1 Smart Fueling for Top Performance E N D U R A N C E S P O R T S N U T R I T I O N F O R T E E N AT H L E T E S C r e a t e d B y : Ka r a M c G i l l - M e e k s M S, R D
2 The Basics of a Performance Diet In general, what should I be eating? Research shows that athletes do not need a different diet from what is suggested by the Dietary Guidelines and MyPyramid. How many calories should I consume daily? This ranges depending upon age, sex, and activity level. Female athletes ages 13-23, ranges are calories/day Male athletes ages 13-23, ranges are calories per day
3 The Basics- Carbohydrates How much carbohydrate (CHO) should I consume daily? CHO is the body s preferred fuel source- especially during exercise % total calories should come from CHO Example: 2600 calorie diet = 1430 CHO calories = 358 grams CHO per day Sources: milk, yogurt, fruit, starchy vegetables (potatoes, pinto beans, peas, corn), pasta, rice, cereals, breads.
4 The Basics- Protein How much protein should I consume daily? Protein both builds/maintains muscle mass. Protein aids in muscle recovery % total calories should come from protein. Example: 2600 calorie diet = 364 protein calories = 91 grams protein per day Sources: cheese, milk, nuts, seeds, soy, eggs, poultry, fish, beef, pork.
5 The Basics- Fat How much fat should I consume daily? Fat is needed for energy during both low-intensity and longer-duration activities. Fat is part of every cell in the body % total calories should come from fat. Example: 2600 calorie diet = 650 fat calories = 72 grams fat per day Good Sources: vegetable oils, nuts, fish (salmon, tuna, trout).
6 The Basics- Vitamins, Minerals, Water Vitamins A, D, C, E, K, and the B vitamins all help your body to perform processes such as turning CHO s into energy (fuel!). Minerals Calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc form various body structures such as bones. Minerals control certain processes in your body. Water- See hydration section for details!
7 The Basics- Serving Sizes Grains: 1 slice of bread ½ cup cooked cereal/rice 1 cup cold cereal Fruits: ½ cup raw, frozen, or canned fruit ½ cup fruit juice 1 medium piece of fruit Vegetables 1 cup raw vegetables ½ cup cooked vegetables Dairy: 1 cup milk 1 cup yogurt 1 ½ ounces cheese Meat/Beans 1 egg 1 ounce fish, poultry, or lean meat ¼ cup cooked beans ½ ounce nuts or seeds Fats
8 Pre-Event Meals 2-4 hours before exercise: Focus of this meal Replenish liver glycogen stores Fuel your GI tract for later release Goal= 1-2 grams CHO/lb body weight (note- more time= more g CHO per lb.) Example: 160 lb. Person= 320 grams CHO 2 cups oatmeal, 1 serving instant breakfast, 1 banana, 8 ounces orange juice, 1 slice toast w/ peanut butter Roast beef sandwich w/ lettuce and tomato, 1 medium apple, 8 ounces chocolate milk, carrot sticks, low fat yogurt
9 Pre-Event Meals (continued) 1 hour before exercise: When you have not eaten for 4 hours OR cannot get up early enough in AM for meal, aim for grams CHO total. Example: English muffin with peanut butter OR an energy bar.
10 Hydration How much water do I need? Even mild levels of dehydration can dramatically impede top athletic performance. DO NOT to rely on thirst alone but to develop regular drinking habits and behaviors to maintain a good level of daily hydration. When NOT in training: Drink a MINIMUM of ounces of fluid daily for basic hydration requirements Try to drink on a schedule of 8 ounces every hour
11 Hydration (continued) When in training, consume: ounces of fluid 2 hours before exercising 8-16 ounces 30 minutes before exercising 8 ounces every minutes during 24 ounces for each pound lost for hours after competition Note- most standard water bottles hold ounces fluid You can monitor hydration status by checking color/quantity of urine. Clear or lemonade color= adequate Darker or apple juice color in smaller volume= inadequate
12 Hydration (continued) What should I be drinking? Water should make up ~half of your daily fluid intake Other ½= other fluids, juices, dairy milk, soy milk, soups, sports drinks and foods w/ high water content (fruits and veggies) Are caffeinated beverages OK? Yes- in MODERATION! New studies have found little evidence to support the old idea that caffeine can slow down efforts to rehydrate. In fact, caffeine appears to offer ergogenic benefits during prolonged exercise.
13 Hydration (continued) Moderate daily intake ( mg per lb body wt) is OK in context of well-balanced diet. Example: 170 lb person= mg/day 1 can soda is ~40-45 mg caffeine However, caffeine ingestion in the range of >400 mg may cause nausea, abdominal discomfort, sleep problems, and irritability. It also elevates heart rate and blood pressure, which affect the ability to accurately monitor training intensity. Content of common energy drinks: Red Bull= 80 mg/8.3 ounces (9.64 mg/ounce) Rock Star= 160 mg/16 ounces (10 mg/ounce) Power Shot= 100 mg/ounce
14 Hydration (continued) What about sports drinks? For activities <60 minutes in duration, cool water is fine. Sports drinks are designed for use during longer activities. Choose a sports drink with 4-8% carbohydrate content (14 grams CHO/8 ounces fluid) as this empties from stomach very efficientlywhich means it will get to bloodstream more quickly. Select a sports drink with a combination of CHO sources (sucrose, glucose, dextrose, etc.) Drinks with 10-12% carbohydrates (soft drinks, fruit juices) empty more slowly from stomach. During exercise, cooler fluids empty from your stomach more quickly than warmer ones. Guidelines for consumption of sports drinks during exercise are the same as those for water, 4-8 ounces every minutes.
15 Fuel between Events Competing in several events in one day can present nutritional challenges! The amount of time between events or heats will determine the amount of food you eat. If there is 1 hour or less between events, stick with fluids or high CHO foods, if tolerated. Examples: sports drinks, fruit, energy bars, bagel, yogurt cup. For 1 to 3 hour breaks, try high CHO foods with some lean protein. Examples: cereal and milk; grapes and yogurt; crackers and peanut butter. For breaks >3 hours, regular high carbohydrate meals are often well-tolerated. Example: ham and cheese sandwich with raw vegetables, dip, and low fat milk
16 Recovery Meals By consuming CHO immediately after exercise (within 30 minutes), then eating meals with protein and CHO within 4 to 6 hours post exercise, you can make the most of your nutritional recovery (increase the rate at which you replace muscle fuel and repair muscle). If you cannot tolerate solid food 15 to 30 minutes post exercise, try 2 to 4 cups of a sports drink. Immediate post-training food/fluid sources: Cereal, dairy or soy milk, & fruit. Bagel w/ peanut butter, jam, & orange juice. Smoothie made w/ soy or dairy milk, yogurt, and fruit. Yogurt, granola, and fruit. Energy bar and fruit. Pasta salad w/ low-fat cheese. Lean meat sandwich with pretzels.
17 Do Energy Bars Fit in My Diet? Yes- but only in moderation! Energy bars should not be used as a main part of your diet- just to fill-it in. If used as a meal, pair bars w/ whole foods like a piece of fruit and some milk. Choose a bar based on your caloric requirements. calories range can anywhere from per bar Most carbohydrate-rich bars, though fortified with vitamins and minerals, are high in sugar and contain little fiber. When choosing a carb-rich bar, aim for grams CHO per bar. Higher protein bars may provide protein BUT without the accompanying iron and zinc found in most protein-rich foods.
18 Do Energy Bars Fit in My Diet? Make sure to choose a high-protein bar w/ a protein source of whey, casein, soy and/or egg. Many bars lack substantial amounts of some of the key nutrients that athletes are already often low in, such as iron, fiber, calcium, and vitamins A and C. The nutrients in food work together to produce a desired effect greater than a single nutrient can produce. When bars work well: Pre-workout or pre-race meal As fuel during exercise Post-exercise to help replenish glycogen stores Occasional back-up meal/snack on really busy days
19 Weight Management Weight loss is most successful when you pay attention to BOTH physical activity AND food choices. As an athlete, you must be very careful to prevent loss of water, electrolytes, minerals, muscle, and bone. Tips for safe weight loss: Do not skip meals! Severe food restriction causes excessive hunger which may lead to overeating/binging. Eat consciously. Make sure you are truly hungry and not simply bored. Slow down! Give your brain time to realize the body is full Moderate- do no eliminate! Choose 1-2 cookies vs. ½ of the box
20 Weight Management Weight loss should be done during the off-season or during earlyseason conditioning. If done during the season, it can hurt your performance. Consult a registered dietitian to help you come up with a safe, effective weight-loss plan. Weight loss guidelines: Keep a food and activity log. Only reduce calorie intake by calories per day If you are not already strength training, add at least 2 sessions per week. Slow losses are better maintained. Hence, aim for NO MORE than ½ to 1 pound lost weekly.
21 Tips for the Road Portable Performance Foods: Yogurt/Cereal Smoothies Granola Fruits Whole grain bagels or English Muffins Pretzels Dried fruits String cheese/crackers
22 More Tips for the Road Single-serve breakfast cereals Single-serve tuna/crackers Energy bars Cup-of-soup Raw vegetables (baby carrots, cherry tomatoes, baked sweet potato) Animal crackers Low fat popcorn Milk Pudding
23 Even More Tips for the Road Smart Restaurant Choices: Choose higher-carb, lower fat foods. Breakfast: Waffles or pancakes English muffins, bagels, toast Yogurt Cereal with milk Fruit Juice Lunch/Dinner Soups- not cream based Chili Sandwiches on darker, more dense breads (more fiber) Baked potatoes Salads or cooked vegetables Small hamburgers or grilled chicken sandwiches Soft tacos or enchiladas Rice Pasta with red sauces (not cream sauces) Pizza with thick crust and vegetable toppings
24 Supplements- Friend or Foe? Performance-enhancing supplements or ergogenic aids are used to boost athletic performance, stave-off fatigue, and enhance physical appearance. According to some studies, as many as 30% to 40% of young athletes take at least one dietary supplement such as creatine, whey protein, or amino acids. The position of the American Dietetic Association and the American College of Sports Medicine is that supplements should be used with caution an only after careful evaluation of the product for safety, for efficacy, for potency, and to determine whether or not it is a banned or illegal substance. O Brodovich, H. (2005). Energy drinks, whey protein, and more: Dietary supplements and teen althetes. About Kids Health. Retrieved December 12, 2008, from
25 Supplements (continued) Most of the supplements are useless and possibly harmful. They are often manufactured by companies with questionable backgrounds and hence, may be untested and even contaminated with harmful substances. Common supplements include: Caffeine Creatine Protein (whey or casein) HMB Ephedrine Androstenedione Glutamine Arginine Congugated Linoleic Acid
26 More Resources for You Active.com Gatorade Sports Science Institute National Dairy Council Sports Medicine at About.com American College of Sports Medicine
27 References Clark, N. (2003). Nancy Clark s Sports Nutrition Guidebook (3 rd Edition). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Eberle, S.G. (2000). Endurance Sports Nutrition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Ryan, M. (2007). Sports Nutrition for Endurance Athletes (2 nd Edition). Boulder : Velo. Western Dairy Council (2006), Eating for Peak Performance. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from orts/default.aspx