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1 PKI Tutorial Jim Kleinsteiber February 6, 2002 Page 1

2 Outline Public Key Cryptography Refresher Course Public / Private Key Pair Public-Key Is it really yours? Digital Certificate Certificate Authority Page 2

3 Public Key Cryptography Refresher Course Public Key Private Key Each user has 2 keys - What one key encrypts, only the other key in the pair can decrypt Public Key Private Key It works both ways! Page 3

4 Public / Private Key Pair Public Key Cryptography provides the basis for: Digital Envelopes anyone can encrypt data with the public key; only the holder of the private key can decrypt. Digital Signatures the holder of the private key can encrypt (sign); anyone can verify that the owner of the private key did the encryption (signature). The Private key must be kept secret by its owner. The Public Key is freely distributed for others to use. Page 4

5 Public Key Is it really yours? How to Find Out Someone s Public Key? Send with message Lookup From Database How to Trust the Result? Digital Certificates Trusted Certificate Authorities Signed Message that proves Bob s Key is N Page 5

6 Digital Certificate Name, Organization, Address Document Owner s Public Key Digital Signature Certificate Validity Dates Digital Certificate Serial Number Certifying Authority s Digital Signature Page 6

7 Certificate Authority What is a Certificate Authority (CA)? CA functions Responsibilities Delegation Page 7

8 What is a Certificate Authority (CA)? A fundamental component of PKI Collection of Software, Hardware and people managing it. Attributes Name Public key Issues a self-signed certificate Root CA Page 8

9 Certificate Authority Functions Issue certificates Maintain certificate status and issue Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs) Publish current certificates and CRLs Maintain archives of expired and revoked certificates Page 9

10 Issue Certificates Root CA Root CA Issue certificates to Other CAs Level 1 CA Authorizes Level 1 CA to issue certificates Level 1 CA can issue other CA certificates if authorized. A CA chain is created in this manner Page 10

11 Issue Certificates Issue certificates to users Information in the certificate is binding to the entity Name, Organization, Address Public key Validity Dates Serial number Certifying authority s digital signature Page 11

12 Issue Certificates Process User Submits a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) with name, public key and other information CA Follows Known Policies & Procedures to validate request as defined in the Certificate Practice Statement (CPS) CA Attaches Extra Information Validity Dates, Key Usage, Account ID, Etc. CA Signs Certificate Page 12

13 Maintain Relevant Information Maintain certificate directory for Certificate lookup Maintain a List of Revoked Certificates (CRL) Manage User Changes Page 13

14 Publish Current Certificates and CRLs Distribute its certificates Distribute list of Revoked Certificates (CRL) Distribution need not be secure - But it should be made secure if required for privacy. Page 14

15 Maintain Archives Maintain information about old certificates Person or system named in certificate Certificate request Validity period of certificate If certificate was revoked Any other activity performed by CA in certificate s lifetime Page 15

16 Certificate Authority Responsibilities Protect its private key Verify subject information in CSR Adhere to profile defined in CPS Maintain list of revoked certificates Distribute its certificates and CRLs Maintain certificate archives after expiration Page 16

17 Certificate Authority - Delegation CA can delegate its responsibilities to - Registration authority (RA) - Repository (certificate directory) - Archive Page 17

18 Public Key Infrastructure Users Root Certificate Authority Registration Authority Intermediate Certificate Authority Archive Certificate Directory Page 18

19 Certificate Authority Delegation Registration Authority (RA) verifies certificate request Repository distributes certificates and CRLs Archive provides long term secure storage CA can create multiple of these entities to offload and distribute work Page 19

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