Animal Environmental Internal Response Types

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1 Animal Environmental Internal Response Types Stimuli Stimuli Panting (P) Sweating (S) What happens to you internally (in your body) when you run as fast as you can around the track?

2 What happens when the sun shines directly into your eyes? Animal Behavior Why do animals behave in certain ways? Organisms respond to stimuli!a Stimulus is any change in an organism s surroundings that will cause the organism to react. CAUSE!A Response in the reaction or the effect of the stimulus. EFFECT!Environmental Stimulus: A change in an organisms ENVIRONMENT (surroundings) that causes a reaction.!examples of environmental stimulus: Changes in: amount of daylight, Temperature, Sound, Amount of water, Space, Types of food present Example of environmental Stimuli Environmental Stimulus: Increase in temperature!internal Stimulus: A signal from inside an organism s body that causes a reaction or response.!examples of internal stimuli: Hunger, thirst and Feeling Sleepy Example of internal Stimuli!Internal Stimulus: An animal becomes Hungry!The reaction to a stimulus is called a response.!physical response is when your body physically reacts, like

3 !Behavioral response is when an animal performs an action or behavior in response to something like birds migrating. Behavioral Responses Defense is the response to a danger.!defense mechanisms, which are physical features (adaptations), can vary between animals.!examples include: Camouflage, Smells, Stingers, Ejection, Mimicry Behavioral responses!cold weather is the stimulus!response.!hibernation!cold weather is the stimulus!response.!migration Behavioral Responses!Warmer weather and longer days are the stimuli for COURTSHIP!Courtship in animals is usually a process by which adult species become mates.!courtship behaviors ensure that males and females of the same species recognize each other. What is a behavioral response? Behavioral response (effect) refers to how animals cope or deal with changes in their environment (cause). Examples: Hibernation, Migration, Defense, Courtship HIBERNATION Cold weather is the stimulus that causes some animals to hibernate to conserve food stored in the body (ex. bears). Hibernation is a special, very deep sleep. During hibernation the animal s body temperature drops and its heartbeat and breathing slow down. Hibernation uses very little energy! Some animals hibernate for part or all of the winter. Other ectothermic animals (like fish) may move to the bottoms of lakes and ponds during cold weather. MIGRATION

4 Cold weather is the stimulus that causes some animals to migrate to find food. Migration is when an animal travels to another place where the weather is warmer (like birds) OR where they can find food (like wild mustangs). The amount of daylight and the weather can control an animal s migration patterns. COURTSHIP Environmental stimuli such as warmer weather and longer days will stimulate (or cause) courtship. Courtship in animals is usually a behavioral process by which adult species become mating pairs. Courtship behaviors ensure that males and females of the same species recognize each other. Sensory cues can attract a potential mate: Chemical odor (ex. dogs) & Color (ex. peacocks) Shedding Stimulus heat To maintain internal temperatures, some endothermic animals form thick coats of fur to insulate their body from cold weather. In hot weather, animals must shed this extra fur to cool themselves Response Shedding! Sweating Stimuli - Nerve stimulation, hot air, or exercise. Sweating is an organisms way of getting rid of excess body heat When sweat evaporates from the surface of the skin, it removes excess heat and cools the animal. Response Sweating! Panting Stimuli - heat and exercise. Some animals don t sweat and even if they did, they have thick coats of fur that would still keep the heat in. These animals pant to get rid of excess heat from their bodies. The heat turns the water in their mouths into water vapor and in turn cools the animal. Response Panting! = Shivering Stimulus - cold temperature. Shivering is a mammal s mechanism to increase heat production.

5 It is an involuntary response to a drop in the temperature of air in contact with the body. It is a method that the body uses to increase the rate at which energy is transformed for use. Response Shivering! Blinking Stimulus - moisture loss in the eye. Blinking also provides protection for the eye. Keeps the eye from drying out and/or being injured. Response Blinking! Hunger Hunger is an internal stimulus. Animals need food for several reasons. If animals did not have the hunger stimulus, they may not eat and could not survive. Response Feeding! Food Gathering Food Gathering is another response to the hunger stimulus. This is the process of finding food by hunting or fishing or the gathering of seeds, berries, or roots. Storing food! many animals will begin to gather and store food for the winter (ex. Squirrel) Storing nutrition in the form of fat! many animals will overeat and reduce their physical activity to conserve energy in response to environmental stimuli such as cold weather or drought Thirst Thirst is an internal stimulus. Animals have mechanisms (storing in the form of fat) for surviving long periods of time without food before they die. Animals can only survive for a few days without water. Survival is dependent on water. Response Drinking! Exhaustion Exhaustion is an internal stimulus. Sleep is response, triggered by a stimulus from the brain. Sleep is not an option, it is required for survival. Response Sleep!

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