Nutrition for Active Youth. Lisa Needham, MSc, RD Public Health Dietitian Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph Public Health

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1 Nutrition for Active Youth Lisa Needham, MSc, RD Public Health Dietitian Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph Public Health

2 Outline Hydration Eating Before Activity Eating Post Recovery Your Questions: Eating on the Road

3 Hydration: Dehydration increases the risk of life-threatening heat injury such as heat stroke. Dehydration (loss >2% body weight) can: compromise aerobic exercise performance affect muscle strength cause cramping impair mental/cognitive performance

4 Example: 2 % for a 140 lb male = 2.8 lbs. Pre-exercise = 140 lb Post- exercise = 137 lb Over 2% loss may already impaired performance.

5 Before: At least 4 hours before drink 5-7 ml/kg body weight (2-3 ml/lb) of water. Example: 150 lb person 2-3 ml/lb x 150lbs = ml or about 1-2 cups fluid This will optimize hydration and give time to excrete any excess fluid as urine prior to exercise

6 Before continnued: above normal state of water body content is discouraged. Be careful not too over hydrate increase risk of having to urinate during exercise no clear physiologic or performance advantage over normal state of body water content

7 During: maintain fluid balance Sweat rates dependent on many factors such as: Temperature Humidity Genetics Metabolic efficiency. Sweat rates can range from 0.3 to as much as 2.4 litres/hr.

8 During continued Best to maintain fluid balance. If fluid balance cannot be maintained, the maximal amounts that can be tolerated should be ingested. Optimal hydration can be facilitated by drinking 150 to 350 ml ( cups or 6 to 12 oz) of fluid at 15- to 20-minute intervals, beginning at the start of exercise. approx ml/hr or cups/hr.

9 Exercise over 1 hour Beverages containing carbohydrate in concentrations of 4-8% are recommended for exercise events lasting longer than one hour. Plain water is suitable for anything less than 1 hour. Considerations: Aid hydration for some Sodium increases thirst drive.

10 Sports Beverages Short-term Exercise Alternatives: Water Diluted 100% fruit juice More nutritious Must be diluted 50:50 with water for best absorption If you get cramping, return to water or sports beverages Homemade Sports Beverage 500 ml water + 5 tsp honey + 1/8 tsp salt Tips: Beverages for energy during activity should have a sugar concentration between 5 8 % (juice has 15-20% so it must be diluted) When to Use Sports Drinks

11 Other considerations: Cultural norm Not necessary Less than 1 hour of constant activity for a player (body uses stored sugars) Not an ideal post recovery drink or snack little physiologic need to replace electrolytes during a single session of moderate duration (e.g., < 3-4 hrs), particularly if sodium was present in the previous meal.

12 Cost. Average 2 practices, 1 game and a tournament (4 games) = 7 Bottles Typically $21/week for 7 months = $588/season/child 15 kids on a team = $8820 Money spent for no added benefit.

13 Although most athletes who drink more fluid than they lose as sweat simply excrete the excess fluid as urine, in some people it is retained. If the fluid contains sodium, it could help prevent the dilution of serum sodium levels, thereby decreasing the risk of hyponatremia. Limiting fluid intake so that it does not exceed sweat rate can also decrease the risk of hyponatremia.

14 After exercise Many finish sessions dehydrated. Given adequate time intake of normal meals and beverages will restore hydration status by replacing fluids and electrolytes lost during previous exercise session. Rapid and complete recovery from excessive dehydration can be accomplished by drinking at least: ml/lb weight lost during exercise. Consuming rehydration beverages and salty meals and snacks will help replace fluid and electrolyte losses.

15 Eating for Energy The foods you choose on a daily basis have a profound impact on your health and your performance in sports. The better you fuel your body, the more energy your muscles can store, the faster you recover and therefore the harder you can train. Your fuel determines your athletic potential. Food is the foundation of your training! Heidi Smith, BSc, RD Nutrition for The Long Run

16 Eating Before Activity

17 Eating Before Activity Purpose: To maintain blood sugar until time of exercise Recommendation: Aim for a small meal or snack 2-3 hours before you exercise

18 Eating Before Activity Misconception: This is not the fuel for the coming activity! It takes the body hours to store the CHO that is converted to glycogen for muscle fuel You are actually burning glycogen that you stored 1 2 days earlier! Exception: Early Morning Activity Have just enough CHO to raise blood sugars and give you energy before exercise. Example: Small glass of juice and a piece of toast

19 Food Energy Carbohydrates (CHO) Most useful form of energy so include it regularly Choose high quality carbohydrates like: Whole grain breads, whole wheat pasta, brown rice, fruits and vegetables. Protein (PRO) Building blocks for muscle Necessary for repairing tissues after exercise Choose lean proteins like: Chicken, fish and alternatives, like beans, most often Fat Concentrated energy source Choose the right kinds of fat: Mono- and poly- unsaturated fats Avoid: Hydrogenated / trans fats

20 Canada s s Food Guide

21 Eating Before Activity Recommendations: High CHO Moderate fibre Low sugar Choose low fat foods Choose familiar foods Maintain adequate fluids Include PRO if eaten > 2 hours before exercise Composition of Pre-exercise Meals and Snacks Heidi Smith BSc, RD, Nutrition for the Long Run

22 Eating Before Activity Time Before Exercise Composition Food Ideas 2 4 hours prior (preferable) Balanced Meal Sandwich with low fat toppings, cheese and fruit, trail mix, peanut butter and crackers, soup and salad, pasta with meat sauce, French toast, egg on toast, pizza with low fat cheese (no pepperoni) 1 2 hours prior 1 hour prior High CHO, moderate PRO, low fat High CHO, low PRO (<10 g), low fat Cereal with skim milk, low fat yogurt and fruit, yogurt shake Crackers, fruit, toast, ½ - 1 bagel with cream cheese Pre-Exercise Snack Ideas Heidi Smith BSc, RD, Nutrition for the Long Run

23 Avoid: High sugar cereals, candy, chocolate, pop High fibre beans, gassy vegetables, prunes High fat full fat dairy, chocolate, high fat meats, deep fried Fast foods cheeseburgers, hotdogs, tacos, wings, french fries

24 Eating During Activity

25 Eating During Activity Only when exercising > 60 minutes Guidelines: CHO is the only fuel your body needs during exercise Choose: Low fibre (< 5 g / serving) Low fat & PRO (with high intensity exercise) Convenient Small amounts over time Have at least L fluid with any foods eaten Try foods at practice before using during a game

26 Example Snacks: 1 medium Banana ¼ cup Raisins ¼cup Dried Apricots 4 (20g) Arrowroots 10 Saltines 12 Pretzels (low fat) 4 (28g) Graham Crackers 1 (26g) Low Fat Granola Bar 500 ml Homemade Sport Drink*

27 Eating During Activity Start eating after minutes of exercise Aim for g of CHO per hour of exercise Serving Size (g) Calories (kcal) Carb. (g) Sodium (mg) Fibre (g) Protein (g) Fat (g) Banana 1 medium Raisins ¼cup Dried Apricots ¼cup Arrowroots 4 (20g) Saltines 10 crackers Pretzels (low fat) 12 pretzels Graham Crackers 4 (28 g) Low Fat Granola Bar 1 (26 g) Homemade Sport Drink* 500 ml * 0.5 L water, 5 tsp honey, 1/8 tsp salt Common Foods Used During Exercise Heidi Smith BSc, RD, Nutrition for the Long Run

28 Recovery Meals

29 Recovery Meals Suggested Post Workout Snacks Snack Calories (kcal) Carbohydrate (g) Protein (g) 2 cups chocolate milk (1% / soymilk) cup milk / soy milk, 1¼ cup cereal Banana and 175 ml low fat yogurt Peanut butter and jam sandwich Post Workout Snack Ideas Heidi Smith, BSc, RD, Nutrition for the Long Run

30 Recovery Meals Recovery Window 2 hours after exercise Tips for Faster Recovery Drink enough water during exercise Snack about min after exercise Aim for a combination of high CHO and moderate PRO

31 Day to Day: Eat healthy day to day to: Support growth and development needs To meet vitamin and mineral needs To maximize energy levels To reduce risk of chronic disease To maintain a healthy body weight

32 Canada s s Food Guide to Healthy Eating Healthy foods support: Growth Strength Stamina Variety is key! Suggested servings: Depends on age and gender

33

34 Your Questions Eating on the Road

35 Eating on the Road Plan Ahead: Grocery shop for healthy car snacks and beverages Choosing Fast-Foods: Ask for nutrition information Choose grilled chicken instead of burgers Choose low sugar, caffeine free beverages like water, milk, 100% fruit juice Avoid up-sizing and control your portions Choose whole wheat bread at sub shops and remember that cheese and sauce calories add up fast!

36 Eating on the Road Words to look for: Choose: Grilled, steamed, broiled, boiled, baked, marinara, poached Avoid: Ask for: Fried, sautéed, au gratin, alfredo, cream or butter Sauces on the side, healthier side dishes (side salads, rice, baked potato)

37 Case Study: Derrick Eating Healthy while Being Active

38 Derrick s Weekly schedule Practices: Monday 5-6 pm Tuesday 7-8 pm Game night 6:30-7:30pm Tournament Weekend: Saturday: Game 1: 8:30am Game 2: 2pm Sunday: Game 1: 11am Game 2: 4pm

39 Eating Pattern with practice 5:00pm Breakfast: 2 toast, 2 eggs, 1 cup milk, apple (or Bowl of cereal, Toast with PB, apple, yogurt). Lunch: Ham and cheese sandwich, cut up veggies, yogurt, 1 cup milk, banana Pre-activity snack (as soon as school ends) cheese and crackers or small bowl cereal. (try at least 1 hour before) During: water Recovery snack: Orange smoothie 1 cup Dinner: 2 chicken fajita wrap with mixed veg., 1 cup milk Popcorn and fruit for snack

40 Eating Pattern with game/practice 7:00 pm Breakfast: 2 toast, 2 eggs, 1 cup milk, apple (or Bowl of cereal, Toast with PB, apple, yogurt). Lunch: Ham and cheese sandwich, cut up veggies, yogurt, 1 cup milk, banana Dinner at least 2 hrs before: 2 chicken fahita wraps with mixed veg., water During: water Recovery snack: Orange smoothie 1 cup (3/4 cup vanilla yogurt., ½ cup OJ, 2 tbsp skim milk powder) 1 cup milk, popcorn for snack

41 Eating Pattern for Tournament! 8:30 am Saturday Game Pre-activity snack (as soon as you wake up) Small glass of juice and a toast ( if less than an hour to game time) Bowl of cereal and milk, piece of fruit, yogurt (2 hours before game time) Recovery snack 9:00am: Orange smoothie 1 cup (1/2 cup OJ, vanilla yogurt (3/4 cup, 2 tbsp skim milk powder) Breakfast 10-11am: PB and jam sandwich, 1 cup milk, apple

42 2:00 pm Saturday Game Lunch 12:30pm Pre-activity snack optional if hungry an hour before game (eg. Piece of fruit) Recovery snack: 3:00 pm Banana and 175 ml low fat yogurt Dinner 5pm: Roast beef, potatoes, mixed vegetables, milk and frozen yogurt and berries.

43 Eating Pattern for Tournament! 11:00 am Sunday Game Pre-activity snack (as soon as you wake up) Small glass of juice and a toast. Recovery snack 12pm: Orange smoothie 1 cup Lunch 12:30pm Ham and cheese sandwich, 1 cup milk, apple

44 Eating for Competition Day 5:00pm Sunday Game Pre-meal or pre snack: was lunch meal or if hungry piece of fruit. During water Recovery snack 6pm: 1 cup milk, 1¼ cup cereal Dinner 7pm: Chicken Fahita wrap, mixed veg, water, piece of fruit

45 References American College of Sports Medicine. Position stand on exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28:i-vii. Amrstrong, LE, Casa DJ, Millard-Dtaffoird M, Moran, DS, Pyne SW, Roberts, WO. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007;39: Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. (2004). Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Palmer, MS, Spriet L. Sweat rate, salt loss, and fluid intake during an intense on-ice practice in elite junior male players. Appl Phys nutr Metb. 2008;33: Sawka, MN, Burke, LM, Eichner, ER, Maughan, RJ, Mountain SJ, Stachenfeld, NS. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Exercise and Fluid Replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007; 39; Speedy DB, Noakes TD, Rogers IR, et al. Hyponatremia in ultradistance triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31: Vrigens DMG, Rehrer NJ. Sodium-free fluid ingestion decreases plasma sodium during exercise in the heat. J Appl Physiol 1999;86:

46 Questions?

47 Thank you for listening! "A great diet cannot make an average athlete elite, but a poor diet can make an elite athlete average. Dave Kostill Lisa Needham, RD Public Health Dietitian Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph Public Health

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