1 THE CONDENSED GUIDE TO OUTDOOR FIRST AID Part 1: The Boring Basics planning & preparation Slides used in presentation to Christchurch Tramping Club by Cathy Harlow, 19 August 2010.
2 THE 7 P S OF PLANNING: There are many types of accident or illness you might encounter. Having a plan and a systematic approach, which you adapt to the particular situation can save time and lives. 1. Preparation 2. Preparation 3. Preparation 4. Preparation 5. Preparation 6. Preparation; and 7. Preparation.
3 Risk avoidance: things to do Trip leader: Consider communication options: PLB Mountain radio Will you have mobile coverage Check who in your party has first aid skills Ask if anyone has medical conditions you need to know about (medication?) Have emergency shelter for day trips Bothy bag / tent fly Members: Check your first aid kit Tell leader about medical conditions, if appropriate Asthma, diabetes, extreme allergies, heart conditions, etc. Where do you keep medication Tell leader if you have first aid skills Check forecast have appropriate gear & food & water Be equipped for emergency You may be delayed / benighted
4 Mountain radio Mountain Radios & PLB s : High frequency radio Daily scheduled contact time to communicate weather, location & route ( scheds ) 2- way communication Reception in most mountain areas Can inform re delays to avoid unnecessary rescue call outs Good chance that emergency call outside scheds will be picked up by another service Large & heavy Long wire antenna to erect (40m) Communication may only be possible at scheds PLB (Personal Locator Beacon) Small emergency distress beacon Emits radio signal when activated Signal picked up by satellite/aircraft & relayed to RCCNZ Only to be used in life-threatening situations Small & lightweight Use international distress frequencies No set up required Some units GPS enabled Require line of site to satellite (less effective in valleys & gorges) Communication is one way so you don t know if signal received
5 Risk avoidance: things to consider Weather Forecast Rivers Avalanche Risk Ice Snow Wind! think ahead!
6 MSC recommended group first aid kit 1 - Crepe bandage: 10cm & 15cm 2 triangular bandages various plasters 1 Dressing Strip 3 non sticky dressings 6 gauze dressings 1 medium wound dressing 1 large wound dressing 1 pack butterfly stitches 1 roll tape 2 saline 30 ml 10 alcohol wipes 1 box paracetamol 10 antihistamine tablets 10 diarrhea tablets 4 re-hydration sachets 1 thermometer 1 pair scissors 1 pair tweezers 1 - Needle 2 pairs disposable gloves 1 - CPR face shield 1 - Note book 1 - Pen / pencil Assorted safety pins Chemical heating packs Foil wine/juice bladder: Spare water bottle, splint, padding for splint, cold compress, hot water bottle, small pillow, reflector for signaling, dressing for open chest wound
7 MSC recommended personal first aid kit 1 crepe bandage 1 triangular bandage 6-10 plasters 1 large dressing 2-3 non sticky dressings 2-3 gauze dressings 1 roll tape 3-6 Antihistamine tablets 4 aspirin tablets 2 safety pins 1 pair scissors 1 pair disposable gloves 1 CPR face shield 1 note book 1 pen / pencil Insect repellant Sun block Lip balm Any medication you need (prescribed or OTC) DO NOT RELY ON OTHERS OR THE GROUP KIT YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO LOOK AFTER YOURSELF
8 The disaster plan (adapt to fit) 1. DANGER: Rock fall, avalanche, flame, river, exposure 2. PATIENT MANAGEMENT: Best first aider cares for patient What can kill/harm Me Patient Group Only move patient if patient in danger 3. GROUP MANAGEMENT: Nominate someone to manage rest of party They may need to: Set up shelter Prepare food / hot water Go for help Move to less exposed position LEADER Note taker? Runner messages for first aider? If more than one patient, first aider triages & manages accident site 4. DECISION: Can the trip continue: Now or later? - OR - Abort trip: Walk out or arrange evacuation?
9 Secondary survey (finding out what else is wrong) Patient(s) Management: Do not move patient until primary & secondary survey completed unless patient in danger Remove danger from patient as first choice More than one patient: triage (sort & sift) and delegate Primary survey (dealing with immediate threats to life)
10 Primary Survey (fast) Danger to me, patient, others Response: Alert / Voice / Pain / Unconscious Alert / Voice responsive = can maintain own airway Pain / Unconscious = maintain airway for them Immediate threats to life Airway: open / clear airway Head tilt, chin lift Jaw thrust if suspect spinal injury OPA if carry & know how to use Breathing: Breathing well enough to support life? Look, listen, feel. If not, why not? Circulation: pulse, colour, temperature Not breathing and no circulation = CPR Severe bleeding quick top to toe check Apply pressure, elevate.
11 Airways & CPR If more than 1 rescuer: 1 starts CPR 1 calls for help (phone, mountain radio, PLB) continue CPR as a team 1 rescuer & patient child/infant or likely cause is injury or drowning: CPR 1 minute call for help resume CPR 1 rescuer & patient adult and likely cause of injury not drowning: open airway call for help start CPR Continue CPR until Patient recovers (!) Medical help arrives All rescuers too exhausted to continue
12 CPR: cardio pulmonary resuscitation 30 chest compressions : 2 breaths Compressions Mid-chest across nipple line Adult: 2 hands, straight arms, depth of 4-5 cm Child: 1 or 2 hands, straight arms, depth = 1/3 chest Infant: 2 fingers, depth = 1/3 chest Rate or 100 bpm Breaths Maintain open airway (head tilt, chin lift / jaw thrust / OPA) Clear airway (remove obstructions) Pinch nose, open mouth, make seal over lips Watch for rise of chest Consider breathing through nose/only use compressions Check for signs of life every 3 minutes
13 Secondary Survey: Top To Toe (adapt) Methodical check of whole patient to determine injuries Performed after immediate threats to life dealt with If possible leave patient in original position Always ask the patient s permission (C.A.R.E.) Respect / provide privacy Tell the patient what you are doing, even if unconscious Compare one side to other or uninjured member of party Look for medic alerts as you go If possible, have someone take notes of findings Be gentle but firm. Stop & investigate pain - unconscious patients can indicate pain
14 How to do a full Top To Toe survey Head Fluid from nose / ears / mouth Symmetry / check for broken bones Mouth: damaged teeth / foreign matter Skull: depressions / bleeding / tenderness Eyes: PEARL finger test Neck Patient unconscious after accident assume neck injury Base skull to top shoulders: tenderness / rigidity / deformity Windpipe central not forced to one side Shoulders Feel for tenderness & deformity Compare sides Chest Check entire chest for tenderness & deformity Press down on chest bone Check ribs press down from top & in from sides ask patient to take a deep breath & examine area that hurts Check both sides rise & fall evenly
15 Abdomen Divide into quarters & check each quarter Soft (i.e. normal) / tender / rigid? Look for discolouration / bruising & distension Pelvis Arms / Legs Check for deformity Press front & sides of pelvic bone Passed urine (blood?) Swelling / deformity / discolouration Gentle, firm pressure (try to bend bone) Check circulation in limb if appears broken Ask conscious patient to: move limbs through normal motion Push / pull / rotate / flex Feeling/movement of hands/feet suspect spinal injury Back Check spine & ribs for tenderness Feel backbone from shoulder to pelvis, without moving spine Cause of accident may indicate if spinal injury should be suspected
16 Secondary Survey gather information Ask the patient if conscious, their companions if unconscious You can do this while examining patient. Signs & symptoms you see signs (top to toe), patient tells you symptoms Allergies Do you have any allergies? What happens to you? Medication Are you taking any medication? What is it? Why do you take it? When did you last take it? How much did you take? Have you omitted to take it? Past medical history Has this happened before? What happened last time? Last oral intake When did you last eat / drink? What did you eat / drink? Events immediately prior What were you doing immediately before? Did you do anything in particular?
17 Secondary Survey gather information Onset When did the pain start? What were you doing? Prevents / provokes What makes it worse? Does anything make it better? Quality Can you describe the pain? Is it dull, sharp, stabbing, burning, etc? Radiate / Region Where does it hurt? Does it hurt anywhere else? Severity On a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being nothing & 10 being unbearable, how bad is it? Timing Is it constant? When is it worse? When is it better?
18 P A R T 2 W R A P T Warmth very important when outdoors! Keep insulated from ground Hat on head, cover neck Cover patient Reassurance Keep patient reassured - tell them what is happening. Do not lie. Assess again Reassess constantly. Record vitals periodically (pulse, respiration, temp., etc) Position Position appropriately Treatment Treat appropriately
19 Evacuation / Aborting trip Is injury life threatening? Get help ASAP: PLB, radio, phone, send others Is patient able to walk out? Patient may be very slow do you have time / resources (torches, food, warm clothing)? Could some of party go ahead? Can you carry them out? Carrying a patient, 1 hour s walk = 6 hours Stretcher: people working in teams of 6 High likelihood of injury to other party members Do you need to request help to evacuate patient? PLB, Radio, phone, send other party members
20 When to set off a PLB... If the injury is life threatening time is of the essence get help ASAP e.g. Severe bleed / CPR been administered Will they need a helicopter to get out? i.e. can they walk out? If not and you are not very close to a road or track that vehicle can travel down then you are going to need a helicopter
21 Evacuation: when you need help Mountain radio / mobile phone: State number of casualties, severity & urgency I have 1 patient with broken thigh. She is currently conscious & breathing unaided. She has major blood loss & severe shock. I require immediate help if she is to survive. Map series & number & grid reference Using TOPO50 map CJ01 we are at grid reference Description of location We are at the bottom of the bluff on the west of Mt Big, approximately 300 meters down from the summit. Ask to have the message repeated back to you
22 Evacuation: when you need help Sending for help: If possible, send 2 people Sufficient water, food & gear for own safety Take a written message: What has happened, what assistance needed, level of urgency Condition of patient when left Treatment administered Location (marked on map, if possible) Names & addresses of group members Known medical conditions of group members Physical & mental condition of group members Resources of group: clothing, food, shelter, fuel, gear
23 Part 2: to be continued How to treat: Head injuries Fractures & dislocations Soft tissue injuries Burns Wounds Environmental conditions Existing medical conditions Poison, stings & bites
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