IBM Rational University. Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting. RT545 February 2009 Student Manual Part No.

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1 IBM Rational University Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting RT545 February 2009 Student Manual Part No

2 IBM Corporation Rational University RT545 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Student Manual January 2009 Copyright International Business Machines Corporation, All rights reserved. This document may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. The contents of this manual and the associated software are the property of IBM and/or its licensors, and are protected by United States copyright laws, patent laws, and various international treaties. For additional copies of this manual or software, please contact Rational Software. IBM and the IBM logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of IBM Corporation, in the United States, other countries or both. Rational, the Rational logo, ClearCase, ClearCase LT, ClearCase MultiSite, Unified Change Management, Rational SoDA, and Rational XDE are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries or both. WebSphere, the WebSphere logo, and Studio Application Developer, are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries or both. Microsoft Windows 2000, Microsoft Word, and Internet Explorer, among others, are trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Java and all Java-based marks, among others, are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems in the United States, other countries or both. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States, other countries or both. Other company, product and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others. Printed in the United States of America. This manual prepared by: IBM Rational Software 555 Bailey Ave. Santa Teresa Lab San Jose, CA USA

3 Table of Contents Contents Module 0 About This Course Course Goals Intended Audience and Prerequisites Course Agenda Other Sources of Information Module 1 Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester IBM Rational Functional Tester Features Perspectives The Functional Test Project Test Environment Configuration Module 2 Recording a Script Planning for Automated Testing General Process for Recording a Script Recording Verification Points: Two Steps Ways to Access Script Support Functions Two Ways to Insert Recording into an Existing Script Module 3 Playing Back a Script and Viewing Results About Playing Back a Script Playback Log Types Verification Point Comparator Debugging: Verify Environment and Identify Symptom Functional Test Playback Options Module 4 Extending Scripts Class Hierarchy of a Functional Tester Script Script Editing Features Creating a Message Box Overriding Preference Settings Handling an Unexpected Active Window Module 5 Using Test Object Maps What Is a Test Object Map? Displaying a Test Object Map Creating a Shared Test Object Map Deleting an Object from a Test Object Map Module 6 Managing Object Recognition How Does Functional Tester Recognize a Test Object? Copyright IBM Corp i

4 Table of Contents Thresholds for Playback Recognition Scores Using a Regular Expression for Object Recognition Module 7 Creating Data-Driven Tests When to Use Data-Driven Testing Creating a Data-Driven Test Functional Tester Data-Driven Testing Scenarios Appendix A: Hints and Tips Recording Troubleshooting and Tips...Appendix A-3 Recording Scripts to Test HTML Applications...Appendix A-4 Recording Scripts for Cross-Platform Applications...Appendix A-6 Copyright IBM Corp ii

5 Module 0 - About This Course IBM Software Group Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 0: About This Course 1 Contents Course Goals 0-2 Intended Audience and Prerequisites 0-4 Course Agenda 0-5 Other Sources of Information 0-7 Copyright IBM Corp

6 Module 0 - About This Course Course Goals To perform testing with Rational Functional Tester, you should be able to: Describe the function and purpose of IBM Rational Functional Tester Navigate the Rational Functional Tester interface Record scripts with Rational Functional Tester Play back automated scripts Modify scripts to add advanced features Use test object maps Control object recognition Create data-driven tests 2 Copyright IBM Corp

7 Module 0 - About This Course Course Non-Goals This course will not cover: The testing process Java programming Using IBM Rational TestManager 3 Copyright IBM Corp

8 Module 0 - About This Course Intended Audience and Prerequisites Intended audience New IBM Rational Functional Tester users The course is designed primarily for QA professionals who will be using the automation tools Prerequisites Some software development experience is recommended General understanding of Microsoft Windows platform applications is desirable 4 Copyright IBM Corp

9 Module 0 - About This Course Course Agenda Day 1 1. Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester 2. Recording a Script 3. Playing Back a Script and Viewing Results 4. Extending Scripts Day 2 5. Using Test Object Maps 6. Managing Object Recognition 7. Creating Data-driven Tests 5 Copyright IBM Corp

10 Module 0 - About This Course Course Materials Student Manual Slides from lecture Student notes Student Workbook Lab objectives and instructions Training project CD 6 The Student Manual contains copies of each of the slides presented in class and detailed student notes that supplement information on the slides. It is designed to serve as a reference after you have completed the course. The Student Kit also contains the materials you need to complete the course labs: the Student Workbook and a CD containing the training project. Copyright IBM Corp

11 Module 0 - About This Course Other Sources of Information Related Rational Courses Principles of Software Testing for Testers Principles of Test Automation for GUI Testing (Web-based training) Essentials of Test Management with Rational TestManager Essentials of Manual Testing with IBM Rational Manual Tester Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, VB.NET Scripting: The Basics (Web-based training) Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting: The Basics (Web-based training) Requirements Management with Use Cases IBM developerworks, Rational software zone Rational software Web site 7 The IBM developerworks Rational zone Web site contains a wealth of technical information about IBM Rational tools. No registration or login is required to access this site. Copyright IBM Corp

12 Module 0 - About This Course Logistics 8 Copyright IBM Corp

13 Module 0 - About This Course Introductions Your organization Your role Your background, experience Software development experience Rational tools experience Testing experience What you want from this course 9 Copyright IBM Corp

14 Module 0 - About This Course Lab 0: Become Familiar with the Sample Application 10 Overview of ClassicsCD Classics Inc. is a rapidly growing chain of retail stores that sells items that are considered classics classical music, classic movies, classic books, and so on. After founding a single store selling classical music in 1993, Classics Inc. quickly expanded its regional business. It is now poised to open a nationwide chain of 127 stores by Rapid growth has had an effect on the infrastructure of Classics Inc. The company quickly grew out of the packaged Point of Sale (POS) application that it bought in 1993, and, in 1996, took on the task of creating a custom POS application. Although fielded to all of its stores, the project was a failure. When delivered, some 20% of the functionality originally planned had not yet been implemented or was still undergoing testing, including the module that connected all of the retail stores to the corporate order processing system. Classics Inc. realized that in order to ensure the success of the new system, it would need to adopt industry best practices, tools, and processes. It also realized that it would need to look at the entire business as a whole and not just a single application. The ClassicsCD application is designed to help manage the sales and inventory of the Classics CD products. ClassicsCD will run on the Microsoft Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows XP, Windows NT, and Windows 2000 operating systems. The ClassicsCD software will be installed on PCs in Classics Inc. retail stores. The two primary users of this system are the store manager and the store clerk. The store manager will perform administration of the system with potentially little to no computer experience. The store clerk is responsible for making sales and checking on orders for customers. (continued) Copyright IBM Corp

15 Module 0 - About This Course Lab 0: Become Familiar with the Sample Application 11 Overview of ClassicsCD (cont.) ClassicsCD needs to be tested to ensure that orders can be placed successfully. This includes testing all Composer and Composition selections that are available, as well as ensuring that the sales order total is correct. Key data entry fields for placing orders are order quantity, credit card number, credit card type, and credit card expiration date. The typical sequence of events is for the store clerk to start the ClassicsCD application, select a composition, log in to the customer account, complete the data entry fields, and place the order. See Student Workbook, Lab 0: Become Familiar with the Sample Application. Copyright IBM Corp

16 Module 0 - About This Course 12 Copyright IBM Corp

17 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester IBM Software Group Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1: Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester 1 Contents IBM Rational Functional Tester Features 1-6 Perspectives 1-13 The Functional Test Project 1-22 Test Environment Configuration 1-25 Copyright IBM Corp

18 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Objectives To start using IBM Rational Functional Tester, you should be able to: Explain the purpose of Rational Functional Tester and describe its main features Describe the process of recording and playing back a script Navigate the Rational Functional Tester interface Configure and enable the test environment 2 Copyright IBM Corp

19 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Where Are We? Introduction to IBM Rational Functional Tester The Rational Functional Tester interface Working with a Functional Test project Setting up the test environment X 3 Copyright IBM Corp

20 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Challenge: Test Java and HTML Applications How can I Test smarter? Test faster? Test more consistently? 4 You can save development time and money by enhancing the productivity of testers and, thus, your entire development project team. Copyright IBM Corp

21 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Solution: Use Rational Functional Tester for Testing IBM Rational Functional Tester is an object-oriented, automated testing application that enables you to test Java, HTML, Microsoft VB.NET, and Microsoft Windows applications running on the following platforms: Microsoft Windows XP Professional Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional Microsoft Windows 2003 Server Red Hat Linux (all functions except recording) 5 IBM Rational Functional Tester features platform-independent and browser-independent test playback. For example, you can record a script in Microsoft Windows and play it back in Linux. You can record a script using either Microsoft Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, or Mozilla. Because the script contains no references to the browser used during recording, you can play back the script on either Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. Copyright IBM Corp

22 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester IBM Rational Functional Tester Features A standalone product that integrates with other Rational products: IBM Rational TestManager IBM Rational ClearCase or ClearCase LT (for versioning of test assets) Automatic script generation based on user actions performed in the application-under-test (AUT) Test object maps: Created automatically Lists AUT test objects and their recognition properties Verification points: Test objects, including the object s properties and data Confirm the state of an object across builds of the AUT 6 With the object-oriented recording technology of Rational Functional Tester, you can generate scripts by running and using the application-under-test. Rational Functional Tester scripts are implemented as Java programs. Rational Functional Tester is integrated with IBM Rational TestManager, which enables you to record and play back a Rational Functional Tester script from Rational TestManager and use TestManager test logs. Alternatively, Rational Functional Tester can be used as a standalone product, using HTML or text logs to review test results. The test object map provides a quick way to add objects to a script. Also, you can update information in one central location, and any scripts that reference that object will share the updated information. Copyright IBM Corp

23 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Script Recording and Playback Process Set up test environment Set recording options Start recording Reset environment Set playback options Perform user actions Play back script Insert verification points View Create and verification analyze results points End recording 7 This slide outlines a typical set of high-level steps that you follow to record and play back a script in Rational Functional Tester. Copyright IBM Corp

24 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Challenge: Script Maintenance User interface changes to the application cause automated test scripts to break Testers must constantly update scripts to handle minor application changes Testers may make mistakes when they update scripts 8 One challenge that testers face is script maintenance. As the application undergoes changes throughout the course of development, automated test scripts can break, which requires them to be re-worked or re-recorded. For example, the script can break when developers change underlying attributes that the script relies on to identify an object. Script maintenance of some level is a fact of automation. But too much maintenance can be a drain on a team s time and decrease the value of automation. Automated testing tools that build scripts that are resistant to breaking are extremely valuable. Copyright IBM Corp

25 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Solution: More Resilient Test Scripts ScriptAssure technology makes test scripts more resilient to application changes Old build New build Rational Functional Tester Evaluates Close Enough? Recognition Properties Class = java.swing.jcheckbox Name = pswd 9 Recognition Properties Class = java.swing.jcheckbox Name = rempswd In the new build, the developer has changed the underlying logical name. With ScriptAssure, Functional Tester evaluates the closeness of the objects that it finds and attempts to match something that is close. If the objects are close enough, the test continues with no intervention from the tester and will log a warning so the tester is made aware of a possible discrepancy. With the ScriptAssure technology, more tests can execute with less intervention, even with significant changes being made to objects in the application. Copyright IBM Corp

26 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester ScriptAssure Test Playback Technology Automatically finds changed target objects in Java and Web-based applications without object remapping Allows testers to select the relative importance of user interface characteristics Lowers maintenance time by reducing the need to update tests throughout the application s lifecycle 10 Suppose that in a new build, the developer changes the underlying object name. With ScriptAssure Functional Tester evaluates the closeness of the objects that it finds and attempts to match something that is close. If the objects are close enough, the test continues with no intervention from the tester and will log a warning so the tester is made aware of a possible discrepancy. With the ScriptAssure technology, more tests can execute with less intervention, even with significant changes being made to objects in the application. The benefit of this technology is reduced maintenance and more reliable test scripts. Additionally, this flexibility is completely under the testers control. They can determine what levels of close enough are sufficient for their project. Copyright IBM Corp

27 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Where Are We? Introduction to IBM Rational Functional Tester The Rational Functional Tester interface Working with a Functional Test project Setting up the test environment X 11 Copyright IBM Corp

28 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Starting Rational Functional Tester 12 What to do Click Start > Programs > IBM Software Development Platform > IBM Rational Functional Tester > Java Scripting. If you have IBM Rational TestManager installed, the IBM Rational Test Login dialog box opens. (The Login dialog box does not open when Functional Tester is used as a standalone product.) Copyright IBM Corp

29 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Perspectives Define the initial workspace configuration and layout Provide a focused working environment Current Perspective 13 The workbench is the desktop development environment that lets you work with multiple tools seamlessly. The workbench contains one or more perspectives. A perspective provides a set of functionality for working with specific tasks or types of resources. You switch between different tasks and resources by selecting your perspective. Copyright IBM Corp

30 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Perspectives (cont.) Switch from one perspective to another to carry out a different task Perspectives can be opened three ways: In the same (existing) window In a new window In the same window, replacing the current perspective 14 A perspective contains views and editors, and it controls what appears in certain menus and toolbars. You can open perspectives in the same window or in a new workbench window. For example, if you want to see Functional Test Debug at the same time as the Java editor, you can open the Functional Test Debug perspective in a separate window. If you always want to open a perspective in its own window, you can set it up as a user preference. To do this, click Window > Preferences > General > Perspectives and then, under Open a new perspective, select In a new window. Copyright IBM Corp

31 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Open Perspective 1 Click Window > Open Perspective or click Open a perspective Click Other 3 Select a perspective 15 To open a Perspective: 1. From the Functional Test perspective, click Window > Open Perspective or click the Open a perspective button. 2. Click one of the listed perspectives or click Other to display a list of perspectives. (The Functional Test Debug and Java perspectives are listed by default, but this menu changes depending on which perspectives are open.) 3. In the Open Perspective dialog box, click the perspective you want to open and then click OK. Copyright IBM Corp

32 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Functional Test Perspective View name Functional Test menu Functional Test toolbar Functional Test Projects view Current script Editor area (showing Java Script Editor) Functional Test Script Explorer Additional Functional Test views 16 See Functional Test Help for details on the menu and toolbar buttons. The Functional Test Projects view lists test assets for each project, including: Folders Scripts Shared test object maps Log folders Logs Java files Most perspectives include an editor area and several views. In the Java Editor, you can edit your Java code test script. The name of the script you are currently editing appears in a tab at the top of the view. You can open several scripts in the Java Editor and move between them by clicking the appropriate tab. Double-click a script tab to maximize the editor window. Right-click the Java Editor to display menu options for working with scripts. The Script Explorer lists verification points and test objects for the current script. Copyright IBM Corp

33 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Help: Contents Table of Contents Index Contents 17 The Help Contents tab displays the table of contents for the Functional Test Help. You can also get help wherever you are in IBM Rational Functional Tester by pressing the F1 key. Some Functional Test dialog boxes and windows also have Help buttons. The Functional Test documentation includes the online User Guide and API Reference. Copyright IBM Corp

34 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Help: Search Search topic Search 18 Use the Search tab to search for information on a particular topic. Copyright IBM Corp

35 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Views Views provide alternative presentations or ways of navigating your project Changes across views are synchronized A view may include multiple tabs Views can be rearranged by dragging tabs 19 Views are an important component of your workspace. Views display different kinds of information within a perspective. Often, it is better to use specific views for accomplishing specific tasks. For example, you can use the Packages view to quickly browse and locate specific resources rather than search a linear list of named resources in your project. Commonly used views include the following: Tasks view displays errors, warnings, or other information automatically generated by the script. Search view displays results from a search. Console view displays output from the script or application (such as print statements or exceptions). Bookmarks view displays a list of markers that point to a specific place in the workbench. Breakpoints view lists all the breakpoints you have set in your script. If you press the F1 key while you are in this view, you can access Help information about breakpoints. To open a view, click Window > Show View and select a view from the list. Copyright IBM Corp

36 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Examples of Views in the Functional Test Perspective Functional Test Projects view Script Explorer view Additional open views 20 Other perspectives can display different views. You should always keep the Projects and Script Explorer views open. This makes it easier to work with your automated tests. Copyright IBM Corp

37 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Where Are We? Introduction to IBM Rational Functional Tester The Rational Functional Tester interface Working with a Functional Test project Setting up the test environment X 21 Copyright IBM Corp

38 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester The Functional Test Project Stores these Rational Functional Tester test assets: Scripts Object maps Verification point baseline files Script templates Datapools 22 A Functional Test project is a collection of related test assets, including scripts, object maps, verification point baseline files, script templates, and test datapools. You must create a Functional Test project before you can record scripts. Test logs are stored in the same folder as the project folder in their own logs folder. Copyright IBM Corp

39 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Connecting to a Functional Test Project 23 What to do To connect to an existing Functional Test project: 1. Click File > New > Connect to a Functional Test Project. 2. Specify the path for the Functional Test project, either by typing it in or by clicking Browse and navigating to it. 3. In the Project name box, type a name for the Functional Test project. Copyright IBM Corp

40 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Where Are We? Introduction to IBM Rational Functional Tester The Rational Functional Tester interface Working with a Functional Test project Setting up the test environment X 24 Copyright IBM Corp

41 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Test Environment Configuration Context is important! Inconsistent context = script failure Context includes: Hardware testing configuration Database Network considerations State of the application-under-test (AUT) Sequence of actions 25 In any kind of testing, it is important to have a consistent context for each testing cycle. It is especially important for automated testing in a team environment. It is important that the person coordinating the execution of the tests ensures that the test run is set up to execute the test in the established order, using the appropriate data files and starting at the appropriate AUT state. After recording, you need to reset this initial state before you play back (execute) your script. Any applications and windows that are open, active, or displayed when you record the script must be open, active, or displayed when you play back the script. Also, any relevant network settings, active databases, and system memory must be in the same state at playback as when you recorded the script. Copyright IBM Corp

42 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Enabling the Environment for Testing You must enable your Web browsers before you can use Rational Functional Tester to test HTML applications You must enable your Java Runtime Environment (JRE) before you can use Rational Functional Tester to test Java applications 26 Copyright IBM Corp

43 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Enabling Web Browsers 27 You must enable browsers before you can use Functional Tester to test HTML applications. The first time you start Functional Tester after you install it, Functional Tester automatically enables Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator if it finds them on your system. If you add a new browser, or if Functional Tester fails to find a browser, you must add the environment. In the menu, click Configure > Enable Environments for Testing. Click the Web Browsers tab. Click Search and then click Search All to let the enabler locate all the browsers on your system. It will scan your hard drives or partitions and list the browsers in the Web Browsers list. The list includes the full path name of each browser. Copyright IBM Corp

44 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Enabling Java Environments 28 You must enable Java environments before you can use Functional Test to test Java applications. Functional Tester is shipped with a Java Runtime Environment (JRE), called Default JRE. The Default JRE is automatically enabled during installation. To enable other JREs, or if you install a new JRE, you must rerun the enabler. In the menu, click Configure > Enable Environments for Testing. Click the Java Environments tab. Click Search and then select an option to let the enabler locate and list all the Java environments on your system. Note: If you use an Agent computer to run your Functional Test scripts, you must enable the Java environment on the Agent. Copyright IBM Corp

45 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Configuring Applications for Testing Provide name, path, and other information needed to start and run the application. 29 To open the Application Configuration Tool, click Configure > Configure Applications for Testing. To add a new application, click the Add button. Once an application has been added, you can edit its information at any time by opening the application configuration tool and selecting the application in the Applications list. To remove an application from the list, select the application and click Remove. Tip: Always test the application configuration by clicking the Run button before closing the Application Configuration Tool dialog box. Copyright IBM Corp

46 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Review What can you do with Rational Functional Tester? What are the general steps for recording and playing back a script? What are the main components of the Functional Test workspace? What is stored in the Functional Test project? 30 Copyright IBM Corp

47 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester Lab 1: Get Started with Rational Functional Tester View the Functional Test perspectives Record and play back a simple script 31 See Student Workbook Lab 1: Getting Started with Rational Functional Tester. Copyright IBM Corp

48 Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 1 - Getting Started with IBM Rational Functional Tester 32 Copyright IBM Corp

49 Module 2 - Recording a Script IBM Software Group Essentials of IBM Rational Functional Tester, Java Scripting Module 2: Recording a Script 1 Contents Planning for Automated Testing 2-5 General Process for Recording a Script 2-8 Recording Verification Points: Two Steps 2-18 Ways to Access Script Support Functions 2-38 Two Ways to Insert Recording into an Existing Script 2-50 Copyright IBM Corp

50 Module 2 - Recording a Script Objectives To record a script, you should be able to: Describe the process of developing a script Record a new script Identify Functional Test verification points and describe their appropriate use Record a verification point Identify Functional Test script support functions and explain how to include them in a script Insert recording into an existing script 2 Copyright IBM Corp

51 Module 2 - Recording a Script Challenge: Test the Application How do I start to test my application? 3 Copyright IBM Corp

52 Module 2 - Recording a Script Solution: Record a Script A Functional Test script is a text file that contains: Statements generated by Functional Test during recording Manually coded statements that instruct the Functional Test to emulate user actions, such as mouse clicks and keystrokes When a Functional Test script is played back, Functional Test recreates the functional test by executing the statements in the script 4 When you record a script, Functional Test records user actions against your application, such as keystrokes and mouse clicks. Copyright IBM Corp

53 Module 2 - Recording a Script Planning for Automated Testing Identify project standards for: Organizing project artifacts Script naming conventions Sharing test artifacts Sharing test data Determine the best method for automating verification points for your AUT Determine sequence for executing scripts Maximize script reuse Minimize the need for script maintenance 5 Try to maximize the potential for the reuse of a script and minimize the need for maintenance. Maximizing script reuse increases the efficiency of your resources. Reusing scripts also ensures that the same sequence of events is always performed to execute a series of tasks. These test design and implementation issues are usually the responsibility of the Test Designer and the Test roles in the IBM Rational Unified Process (RUP ). For more information, see the RUP Activities and Artifacts associated with the Test Designer and Test roles, in particular the activities that deal with Test Approach, Testability, and Structuring the Test Implementation. A number of factors influence the way you create and acquire scripts, including: Automation tools The tools that are available influence how you create and maintain your scripts program versus record. In some instances you need to do both to accomplish a given test objective. Test environment The test environment, including software and hardware, the automation tools, and your application under test, must support your test objectives. Skills The skill and knowledge level of the people who are using the tools and doing the programming affects your process. Existing scripts If scripts exist, it is useful to try to reuse them as appropriate; consider their compatibility with your current tools and test environment. Copyright IBM Corp

54 Module 2 - Recording a Script Script Recording and Playback Process Set up test environment Set recording options Reset environment Start recording Set playback options Perform user actions Insert verification points Play back script View Create and verification analyze results points End recording 6 This slide outlines a typical set of high-level steps that you follow to record and play back a script in Functional Test. The highlighted steps are covered in this module. Copyright IBM Corp

55 Module 2 - Recording a Script Where Are We? Overview of recording Recording a new script Recording verification points Using script support functions Inserting recording into a script X 7 Copyright IBM Corp

56 Module 2 - Recording a Script General Process for Recording a Script 1. Create a script and start recording 2. Perform user actions in the AUT 3. End recording 8 These steps will be shown in the pages that follow. Copyright IBM Corp

57 Module 2 - Recording a Script 1. Create a Script and Start Recording 9 What to do To start recording a Functional Test script: 1. Click the Record a Functional Test script icon on the Functional Test perspective toolbar. 2. Select the project folder. 3. Specify the name of the new script. Scripts created in Functional Test must follow Java file-naming requirements: must begin with a letter and contain no spaces or nonalphanumeric characters. 4. Click Finish. Copyright IBM Corp

58 Module 2 - Recording a Script Recording Monitor After you select a project and name the script, the Functional Test Recording Monitor appears. The monitor displays: A message for every action performed during recording Errors You can: Minimize it Resize it Display only the toolbar 10 The Functional Test Recording Monitor is displayed while you are recording. By default, it displays Getting Started help. To turn off the Getting Started help text that appears in the monitor window, click the Monitor Message Preferences button and clear the Show Getting Started Help option in the Monitor Options tab. The monitor displays messages for every action performed during the recording session, such as: Starting and stopping the recording Starting an application or browser Clicking upon an application and all other actions Inserting verification points and other items The text in the recording monitor is similar to the sequence of commands that will be recorded in the script. It may contain additional information about errors that occurred during recording. Some of the recorded actions may look like code, but this text is for information only and is not meant to be pasted into a script. Note: If no information is being displayed on the recording monitor, nothing is being recorded. Either the application cannot be recorded against or the environment is not enabled properly. Copyright IBM Corp

59 Module 2 - Recording a Script Functional Test Recording Monitor Toolbar Recording toolbar: 1. Stop Recording 2. Pause/Resume Recording 3. Start Application 4. Insert Verification Point or Action Command 5. Insert Data-Driven Commands 6. Script Support 7. Display Help 11 Monitor preference buttons: 8. Display Toolbar Only 9. Copy Selected Text 10. Clear All Monitor Text 11. Save Monitor Text As 12. Monitor Message Preferences The Functional Test monitor toolbar is part of the recording monitor. It includes the recording toolbar as well as buttons that control monitor preferences. To display just the recording toolbar, press the Display Toolbar Only button. To view the monitor text window and preference buttons, press the button again. The text in the recording monitor is available while you have the monitor open. When you end recording, the text is discarded and is not written to a file. To save the text, use the Copy or Save As monitor preference buttons. Copyright IBM Corp

60 Module 2 - Recording a Script Start Recording: Start the Application 12 When recording tests on your application, it is best to have Functional Test start the application during recording. This makes playing back the tests more reliable. Functional Test will open: Java applications HTML pages (in your default browser or the browser you select in the Application Configuration Tool) What to do To start the application: 1. When the recording monitor appears, click the Start Application button on the recording toolbar. 2. Select the application to record against. 3. Click OK. Copyright IBM Corp

61 Module 2 - Recording a Script 2. Perform User Actions in the AUT 13 What to do To perform user actions in the application under test: 1. Follow the steps outlined in the test implementation. In your design, you should have considered modularity. Remember to apply modularity appropriately when you record your scripts. 2. Record: Your actions (mouse clicks, keystrokes) as you move through the AUT Verification points to capture and save information about specific objects Remember that Functional Test records every action you make, so be careful not to include extra keystrokes or mouse-clicks while conducting the test. As you become more proficient with Functional Test, you will learn to use the Pause feature to temporarily suspend recording, make necessary adjustments to the AUT, and resume recording. Copyright IBM Corp

62 Module 2 - Recording a Script 3. End Recording A Java script is the result 14 What to do To stop recording: 1. When you have finished stepping through the test, click the Stop Recording icon on the recording toolbar. Functional Test then displays the script you recorded. 2. At this point, you can add to or edit the script. What happens When you stop recording: The monitor and toolbars are closed Your script and object map are written into your project directory The Functional Test window is restored, and the script is displayed Copyright IBM Corp

63 Module 2 - Recording a Script Where Are We? Overview of recording Recording a new script Recording verification points Using script support functions Inserting recording into a script X 15 Copyright IBM Corp

64 Module 2 - Recording a Script Challenge: Verify Application Results How can I tell that the application works as expected? Sums, totals, balances Data displays Error messages Cursor movement Window handling Queries How can I validate application consistency from build to build???? 16 When designing tests, an important factor is determining when and how to verify that the application is exhibiting the expected behavior. You need to identify points of observation at which you can evaluate some aspect of the state of the test environment. In Functional Test, verification points are an example of such a point of observation. Copyright IBM Corp

65 Module 2 - Recording a Script Solution: Record Verification Points in the Script A verification point is a point in a script that you create to confirm the state of the AUT across builds (for regression testing) or runs (for reliability testing) A verification point serves as your eyes: Record a verification point wherever you need to validate expected results A test is not a test without verification points! 17 When you insert a verification point into a script, you capture information about the state of the AUT so that you can verify that state in subsequent test cycles. Functional Test stores the information you first capture as the baseline of expected behavior. When you play back the script against a new build of the AUT, Functional Test recaptures the information about the AUT state and compares it to the baseline. If the information captured at playback time has a value within the expected tolerance, the verification point passes. If there are differences, the verification point fails. Navigational scripts may not require verification points. Such scripts don t test anything; they are used to put the application into the correct state for testing. They do not validate functionality in the application. Copyright IBM Corp

66 Module 2 - Recording a Script Recording Verification Points: Two Steps Use the Verification Point and Action Wizard to: 1. Select an object to test in the application 2. Select an action to perform on the object 18 Use the Verification Point and Action Wizard to select objects to test and to select the types of tests to perform on these objects. What to do To open the Verification Point and Action Wizard, click the Insert Verification Point or Action Command button on the Recording toolbar. Copyright IBM Corp

67 Module 2 - Recording a Script 1. Select an Object to Test. Three methods: Object Finder Test Object Browser Time-Delayed Selection 19 The Select an Object page is the first step in the Verification Point and Action Wizard. It offers three ways to select an application object to test. If you select the wrong object or decide to test a different object, simply select a different object using any of these methods. Copyright IBM Corp

68 Module 2 - Recording a Script Selecting an Object: Object Finder 20 The Object Finder is the most common and direct method of selecting an object to test. What to do To select an object using the Object Finder tool: 1. Select Drag Hand Selection in the Selection Method dropdown menu of the Select an Object page in the Verification Point and Action Wizard. 2. Grab the Object Finder tool icon with your mouse and drag it over the object that you want to select. The object is outlined with a red border, and the object name is displayed. 3. When you release the mouse button, the object is selected and its recognition properties are listed in the Object Recognition Properties grid at the bottom of the page. If you have selected the After selecting an object advance to the next page option, you will go directly to the next tab of the wizard after selecting the object. Clear this checkbox option if you want to remain on this page to see the object recognition properties after selecting the object. Shortcut You can also grab the Insert Verification Point or Action Command button on the Recording toolbar and drag it to the object that you want to select. Copyright IBM Corp

69 Module 2 - Recording a Script Selecting an Object: Test Object Browser Browse object hierarchy to select 21 Use the Test Object Browser to browse for your object. The browser displays a hierarchical tree of testable objects in your application. The top level shows any applications you have running, and under each one is the object hierarchy within that application. What to do To select an object by using the Test Object Browser tool: 1. Select Text Object Browser in the Selection Method dropdown menu of the Select an Object page in the Verification Point and Action Wizard. 2. Browse the object tree until you find the object that you want to select. 3. Click the object that you want to test. The object is selected, and its recognition properties are listed in the object recognition properties grid. Copyright IBM Corp

70 Module 2 - Recording a Script Selecting an Object: Time-Delay Method 22 The Delay Method uses the Object Finder tool with a delay that you set. The delay gives you time to get to an object that requires clicking other objects first, such as a menu command. What to do To select an object by using the Delay Method: 1. Select Time Delayed Selection in the Selection Method dropdown menu of the Select an Object page in the Verification Point and Action Wizard. 2. Set the number of seconds. The default is 10 seconds. 3. Click the Object Finder icon. 4. Move your mouse to hover over your application until you get to the object that you want to select. Anything you do during the delay period is not recorded. (When selecting transient objects, the object must be made visible by recorded actions for the verification point to play back properly.) 5. When the timer runs out, the object under the cursor is selected and its recognition properties are listed in the grid. Copyright IBM Corp

71 Module 2 - Recording a Script Selecting an Object: Object Recognition Properties 23 When an object is selected by any of the three selection methods, its recognition properties are listed in the grid at the bottom of the page. The recognition properties are determined by the object s proxy. For example, a button object has three recognition properties: label,.class, and.classindex. The grid lists the name and value of the specific object s recognition properties. You can use this information to confirm that you selected the correct object. If no information is listed, the object is not available for testing. Copyright IBM Corp

72 Module 2 - Recording a Script 2. Select an Action to Perform Against the Object 24 Create a Data Verification Point Create a Properties Verification Point Get a specific property value for the test object Wait for the test object to exist See if any changes have occurred After you select a test object, click the Next button to select an action to perform against the object. There are four types of actions that you can perform against the object you select to test. Two of the actions are verification points (data or properties) and two are scripted actions against the object. Copyright IBM Corp

73 Module 2 - Recording a Script Selecting an Action: Create Data VP Test data in the selected object Types of data you can test: List Menu hierarchy Table Text Tree hierarchy State Object name Type of test 25 Use a data verification point to test the data in the selected object when you play back the script. The object name is listed at the top of the page. The list of tests shown in the Data Value field depends on information provided by the object s proxy. If your object has no data, this tab will be disabled. Copyright IBM Corp

74 Module 2 - Recording a Script Selecting an Action: Create Data VP Example This example shows a text data verification point. For other types of data, the user interface would look different. What to do To create a data verification point: 1. Select the data value you want to test. 2. Under Verification Point Name, accept the suggested default or type a new name in the box. 3. Click Next. 4. Optionally, you can edit text data. In the text box, you can type and edit (using the Cut, Copy, Paste, and Delete toolbar buttons above the text box area). 5. Click Finish. The verification point will be recorded and added to the script. Copyright IBM Corp

75 Module 2 - Recording a Script Selecting an Action: Create Properties VP 3 2 Test properties of the selected object 4 27 Use a properties verification point to test properties of an object in your application. When you record the verification point, a baseline of the object s properties is created. Then every time you play back the script, the properties of the object is compared with the baseline to determine whether or not any changes have occurred. (Such changes may be intentional or unintentional.) This information is useful for identifying potential defects in the application. What to do To record a properties verification point: 1. In the Verification Point and Action Wizard, select the object you wish to test and click Next. 2. On the Select an Action page, click the Create a Properties Verification Point option. 3. On the Insert Properties Verification Point Command page, use the Include Children field to specify whether or not to include the properties of the object s child objects, if it has any. None will test the object only (no children). Immediate will test the object and any immediate children (one level down). All will test the object plus all of its children down the entire hierarchy. 4. Under Verification Point Name, accept the default or type a new name in the box. 5. Choose whether to use standard property types and then click Next. (continued) Copyright IBM Corp

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