1 WHITE PAPER: COMPARING TCO: SYMANTEC MANAGED PKI SERVICE VS..... ON-PREMISE SOFTWARE Comparing Cost of Ownership: Symantec Managed PKI Service vs. On- Premise Software Who should read this paper Deploying and managing a PKI solution can be a complex undertaking. This is particularly the case with on-premise PKI software implemented and maintained by the organization. This white paper explores the hidden costs of PKI when implemented in house. It also demonstates how Symantec Managed PKI Service is an extremely cost-effective alternative that reduces the complexity of implementation while enabling trusted authentication, verification, integrity, and encryption for critical enterprise applications.
3 Content Introduction The complexity of on-premise PKI Uncovering the true cost of on-premise PKI What if the software is free? Comparing a managed PKI service to an on-premise solution Assumptions Software Infrastructure Personnel The bottom line The benefits of Managed PKI Service Conclusion Glossary
4 Introduction Whether it s complying with mandates to protect sensitive data, enabling trust in a business ecosystem, or securing corporate digital assets against unauthorized access, enterprises turn to public key infrastructure (PKI)-based solutions for the highest levels of protection. Enterprises, government organizations, and digitally connected communities recognize PKI as the gold standard for highly secure and trusted authentication, digital signatures, and encryption. While cryptography is the core mechanism within PKI, certificate issuance, management, and revocation need to be properly established for relying parties to effectively enjoy the benefits of PKI. As such, not all PKI deployments are the same. Some provide limited functions to support simple applications, like sending and receiving encrypted within an organization, while others deliver complex methods of integrating physical and logical access to secure sites and networks that protect matters of national security. Regardless of the application, deploying and managing a PKI solution can be a complex undertaking. Unlike other technology solutions, PKI has many moving parts that go far beyond the software involved from training to policy development, from data center security to certificate management. All the components that make up a robust, secure PKI environment can add to the cost of implementing PKI. These sometimes hidden or forgotten costs can be far more substantial than the acquisition cost of the software. This is particularly the case with on-premise PKI software, implemented and maintained by the organization in its data center. This white paper explores the hidden costs of PKI when implemented in house. It also demonstrates how the Symantec Managed PKI Service is an extremely cost-effective alternative that reduces the complexity of implementation while ensuring trust and simplifying the goal of achieving authentication, verification, integrity, and encryption for the most critical enterprise applications. The complexity of on-premise PKI Unlike other technology solutions, PKI requires far more than the authentication software and the support infrastructure. For organizations that desire to implement an on-premise PKI, dedicated, trained personnel are required to create, manage, and support the infrastructure. Highly secure facilities are critical, as well as robust policies and procedures, to ensure that the keys used for certificates are protected. Another consideration is the need for failover technology and a scalable infrastructure to ensure continuous operation, availability can be a major concern. Employees and partners who are unable to validate their identities due to PKI unavailability may be prevented from conducting business in a timely manner. Security of the root certificate and the certificate issuance process is a critical issue enterprises must be prepared to handle when implementing an on-premise PKI. Appropriately high levels of security, background checks, procedures, and more must be in place or the root certificate could be compromised at great risk to the enterprise. If the root certificate should ever become compromised, all certificates issued from the governing Certificate Authority (CA) are also compromised and their validity may be called into question, jeopardizing the entire PKI trust hierarchy. Trust is the key building block of PKI. If the enterprise plans to use its PKI to securely communicate and transact business with third parties outside of the organization, it needs a trusted, third-party CA as the root certificate. Certificates issued by companies acting as their own CA are less likely to receive the full trust of parties outside of the organization, thereby requiring a separate, additional PKI infrastructure using a trusted CA for business-to-business communications. Alternatively, two (or more) independent organizations could create a cross-certification trust infrastructure. In which case, one organization s root CA hierarchy issues a subordinate CA certificate to a CA in the other organization s CA hierarchy. Each of the participating 1
5 members in the cross-certification trust network could then work in an interoperable fashion. However, the cost and effort to create the cross-certification can be prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Uncovering the true cost of on-premise PKI When considering a PKI implementation, organizations often focus on only the traditional solution costs such as software licensing, hardware, and installation services. But with PKI, there are a number of additional factors and costs that organizations must consider when weighing whether to implement PKI in house. In fact, software and hardware for the PKI solution are often a small component of the overall cost of ownership for an on-premise PKI solution. To create a scalable, reliable, and secure on-premise PKI, companies need to carefully consider not only the acquisition costs, but the ongoing costs, including: Software acquisition and maintenance Hardware and networking infrastructure Secure facilities Creation and auditing of policies and procedures Management of the certificate lifecycle Highly available validation (Certificate Revocation List (CRL)/Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP)) infrastructure End-user support IT training Backup and disaster recovery Scalability to support user and application growth What if the software is free? Free PKI capabilities included in some server operating systems (OS) can appear to be a low-cost PKI solution. The reality is that the hidden labor and infrastructure costs still make this type of on-premise solution an expensive undertaking. Additionally, with this do-it-yourself form of PKI, the onus is on the enterprise to create the PKI infrastructure, customize it to suit the needs of the organization, and maintain it. While organizations assume that this can be achieved with existing IT personnel at no additional cost, often in-house personnel lack the PKI expertise needed to effectively implement an on-premise solution. Furthermore, enterprises must be prepared to commit significant IT resources to ongoing PKI support requirements. Maintaining audit logs, creating a CRL and other tasks are not trivial matters, requiring trained, dedicated PKI personnel or costly external consultants. Without serious consideration to these matters, organizations could potentially undermine the strength of their trust anchor and likewise the value of PKI. Comparing a managed PKI service to an on-premise solution Alternatively, organizations can use a managed PKI service, which delivers PKI capabilities on demand. A managed service dramatically reduces the burden on the enterprise while ensuring scalability and availability. Policies, operational processes, and certificate management can be handled by the service provider. A managed service can also scale more easily to the growing needs of the business. To scale an on-premise solution, organizations must often install separate instances of the software, requiring more hardware, backup, disaster recovery, and other infrastructure. 2
6 Comparing Cost of Ownership: Symantec Managed PKI Service vs. On-Premise Software The cost of deploying PKI using a managed PKI service is also drastically lower than implementing an on-premise solution. To illustrate this, let s compare Symantec Managed PKI Service to an alternative on-premise PKI solution. We ll look at three major areas of cost that organizations incur when deploying and using a PKI solution: software, infrastructure, and personnel. Assumptions The following cost analysis is based on a three-year time-frame, with one-time costs occurring in the first year. All amounts are in U.S. dollars and are based on publicly available U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) Advantage pricing. Professional services costs are based on industry averages for comparable services. The number of seats/certificates used in the analysis is 1,000 representing an average enterprise deployment.1 Software To deploy PKI into a production environment, for Managed PKI Service, there are no set-up fees, but there are annual service fees. Basic support is included in the service fee2, and there are no license or maintenance fees. With the on-premise solution, the organization incurs the software license, maintenance, and support fees. Included in the calculation are costs incurred to pilot a solution before rolling it out to the broader organization as well as disaster recovery costs. For Symantec Managed PKI Service, disaster recovery is included as part of the standard Certification Practice Statement (CPS). The table below shows that the on-premise software is significantly more expensive to acquire and deploy than the managed service. 1-This sample comparison is made available to you to independently evaluate the benefits of implementing managed PKI and the associated direct costs of managed PKI deployment, including customer care and solution-related costs. This sample comparison is not intended to provide financial or investment advice, and should not be relied upon as such. The information presented is only to highlight issues for your consideration. All scenarios are hypothetical and are for illustrative purposes only. Deployment/investment decisions should not be based upon this sample comparison alone. There are no representations or warranties of any kind, either express or implied. Symantec cannot and does not guarantee results. 2-Premium support is available for additional charges. 3
7 Infrastructure All infrastructure costs are on the on-premise side. Managed PKI Service does not require any additional on-premise infrastructure, saving not only the costs of acquiring and maintaining the infrastructure, but the IT effort required to install and manage it. The following costs represent fairly conservative figures for the infrastructure and assume a highly secure facility is already in place. Organizations without a secure building, data center, or equipment access, will need to invest additional funds to bring the facility to a higher security level to protect the PKI system. Personnel PKI is a complex technology that requires knowledgeable staff for on-premise solutions. IT personnel or consultants will need to implement the required software and hardware components, create and enforce policies and procedures, manage the certificate lifecycle, create a disaster recovery plan, and more. The following cost comparison calculates the personnel costs for deploying and managing a PKI solution. For Managed PKI Service, organizations need only one, part-time administrator to manage use of the service, no training is required. Costs were calculated based on one-fourth of a full-time employee's time, where the fully loaded cost for an employee was $80k per year. No deployment, integration, or consulting costs are needed for the managed service. As shown in the chart below, there is a considerable difference in personnel costs for the on-premise solution, with substantial recurring costs as the ongoing IT burden remains high. 4
8 Comparing Cost of Ownership: Symantec Managed PKI Service vs. On-Premise Software The bottom line In terms of total acquisition and deployment costs across all three major areas above, the on-premise solution comes in at more than $368,000 compared to $63,000 for Managed PKI Service. Recurring costs were over 40 percent higher than those for Managed PKI Service. Sofware and personnel were the primary contributing factors for the vast cost differential between Managed PKI Service and the on-premise solution. Over three years, total costs for the on-premise solution were more than $545,000, averaging out to about $182,000 per year. For Managed PKI Service, the total cost for three years was $189,750, about the cost of one year of the on-premise solution. The benefits of Managed PKI Service Managed PKI Service is a hosted solution enabling complete management of digital certificates (issue, revoke, renew, escrow keys, view status, run reports) for authentication, encryption, and digital signing. With Symantec managed services, organizations can establish a robust PKI and CA system without the cost and time-to-market burden of on-premise PKI deployment. Leading organizations, government agencies, and digitally connected communities choose Managed PKI Service because it delivers: Lower total cost of ownership. Organizations drastically reduce up-front capital investments and ongoing IT personnel costs for PKI. Fast deployment. Symantec enables organizations to deploy PKI rapidly to employees, customers, business partners, Web services applications, and network devices. Seamless integration. Managed PKI Service can integrate into many organizations' existing architecture without expensive custom programming. Ease of use. Managed PKI Service simplifies deployment and enables enterprises to quickly and easily manage large numbers of certificates, while offering transparency to end users. 5
9 Scalability and reliability. Symantec s trusted and reliable infrastructure scales to millions of users and flexes to meet evolving business needs. Market-leading. Symantec s time-tested policies and practices have been proven effective across many industries and sizes of organizations. Managed PKI Service has helped thousands of organizations, including partners and companies such as Avaya Inc., CertiPath LLC, and the U.S. Department of Education to protect their online data, systems, and processes against intrusion and business disruption. A trusted solution. Symantec operates the longest running commercial PKI platform in the world and has issued more than 200 million certificates. Conclusion By eliminating or reducing the high costs of infrastructure and IT personnel resources, a managed PKI service enables enterprises to costeffectively comply with regulatory mandates, protect sensitive corporate data, and communicate in a trusted way with external parties. For more than a decade, Symantec has been the trusted provider of PKI services for all types of enterprises, government organizations, and trusted communities. Managed PKI Service delivers the high level of protection organizations need without the complexity, burden and cost of an on-premise solution. With Symantec, organizations no longer must decide between the high price of security versus the high cost of a breach - implementing PKI is a cost effective solution for all critical business transactions. 6
10 Glossary Certificate Authority (CA) A trusted party, authorized to issue, revoke, or suspend digital certificates as part of a public key infrastructure (PKI). Certificate Revocation List (CRL) A periodically issued list, digitally signed by a CA, of identified certificates that have been revoked prior to their expiration dates. The list generally indicates the CRL issuer s name, the date of issue, the date of the next scheduled CRL issue, the revoked certificates serial numbers, and the specific times and reasons for revocation. Certification Practices Statement (CPS) A document containing a statement that specifies the practices a CA or Registration Authority (RA) employs in issuing certificates. This document is revised as necessary by the CA. Credential A form factor that represents the digital identity of an individual or entity. Trusted parties, such as CAs, issue a form factor based on the level of authentication required/performed on that individual or entity. Digital certificates are a type of form factor and may be combined with other form factors such as tokens or hardware security modules. Digital Certificate A X.509 file, based on a public/private key pair. This file binds the public key to identity of the individual or entity. A digital certificate is used for authentication, encryption, and digital signature purposes. Digital Signature A trusted and secure form of an electronic signature, which provides verified user identity, document integrity, time stamp, and non-repudiation of signed electronic documents. Key Generation The trustworthy process for generating, documenting, and storing public keys and private keys. Private Key The mathematical key (kept secret by the holder) used to create digital signatures and decrypt messages or files encrypted with the corresponding public key.
12 About Symantec Symantec is a global leader in providing security, storage, and systems management solutions to help consumers and organizations secure and manage their information-driven world. Our software and services protect against more risks at more points, more completely and efficiently, enabling confidence wherever information is used or stored. Headquartered in Mountain View, Calif., Symantec has operations in 40 countries. More information is available at For specific country offices and contact numbers, please visit our website. Symantec World Headquarters 350 Ellis St. Mountain View, CA USA +1 (650) (800) Copyright 2011 Symantec Corporation. All rights reserved. Symantec and the Symantec Logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Symantec Corporation or its affiliates in the U.S. and other countries. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. 4/
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