CS 356 Lecture 28 Internet Authentication. Spring 2013

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1 CS 356 Lecture 28 Internet Authentication Spring 2013

2 Review Chapter 1: Basic Concepts and Terminology Chapter 2: Basic Cryptographic Tools Chapter 3 User Authentication Chapter 4 Access Control Lists Chapter 5 Database Security (skipped) Chapter 6 Malicious Software Networking Basics (not in book) Chapter 7 Denial of Service Chapter 8 Intrusion Detection Chapter 9 Firewalls and Intrusion Prevention Chapter 10 Buffer Overflow Chapter 11 Software Security Chapter 12 OS Security Chapter 22 Internet Security Protocols Chapter 23 Internet Authentication Applications

3 Chapter 23 Internet Authentication Applications

4 Kerberos Overview initially developed at MIT software utility available in both the public domain and in commercially supported versions issued as an Internet standard and is the defacto standard for remote authentication overall scheme is that of a trusted third party authentication service requires that a user prove his or her identity for each service invoked and requires servers to prove their identity to clients

5 Kerberos Protocol involves clients, application servers, and a Kerberos server designed to counter a variety of threats to the security of a client/server dialogue obvious security risk is impersonation servers must be able to confirm the identities of clients who request service use an Authentication Server (AS) user initially negotiates with AS for identity verification AS verifies identity and then passes information on to an application server which will then accept service requests from the client need to find a way to do this in a secure way if client sends user s password to the AS over the network an opponent could observe the password an opponent could impersonate the AS and send a false validation

6 Kerberos Overview 2. AS verifies user's access right in database, creates ticket-granting ticket and session key. Results are encrypted using key derived from user's password. once per user logon session 1. User logs on to workstation and requests service on host. request ticketgranting ticket ticket + session key request servicegranting ticket ticket + session key Kerberos Authentication Server (AS) Ticketgranting Server (TGS) 3. Workstation prompts user for password and uses password to decrypt incoming message, then sends ticket and authenticator that contains user's name, network address, and time to TGS. once per type of service request service 4. TGS decrypts ticket and authenticator, verifies request, then creates ticket for requested server. 5. Workstation sends ticket and authenticator to server. once per service session provide server authenticator 6. Server verifies that ticket and authenticator match, then grants access to service. If mutual authentication is required, server returns an authenticator. Figure 23.1 Overview of Kerberos

7 Kerberos Realms a Kerberos environment consists of: a Kerberos server a number of clients, all registered with server a number of application servers, sharing keys with server this is referred to as a realm networks of clients and servers under different administrative organizations generally constitute different realms if multiple realms: their Kerberos servers must share a secret key and trust the Kerberos server in the other realm to authenticate its users participating servers in the second realm must also be willing to trust the Kerberos server in the first realm

8 Client Realm A 1. request ticket for local TGS 2. ticket for local TGS 3. request ticket for remote TGS 4. ticket for remote TGS Kerberos AS TGS 7. request remote service Kerberos Kerberos Realms 5 request ticket for remote server 6 ticket for remote server AS Server Realm B TGS Figure 23.2 Request for Service in Another Realm

9 Kerberos Versions 4 and 5 Kerberos v4 is most widely used version improvements found in version 5: an encrypted message is tagged with an encryption algorithm identifier this enables users to configure Kerberos to use an algorithm other than DES supports authentication forwarding enables a client to access a server and have that server access another server on behalf of the client supports a method for interrealm authentication that requires fewer secure key exchanges than in version 4

10 Kerberos Performance Issues see larger client-server installations environment: very little if system is properly configured tickets are reusable which reduces traffic Kerberos performance impact in a large-scale Kerberos security is best assured by placing the Kerberos server on a separate, isolated machine motivation for multiple realms is administrative, not performance related

11 Certificate Authority (CA) certificate consists of: a public key plus a User ID of the key owner signed by a trusted third party typically the third party is a CA that is trusted by the user community (such as a government agency or a financial institution) user can present his or her public key to the authority in a secure manner and obtain a certificate user can then publish the certificate anyone needing this user s public key can obtain the certificate and verify that it is valid by way of the attached trusted signature

12 X.509 Authentication Service universally accepted standard for formatting public-key certificates widely used in network security applications, including IPsec, SSL, SET, and S/MIME part of CCITT X.500 directory service standards uses public-key crypto & digital signatures algorithms not standardized, but RSA recommended

13 X.509 Certificates Signature algorithm identifier Period of validity Version Certificate Serial Number algorithm parameters Issuer Name not before not after Version 1 Version 2 Signature algorithm identifier Revoked certificate algorithm parameters Issuer Name This Update Date Next Update Date user certificate serial # revocation date Subject's public key info Subject Name algorithms parameters key Issuer Unique Identifier Subject Unique Identifier Version 3 Revoked certificate Signature!!! user certificate serial # revocation date algorithms parameters encrypted hash Extensions (b) Certificate Revocation List Signature algorithms parameters encrypted hash all versions (a) X.509 Certificate Figure 23.3 X.509 Formats

14 PKI users Certificate/CRL Repository certificate/crl retrieval certificate publication certificate/crl publication CRL publication PKI management entities Registration authority CRL issuer End entity Certificate authority registration, initialization, certification, key pair recovery, key pair update revocation request Certificate authority cross certification Public Key Infrastructure X.509 (PKIX) Figure 23.4 PKIX Architectural Model

15 PKIX Management Functions registration initialization certification key pair recovery key pair update revocation request cross certification

16 Federated Identity Management use of common identity management scheme across multiple enterprises and numerous applications supporting many thousands, even millions of users principal elements are: authentication, authorization, accounting, provisioning, workflow automation, delegated administration, password synchronization, self-service password reset, federation

17 Identity Management Principal Principal Principals provide attributes Principal Administrators provide attributes Attribute service Attribute service Attribute service Administrator Administrator Data consumers apply references to obtain attribute data Principals authenticate, manage their identity elements Identity Provider Identity control interface Principal authentication Attribute locator Identifier translation Data consumer Data consumer Data consumers obtain identifiers, attribute references Figure 23.5 Generic Identity Management Architecture

18 Standards Used Extensible Markup Language (XML) Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) WS-Security Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) characterizes text elements in a document on appearance, function, meaning, or context for invoking code using XML over HTTP set of SOAP extensions for implementing message integrity and confidentiality in Web services XML-based language for the exchange of security information between online business partners

19 Federated Identity Management Initial authentication Workplace.com (employee portal) Links: health benefits etc. User store Name ID Joe 1213 Jane 1410 Ravi 1603 Initial authentication W orkplace.com (employee portal) Links: parts supplier etc. User store Name ID Joe 1213 Jane 1410 Ravi 1603 Dept Eng Purch Purch End user (employee) End user (employee) Health.com User store Name ID Joe 1213 Jane 1410 Ravi 1603 PartsSupplier.com Welcome Joe! Technical doc. Troubleshooting User store Role Engineer Purchaser (a) Federation based on account linking (b) Federation based on roles Initial message authentication Workplace.com Procurement application End user Soap message PinSupplies.com Purchasing Web service Soap message E-ship.com Shipping Web service (b) Chained Web Services Figure 23.6 Federated Identity Scenarios

20 Summary Kerberos Kerberos protocol Kerberos realms Kerberos versions 4 and 5 Kerberos performance issues X.509 public-key infrastructure PKIX management functions PKIX management protocols federated identity management

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