research.
3 3 CONTENT Education System in China Teacher Education in China Related Issues and Problems
4 4 Basic Education System Higher Education System
5 1. Basic Education System 5 Secondary Education Senior Secondary Schools Secondary Technology and Vocational Schools 3 years 9 Years Compulsory Education Junior Secondary Schools 3 years Elementary Education FREE Primary 7-16-year-olds Schools 6 years Preschool Education Kindergartens 3-6-year-olds
6 Quantity of Schools in China (2011) 6 Number of Schools Senior Secondary Schools Junior Secondary Schools Primary Schools Kindergartens Data Source: the Website of Ministry of Education of the People s Republic of China
7 Number of Students of Basic Education in China (2011) 7 Graduates Intakes Total In-school Students Senior Secondary Schools Junior Secondary Schools Primary Schools Pre-school Education Institutions Data Source: the Website of Ministry of Education of the People s Republic of China
8 2. Higher Education System 8 Doctor s Degrees (3-4 years) Master s Degrees (2-3 years) Vocational & Technology Education Bachelor s Degrees (4-5 years) Universities Junior Colleges Diplomas (2-3years) National College Entrance Examination Senior Middle Schools Independent Examinations & Enrollments by Junior Colleges Secondary Technology and Vocational Schools
9 Number of Students in Higher Education Institutions (2011) 9 Graduates Intakes Total In-school Students 2. Postgraduates Doctor s Degree Master s Degree Undergraduates in Regular HEIs Data Source: the Website of Ministry of Education of the People s Republic of China
10 Quantity of HEIs in China (2011) 10 Total HEIs under Central Ministries &Agencies HEIs under Local Auth. Nongovernment 1.Institutions Providing Postgraduate Programs Regular HEIs Research Institutes Regular HEIs HEIs Providing Degree level Programs Independent Institutions Short-cycle HEIs Data Source: the Website of Ministry of Education of the People s Republic of China
11 11 CONTENT Education System in China Teacher Education in China Related Issues and Problems
12 12 1. Something related to teachers or teacher education in China Something different from Finland
13 13 Majoring in teacher education is not a necessary condition for becoming a school teacher in China. Normal universities offer teacher education programs. But students who study in other multidisciplinary universities and who don t major in education may also become school teachers. If a graduate of higher education institutions has gained a teaching profession qualification certificate and also passed teacher recruitment exams organized by local educational authorities, he (she) can be a school teacher then.
14 Subject faculties or departments also can enroll students majoring in teacher education in normal universities. 14 In normal universities in China, things usually happen like this: Faculties or departments of education usually enroll students majoring in early childhood education and primary school education. Faculties or departments of subjects enroll students majoring in subject teaching. In many subject faculties or departments of normal universities, undergraduates are enrolled by discipline category. They don t need to choose their major until the end of 2nd or 3rd academic year. And then whether to study subject teaching majors or non-teaching majors will be confirmed according to a comprehensive ranking including students personal will and their academic achievements.
15 Nearly all the teachers only teach one subject, even at primary schools in China. We don t have the categories of class teachers and subject teachers. Subjects are taught by different teachers even at primary schools. Primary school teachers by different subjects (2011) Subjects Number of Teachers Virtue Education Language Literature Mathematics Foreign Languages Physical Science Arts Music Fine Arts Information Technology Skills Teaching Others Data Source: the Website of Ministry of Education of the People s Republic of China
16 16 Teaching is a feminine career at the pre-school level, but definitely not at the secondary level. School teachers number in 2011 Schools Full-time Teachers Female Full-time Teachers Number Percentage Senior Secondary Schools Junior Secondary Schools % % Primary Schools % Pre-school Education Institutions % Data Source: the Website of Ministry of Education of the People s Republic of China
17 2. Brief Introduction to History of Teacher Education in China 17 Chinese people have a history and tradition of respecting teachers and attaching importance to education since the very ancient times. Teacher education in China only has a history of 100 years.
18 18 The first teacher education institution in China is the Normal School of Nanyang Gongxue (the earliest Chinese university in modern times ) which was founded in Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry were the main curriculum offered. Besides, students also had to learn science education, botany, mineralogy, geography and foreign language. 71 students graduated in total. The school was closed in 1903.
19 19 Before 1904: Introduced ideas from abroad Some ideas and notions about teacher education in other countries (European countries, U.S. and Japan) had been introduced to China gradually : Learned from Japan normal schools: primary school teachers teacher colleges: secondary school teachers : Learned from U.S. Normal schools and regular secondary schools were encouraged to merge into comprehensive secondary schools. Teacher colleges became independent universities or faculties and departments of universities : Explored in a hard time and way Normal schools became independent again. There were only 2 institutions for educating secondary school teachers during : Beijing Normal University, Beijing Women s Normal University.
20 :Learned from Russia There were two kinds of higher education institutions for teacher education: 1.normal (or education) colleges (under MOE) 2. normal junior colleges (under local governments) educate senior secondary teachers Most of normal (education) colleges and normal junior colleges have upgraded to universities. educate junior secondary teachers Besides, secondary normal schools had the responsibility to educate teachers at pre-school and primary school level. Secondary normal schools were abolished from the beginning of 21st They enrolled graduates from junior secondary schools. century and some of them upgraded to junior colleges or universities.
21 3. Teacher education providers in China 21 Nowadays, in China, teacher education are provided by universities, especially normal universities.
22 There are 6 normal universities under MOE. 22 Beijing Normal University East China Normal University Northeast China Normal University Central China Normal University Southwest University Shanxi Normal University
23 23 There are over 30 normal universities in China which are under the administration of local educational authorities of each province. We usually call this kind of universities: local normal universities. They play a vital role in outputting teachers for school education in each province of China.
24 Name list of local normal universities in China: 24 Anhui Normal University Chongqing Normal University Fujian Normal University Guangxi Normal University Guizhou Normal University Haerbin Normal University Hainan Normal University Hangzhou Normal University Hebei Normal University Henan Normal University Hunan Normal University South China Normal University Huaibei Normal University Jilin Normal University Jiangsu Normal University Yunnan Normal University Jiangxi Normal University Liaoning Normal University Neimenggu Normal University Nanjing Normal University Zhejiang Normal University Qinghai Normal University Qufu Normal University Shandong Normal University Shanxi Normal University Shanghai Normal University Shenyang Normal University Shoudu Normal University Sichuan Normal University Tianjin Normal University Northwest Normal University Xihua Normal University Xinjiang Normal University
26 26 4. Teacher education models in China At undergraduate level: 2+2 model: 1st-2nd academic Year: subject knowledge studying; 3rd-4th academic Year: teaching skill training model: first 2.5 years: emphasizing on subject theory learning (including some teaching practice); last 1.5 years: focusing on teaching training, practical training is the key point. 3+1 model: 1st-3rd academic Year: subject knowledge and education theory studying; 4th academic Year: teaching practice
27 27 At postgraduate level: 4+2 model: 1st-4th academic Year: subject knowledge studying (Bachelor of the subject); 5th-6th academic Year: teaching skill training (Master of education). Beijing Normal University uses this model to educate research-based teachers for secondary schools, especially key middle schools.
28 28 5. Curriculum framework of teacher education Subject knowledge is emphasized more than pedagogical knowledge according to the curricula framework of teacher education in China.
29 29 Curricula structure of pre-service teacher education at undergraduate level Zhejiang Normal University All the curriculums can be divided into 3 parts: general education subject knowledge pedagogy & teaching training
30 Part Ⅰ: general education 30 Curricula category Curricula module credit General education (obligatory) Political theory 16 Information technology 4-6 University foreign language 12 University Physical 4 University Chinese literature 2 Higher mathematics 3-10 Career planning and employment guidance for college students 2 History and culture General education (elective) Culture and arts Economy and society Science and society 6-12 Well-being and life Total 49-64
31 Part Ⅱ: subject knowledge 31 Curricula category Curricula module credit Discipline basic curriculum Subject core curriculum Subject oriented & development curriculum Practical segment Subject oriented curricular Subject development curricular 30 Graduation dissertation design 6-10 Major practice 4-12 Social practice of political theory 2 Military theory & military training 2 Total
32 Part Ⅲ: pedagogy & teaching training 32 Curricula category Curricula module credit Educational theory and psychology Educational administration & educational research pedagogy 2 Educational psychology 2 Psychological consultation of secondary school students 2 Educational philosophy 2 Educational sociology 2 Teacher ethnics 2 Educational history at home and abroad 2 Discipline pedagogical theory 2 Lectures about educational reform 1 Theory about teacher professional development 2 Class management 2 School organization and administration 2 Educational research methods 2 Research on discipline standards and teaching material of secondary school 2 Curriculum development 3
33 Part Ⅲ: pedagogy & teaching training 33 Teaching skills and methods Teaching practice Modern educational technology theory and application language skill of teachers 1 Handwriting skill 1 Microteaching and teaching diagnosis 1 Teaching strategy and teaching design 2 Case teaching s theory and method 2 Teaching novitiate 2 Teaching practice 7 Teaching research 1 Total 52 3
35 Curricula Structure of Chinese Literature Major (undergraduate) 35 Hainan Normal University 52 credits 78 credits 28 credits curricula category credit academic year general education (compulsory) general education (selective) discipline/subject (compulsory) subject core (compulsory) subject development (selective) teacher education (compulsory ) teacher education (selective) practice teaching training 14 (compulsory) 3-4 other practice 16
36 36 6. Teaching practice in local normal universities Compared with other normal universities in China, Zhejiang Normal University emphasizes more on students teaching skill s training. Students will take part in 9 weeks teaching practice and 3 weeks teaching research. Teaching research: when students teach a class at schools, their performance will be taken by a video recorder. When they finish their practice and go back to university from schools, they will watch these videos to do self-reflection and team discussion.
37 37 Teacher Education Practical Training Centre (TEPTC) We have established the Teacher Education Practical Training Centre (TEPTC) in order to enhance students teaching skills. Each year, 2500 undergraduate students will take an assessment (including teaching strategy design, courseware making, handwriting, pronunciation of mandarin and etc) in the centre. If a student cannot pass the assessment, he (she) will not be able to attend teaching practice and cannot get the Bachelor Degree and Graduation Diploma.
39 39 CONTENT Education System in China Teacher Education in China Related Issues and Problems
40 40 1. The core mission of normal universities has changed today. In the history, normal universities, especially local normal universities, were built in order to educate prospective school teachers. But nowadays, most normal universities already have been or tended to be multidisciplinary universities.
41 41 A national research program leaded by Prof. SUI Yifan: Research on the Mission and Teacher Education Model s Reform of Local Normal Universities We have done some investigations in many local normal universities: what the percentage of teacher education enrollment occupies the whole university s enrollment at undergraduate level in the recent 3 years? we found that: A majority of local normal universities did not reach the figure of 50% and some were even lower than 20%. There are only a few local normal universities reached or exceed the figure of 50%. Will these normal universities forget or lose their initial mission to educate teachers for school education? Researchers in China worry about this problem.
42 42 2. Teacher education should focus more on students teaching skill training. A research finding of research program: Research on the Mission and Teacher Education Model s Reform of Local Normal Universities We have sent 432 questionnaires to secondary school teachers who graduated from local normal universities and received 341. Degree of Satisfaction on teacher education of your university Very helpful (A)(%) Quite helpful (B)(%) Just OK (C)(%) Not that helpful (D)(%) Not helpful at all (E)(%) Subject curriculum General education curriculum Pedagogy & educational curriculum Teaching practice
43 43 Emphasizing more on subject knowledge than pedagogy & education practice may have two sides: On one hand, it may offer prospective school teachers with adequate academic training and knowledge background. On the other hand, it may make students lack the skill to know children well and to understand their learning.
44 44 3. Teacher education, differing from other higher education, should satisfy the needs of current school teaching. We interviewed many principals in Chinese secondary schools and asked them to give some suggestions to current teacher education.* They said that teacher education is a typical professional education which is quite different from other higher education. They emphasized that teacher education should care more about the needs of current school teaching. * This is a research finding of national research program named Research on the Mission and Teacher Education Model s Reform of Local Normal Universities. The program is leaded by Prof. SUI Yifan.,
45 45 Normal universities should communicate more frequently and cooperate more with schools to educate prospective teachers than currently.
46 46 4. Teacher education needs to solve a problem: how to make students love and devote to teaching. We have sent 2200 questionnaires to undergraduate students who study education in local normal universities and received * The following graph shows their reasons for choosing to study education. others major adjustment 0.50% 6.86% the advice from parents or teachers intense empoloyment competition the stablity of teaching career Love teaching 17.78% 35.67% 35.52% 54.38% 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% * This is a research finding of national research program named Research on the Mission and Teacher Education Model s Reform of Local Normal Universities. The program is leaded by Prof. SUI Yifan.,
47 47 Some secondary schools principals said compared with experienced teachers, young teachers seem to lack the faith of teaching career. Professional spirit is one of the most important quality that a capable teacher should have. How to equip students with enthusiasm for teaching is a question that teacher educators must consider seriously.
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