1 Mathematics and Science Teacher Preparation in China Xu, Binyan edu cn Kong Qiping East China Normal University it Spring Planning Meeting June 16-17, 2008
2 Teacher preparation system in China In recent decades, China has developed a system of the teacher preparation, which includes pre- service teacher training and in - service teacher training.
3 pre- service teacher training - "normal" education Through approximately 20 years of effort, a three-staged process of "normal" education has been established.
4 "normal" education (1) Primary school teachers are trained in secondary Normal schools; (2) Junior high school teachers are trained in three-year teacher colleges; and, (3) Senior high school teachers are trained in four-year teacher colleges and normal universities.
5 However, with the rapid development of the economy and technology in China, it has been an urgent agenda to upgrade and foster teachers quality.
6 In order to meet this challenge, the Ministry of Education (1998) documented an action plan for revitalizing education ( ) in the 21st century.
7 Some projects were launched. one is referred to as the Gardener Project ( ) and aims to establish continuing teacher education systems for practicing teachers.
8 Meanwhile, the Ministry of Education (1999) enacted a decision on deepening education reform and whole advancing quality education in which comprehensive universities iti and non-normal universities iti were encouraged to engage in educating elementary and secondary school teachers.
9 The teacher s credential system To obtain qualifications for teachers, corresponding records of formal schooling are required as follows: (1) to obtain qualifications for a teacher in a kindergarten, one should be a graduate of a normal school for preschool teachers or upwards;
10 The teacher s credential system (2) to obtain qualifications for a teacher in a primary school, one should be a graduate of asecondarynormalschoolorupwards; normal school or
11 The teacher s credential system (3) to obtain qualifications for a teacher in a junior high school, one should be a graduate of a specialized higher normal school, or other colleges or universities with two or three years' schooling or upwards.
12 The teacher s credential system (4) to obtain qualifications for a teacher in a senior high school, one should be a graduate of a teachers college or a university with four years' schooling or upwards.
13 The teacher s credential system Along with the rapid increase in the number of undergraduate enrollment in the past few years, the requirement for degree gets much higher as well.
14 In some big cities in China, primary school teachers are three-year teachers colleges or four-year teachers colleges graduates. The junior and senior high school teachers are trained in four-year teachers colleges and normal universities, and some of the senior high school teachers have postgraduate degree.
15 science curriculum In junior middle school there are two choices for science curriculum One is integrated curriculum; the other is separated curriculum (chemistry, physics, biology). Most school adopt separated curriculum.
16 There is no Science department in university in china, Science teachers come from the Department of chemistry, physics or biology. Achemistryteachermaybenotveryfamiliar teacher may with physics or biology. This is main reason for more and more schools adopting separated curriculum.
17 pre- service teacher training in normal universities There are six key normal universities set up in the six large administrative divisions in China. Mathematics and science teacher training programs in these universities are all academic-oriented and are similar with each other.
18 The courses provided by normal universities can be classified into three categories: (1)common required courses, (2)pedagogical training courses, and (3) academic courses. Roughly, the percentages of the total required credits allot to each category courses in recent years are 30%, 15%, and 55%, respectively.
19 Through a four-year study, a report was written on the curriculum reform in mathematics departments at Normal universities. The report claimed that the aims of mathematics education at Normal universities were basically to train mathematics teachers to prepare students for further research or quantitative fields.
20 As a consequence, it is necessary to focus on mathematical content knowledge in the department of mathematics. In addition, when emphasizing mathematics subject matter knowledge, it is also important to keep one eye on studying primary mathematics with updating ideas.
22 There is a trend to provide students with more flexible choices in courses and specializations. For example, at East China Normal University, according to students interest and requirements, they are streamed into three optional majors: mathematics education, foundation mathematics, and applied mathematics.
23 The following outlines some electives:
25 To sum up, the preparation of prospective math and science teachers exhibits the following characteristics: (a) Providing prospective teachers with a foundation in profound mathematics knowledge and high advanced mathematics literacy;
26 (b) Emphasizing review and study of primary knowledge of math and science. It was believed that a profound understanding of primary knowledge of math and science and strong ability of solving problems in primary mathematics ti were crucial to being a qualified mathematics teacher at secondary schools. Due to the tradition of examination-oriented teaching, a high level of problem solving ability is necessary for a qualified teacher.
27 (c) Teaching practicum is limited. Asix-week teaching practicum can only A six-week teaching practicum can only provide prospective teachers.
28 This reflects a belief that a solid math and science base is vital for teacher preparation. Furthermore, higher mathematics and science courses are taken as a priority and privilege since prospective teachers will have less chance to learn them in their career life. It is a main aim to foster prospective teachers with a bird s eye view of understanding elementary mathematics deeply rather than immediately connecting to what they will teach in schools.
29 in-service teacher training As illustrated above, pre-service teacher education emphasizes math and science study, thus great importance has to be attached to in-service teacher training in China. In fact, teachers professional development is strongly supported by a well-organized teacher continuing education.
30 in-service teacher training As illustrated above, pre-service teacher education emphasizes math and science study, thus great importance has to be attached to in-service teacher training in China. In fact, teachers professional development is strongly supported by a well-organized teacher continuing education.
31 in-service teacher training the national teaching research network open class or Guan Mo lesson( ) teachers informal communication f l f f Professional Degree of Master of Education (PDME)
32 Teaching Research Groups (TRG) As early as 1952, a guideline issued by the MOE of China required all schools to set up teaching research groups (TRG) for each teaching subject.
33 Teaching Preparing Groups (TPG) In practice, Teaching Preparing Groups (TPG) was formed by the teachers teaching the same grade/year level in a school.
34 main activities for the TRG and TPG discussing teaching plans, teaching contents, and teaching methods observing and evaluating lessons together sharing teaching ideas and resources
35 These two groups are the basic units in the network They offer direct, relevant, and daily support to teachers.
36 teaching research offices (TRO) Besides of TRG and TPG run at schools level, we also have teaching research offices (TRO) run at county/city level and province level.
37 teaching research network A great number of teaching research officers( ) work in this teaching research network. Their duties are to organize teacher training, visit school teachers classes and organize open classes and have discussions after the classes, hold teaching competitions and so on.
38 open class Different from western culture, the classroom teaching of Chinese math and science are open for colleagues observation, studies and discussion. An open class in a large scope is viewed as a very high honor for the teacher.
39 Guan Mo lessons Open Lessons, some educators suggest name them Guan Mo lessons ( ), which means to observe and improve the lesson together.
40 For our Chinese, Guan Mo is a popular method for improving skills continuously. It is a widely-accepted means of teacher training in China, and it provides a platform for teachers to demonstrate and improve their teaching ability.
41 As university faculties in China, school teachers have their professional titles and their teaching qualities are assessed by schools annually. To apply for a higher academic position, they are required to pass some national examinations and local assessments, and finally get approval from the local government.
42 The annual assessment results are the basis for teachers appointment and pay rise as well as rewards and punishments. The assessment policies are made to constantly enhance the overall quality of the teaching force.
43 Chinese teachers also have plenty of opportunities for informal communication, such as talking in their common big office rooms.
44 There are two main ways of grouping teachers in a school. One is to group by grades/years, which means that all the teachers teaching the same grade/year share a big office room.
45 The other is to group by subjects they teach. It is convenient for them to communicate and prepare lessons together.
46 Degree of Master of Education (PDME) Recently, the Academic Degree Committee of the Ministry of Education set a special degree, called a Professional Degree of Master of Education (PDME), for school teachers.
47 The candidates are only required to sit for the Joint Examination given by the related universities, and do not need to take the National Postgraduate Entrance Examination.
48 Their study is 2-4 years duration part- time. However, it is necessary to study at university full time for one year (23 credit points) and present a teaching- related dissertation at the end.
49 Furthermore, in order to allow some non teaching experienced candidates who could be school teachers to obtain PDME, one new model, has been successfully utilized by Beijing Normal University since 2003.
50 This new model, called 4+2 model, means four-years undergraduate course and two-years postgraduate course.
51 Degree of Master of Education (PDME) Another new model, called (which means four-years undergraduate course and one year practice in school and two-years post graduate course) has been putted in practice by East China Normal University since 2005.
52 In-service teacher training: i Degree of Master of Education (PDME) But now, in order to encourage school teachers to enhance their professional abilities, PDME provide also vacation courses, or weekend course for teachers. It means such teachers need only visit courses (total 23 credit points) during summer vacation, or weekend.
53 To sum up, the system of teacher preparation has play very important role in math and science education in china.
54 two essential parts academic oriented pre - service teacher training practice oriented in - service teacher training
55 The math and science education in china is closely related to the system of teacher preparation.
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