1 ENERGY CONSERVATION IN THE CARIBBEAN A PROFITABLE INDUSTRY for REGIONAL AND FOREIGN ENTREPRENEURS Abstract:- Andre Escalante M.Sc. C.E.M. The energy cost in the Caribbean is the highest in the Western Hemisphere and amongst the highest in the world. The cost of energy in various islands range from as low as US$0.20/kwh to as high as US$0.37/kWh. These numbers exclude Trinidad and Tobago, a petroleum producing nation which enjoys an average cost of US$0.05/kWh. These high energy costs provides numerous business opportunities to energy entrepreneurs which to date has not been exploited for a number of reasons. This paper will review the energy cost in the various islands and will identify applicable energy saving technologies with an indication as to the feasibility of each. Further, the market size of the region for each ESO will be provided and recommendations for energy entrepreneurs highlighted. 1. CARIBBEAN ISLANDS ENERGY OVERVIEW The Caribbean consists of numerous self-governed islands each with its own identity. The population of each island, per capital income and average energy cost as recorded by the Caribbean Electric Utility Commission (CARICEC) for 2006 is provided in Table I below. Current energy costs as obtained by the author for 2007 has revealed that many islands are currently over US$0.35/kWh and the cost continue to rise as a result of the increase of fuel cost in the international market. Table I Island Energy Cost (US$/kWh) ISLAND POPULATION (3) GDP PER CAPITA US$ (2) AVERAGE ENERGY COST (2006) US$/kWh (1) ARUBA 100,000 22, BAHAMAS 303,611 19, BARBADOS 250,010 11, GUYANA 800,000 1,370 -
2 JAMAICA 2,607,633 3, Netherlands Antilles 185,511 17, O.E.C.S 508,147 6,451 GRENADA 102, ST.LUCIA 157, ST.VINCENT 109, DOMINICA 71, ST.KITTS/NEVIS 45,841 ANGUILLA 11, MONSTERRAT 10, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO 1,262,366 10, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 8,230, HAITI 5,053,792 - The average cost of energy in the smaller islands is now equal to between five (5) to seven (7) times that of Trinidad and Tobago and approximately three (3) to four (4) times that in North America and Europe. This fact simply means that the potential for energy conservation in this region is phenomenal. 2.0 ENERGY CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES AND SERVICES There are numerous energy conservation technologies and services available to assist the region in reducing its energy consumption. Some are low cost/no cost technologies; others require investment but all produce good returns because of the high energy cost existing. A brief description of the following technologies/services is provided hereunder. 2.1 Low Cost/No Cost Solutions 2.2 Engineering Services 2.3 Engineered Solutions / Design/Build Projects 2.4 Design/Product Development Services. 2.5 Financial Services
3 2.1 Low Cost / No Cost Solutions Compact Florescent Lamps (CFL) also known as energy saving lamps are the no brainer of energy saving technologies. CFL save 70% of energy over the equivalent incandescent type lamps. CFL are available in various types (tubes, spiral), sizes (7W,11W,15W,up to 100W) and replace not only standard incandescent bulbs for residential use, but also the larger 70W to 100W CFL replace the 200W to 400W mercury vapour outdoor lamps. CFL also have a life of between 8,000 to 10,000 hours which is much larger than the life of an incandescent bulb which is between 1,000 to 2,000 hours. CFL are also available in two (2) colour types, daylight which is similar to florescent lamps and warm light which resembles an incandescent bulb s yellow colour. The energy consumed by an incandescent bulb is calculated by the power of the bulbs multiplied by the hours used. As an example if one replaces a 60W incandescent with a 15W CFL, the power savings will be 45W (60W -15W) or 0.045kW (45W/1000). If the bulb is used for external security lighting from dusk to dawn (6:00pm to 6:00am) or twelve (12) hours per day then the annual energy saved will be power saved multiplied by the hours in use or 0.045kW (45W/1000) x 12hours/day x 365days/year or equal to kwh. The annual energy cost savings in US$ will be the multiplication of the cost of energy by the annual energy saved or US$ 0.30 x kwh = US$59.13/year. If the CFL costs US$3.50 and the incandescent bulbs cost US$0.50, the additional cost of purchasing the CFL will be US$3.00. The simple payback will therefore be US$3.00/US$59.13 or years or 0.6 months. This simple payback analysis does not take into account the greater life of the CFL over the incandescent bulb. A 20 day payback of using CFL in islands where energy costs over US$0.30/kWh is why incandescent lamps retrofit to CFL is sometimes termed no-brainer. Appendix 1 attached indicates the annual energy savings of using various types in some Caribbean islands. Recently, the Cuban Government under a Caricom Assistance initiative provided residential CFL lamp retrofit to a number of Caribbean islands. Cubans actually went door to door in the selected islands and performed this retrofit exercise. VINLEC (St.Vincent s electric utility) has observed a drop in its energy level of just below 1 MW at night which is as a result of this exercise. The actual data is currently being evaluated. The role of an energy engineer is to determine the economical viable technologies by performing analysis such as indicated above for CFL. OTHER LOW COST ENENRGY SOLUTIONS There are other low cost solutions which can be installed into facilities to reduce energy consumption. Table II below identifies these solutions and provides the approximate cost for each, the annual energy savings (based on US$ 0.30/kWh) and the simple payback period with brief remarks.
4 Table II Energy Saving Opportunities (ESO) E.S.O USE UNIT COST US$ ANNUAL ENERGY SAVINGS US$ PAYBACK (years) REMARKS Electronic Timers Occupancy Sensors T-12 (40W) to T- 8 (32W) or T-5 (28W) florescent lamp retrofit Premium Efficiency Motors Pool pump, AHU automatic switch off after hours. Lamps off when no person in washroom/office. Offices florescent lamp retrofit Pumps, air handling units, $ $ Savings for a 1.0 kw motor $ $ $30.00 $ Good for new buildings design. $ $ Based on 1 24/365 Low flow showerheads Showers 1.5 gpm $5.00 $ Water US$3.5/m 3 saving 1.0gpm Faucet aerators 1.5 gpm $1.00 $ Water cost US$3.5/m 3 saving 0.5gpm Low flush toilets 1.6gpf instead of 3.0 gpf $ $ Refrigerant retrofit Replace existing refrigerant with new hydrocarbon refrigerant $100/ton $ to 1.5 years Saves 10% to 15% of energy These low cost/no cost energy/water saving technologies together can save hotels, commercial offices and residences approximately 15 to 25% of their annual utility cost, depending on the use of the facility. There exists a need for more companies providing these types of solutions to service the Caribbean region. The author knows only of one such entity which is based in Jamaica and which has been very successful promoting these no cost/low cost solutions.
5 2.2 ENGINEERING SERVICES Facilities require energy studies or audits to determine their actual status with respect to energy use and saving opportunities available. These audits can be performed by certified engineering companies or energy auditors. In addition to providing energy audits, energy focused engineering service firms can provide energy effective designs for new or existing buildings as well as Corporate Utility Management Programs (C.U.M.P). Many regional consulting engineers are not fully acquainted with the existing technologies available to be implemented that can save their customers large sums of money over the life of a project. The same occurs for extra-regional engineers who design systems for facilities in the region with little or no consideration for the high energy cost existing. As such there is a need for experienced building energy services design engineers to ensure that the most effective and economical building solution is provided to Caribbean customers. Further, energy trained facility engineers can provide Corporate Utility Management Programs (CUMP) for medium to large scale facilities. This service involves performing analysis and review of facilities and utilities on regular bases with the objective of ensuring that the facility is operated at its optimum level. 2.3 ENGINEERED SOLUTIONS / DESIGN/BUILD PROJECTS There are a number of energy conservation technologies that can be implemented either individually or in combination as a medium/large scaled project to achieve maximum results for the energy consumer. Some of these technologies are highlighted below Absorption Cooling Systems Absorption cooling systems are fuelled by heat which can be provided either by natural gas, diesel, LPG, waste oil or water heat from another process. There is no compressor and very little moving parts (see Fig. 1 below). In Trinidad and Tobago, where both electrical and natural gas cost are very low the payback over electrical air conditioning systems will be approximately 3.0 years. In Barbados, where electrical energy cost is over US$0.20/kWh and natural gas costs US$9.60/MMBTU for commercial users above 8,000m 3, the payback of these systems over electric systems is only one (1) year. Accra Beach Resort and The Crane are two (2) resorts who are enjoying the benefits of these systems. These systems can also operate on waste oil from a cruise ship or automobile garages. These are two (2) known waste oil processing plants in the region. They are in St. Maarten and Trinidad. Treated Waste oil is sold for US$9.00 MMBTU and if used to fuel an absorption chiller can provide a simple payback of less than one (1) year in islands where the costing energy is above US$0.30/kWh. However, absorption systems when combined with electrical generating power plants can provide the greatest energy savings available to regional energy consumers. The process is referred to as Combined Cooling Heating and Power (CCHP) or Trigeneration. Basically, the fuel supplied to a generator produces power and waste heat (waste heat can
6 be as much as 70% of the input fuel energy if a gas turbine is used or 60% if a reciprocating engine is used). Instead of emitting the waste heat into the atmosphere it is reused to fuel an absorption chiller to provide cold water for cooling and hot water for domestic heating. CCHP systems are ideal for an area where there is a great need for power, air conditioning and hot water, such as Hotel resorts, Office Buildings and Hospitals. The effective use of the input energy will be over 80% instead of 35% and is the most economical energy solution currently available. Fig Natural Gas Absorption Cycle Such plants require capital investments but at energy rates of over US$0.30 will have paybacks of fewer than 2.0 years. Utilities in the region should be encouraged to adopt this strategy as they already have the infrastructure in place to sell energy and can increase their product range and begin selling chilled and hot water to consumers. An ideal example would be a distributed generating plant located near a group of Hotels. The generating plant will provide power to the Hotels and any neighboring residences or commercial facilities. The waste heat from the plant will fuel absorption chillers and provide chilled water for cooling the hotel and hot water for Hotel laundry and guest use. To gain the benefits of this solution, regional utilities will therefore have to consider installing smaller distributed generating plants in their territories instead of large central plants. The Island benefit will be a reduction in the import bill of fuel oil.
7 Fig. 2.0 District Cooling System Layout Solar Hot water Systems Barbados has been the undisputed leader in solar hot water systems regionally for over 30 years. The technology used has not changed much over this period, but the manufacturing cost has increased to over US$2,000 per household system installed. At this initial cost the payback of a solar water heater can be between 2.0 to 2.5 years in the Caribbean Islands (over 6 years in Trinidad), which by international standards is a very good investment as the system can last over ten years. The main reason that the solar water heater industry has taken off in Barbados and not in the other Caribbean Islands is because of the tax incentives provided by the Barbados government and the initial cost is prohibitive for other islands with a much lower GDP/capita. However, we see this industry taking off in all islands very soon mainly as a result of new technology and mass production of systems from Asia. These systems can sell for under US$1,500 and will provide a simple payback of less than 1.5 years. FIG 3 - VACUUM TUBE SOLAR WATER HEATER
8 2.3.3 Chilled Beams These systems use 20% primary air to force 80% of return air over a cooling coil and deliver 100% of cold treated air into a space without the use of a fan motor. Therefore 80% fan motor savings is achieved. FIG 4 - CHILLED BEAM High Efficiency Air Conditioning Systems These are new high efficiency air conducting systems available which use between 15% to 30% less energy than standard systems. The first is the Variable Refrigerant Volume system termed VRV. These systems use condensing units with a variable speed drive on the compressor to supply numerous fan coil units. These units are very efficient at part load conditions. Another high efficient system is called the mini chiller with heat recovery for free hot water production. This system uses high efficient compressors to produce chilled water which is piped throughout the facility. It also can produce free hot water by using waste heat from the hot compressor refrigerant discharge to heat water for domestic use. Overall savings of between 30% to 40% can be attained using these systems which are ideal for small to medium sized Hotels. The above systems have to be engineered or designed in to facilities in order for the owner to secure the benefits of using same. Fig. 5 High Efficiency Mini Chiller with Heat Recovery
9 2.3.5 Building Envelope: Roof insulation systems have generally been accepted in the Caribbean as a proven energy conservation solution. Fibre glass insulation has generally been the lead product used however more recently radiant barrier (industrial grade foil) systems are becoming more prevalent. What has not been promoted by regional engineers or architects is wall insulation and double paned glass systems. In the northern countries wall insulation and double paned glass is standard construction practice to retain heat in homes and offices during the winter months. The converse applies to the Caribbean where energy cost as high as US$0.30/KWh, wall insulation and double paned glass should be standard building practice at least for buildings that are air conditioned. Fig. 6 Radiant Barrier Systems Desiccant Heat Recovery Systems Desiccant Heat Recovery Units in hot and humid climates are used to pre-treat hot outside air using cold exhaust air from the building. Energy savings of 30% can be obtained from using these systems which is an effective air to air heat transfer system. Desiccant systems are also ideal for humidity control purposes as the desiccant wheel removes humidity from the fresh air before it is discharged into the facility. Ideally uses include Hotels, schools, large office buildings and Hospitals which require large volumes of fresh hot air for ventilation. Fig. 7 Desiccant Heat Recovery Unit
10 2.3.7 Other Engineered Solutions There are other engineered solutions that can be installed into facilities to reduce energy consumption such as Power Factor correction systems which are mainly applicable where there exists a demand charge by the utility. Demand Charges are mainly applied in Aruba, Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica. Other systems include Building Automation Systems (BAS), Variable Speed Drives and Guest Room Controls for Hotels. 2.4 Design / Product Development Services:- Most of the technologies and systems mentioned herein are designed and developed in countries where the cost of energy is not as high as in this region. Therefore, there exists opportunities for regional energy system designers, research laboratories and/or universities to take advantage of the extremely high energy cost prevailing and develop suitable new products which can have a significant impact on the energy cost of regional facilities. Effective solutions developed will quickly find a viable market. 2.5 Financial Services:- The simple payback of using all of the technologies identified is under two (2) years and in most cases, under one (1) year. These can translate to Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of over 50% which is much better than investing in the stock exchange or leaving money in a Bank. There exists a wealth of money for regional financial institutions to capitalize on the opportunities provided by the regional energy conservation industry. 3.0 Regional Energy Conservation Markets:- The Caribbean market for energy conservation products and services can be broken down into the following segments: a) Residential b) Commercial c) Industrial A brief description of each, indicating its potential size and products is presented hereunder:- 3.1 Residential:- The total population in the region is approximately 15M, excluding Haiti, Cuba and Puerto Rico. Estimated number of total households is 3M. Using this assumption, and further assuming that only 20% of the households will be able to afford energy products we can estimate the market value for Energy conservation products as follows:-
11 Table III Residential Energy Conservation Market Energy Conservation Product Qty./Household No. of Qualifying Households Cost per ESO US$ Total Market Value US$ Solar Water Heaters 1 600,000 1, ,000,000 CFL 6 600,000 $ ,600,000 Low Flow Shower heads Faucet Aerators Radiant Barrier for Roofs Low Flush Toilets Total Value US$ 1 600,000 $5.00 3,000, ,000 $1.00 1,200,000 1,000 ft 2 600,000 $ ,000, ,000 $ ,000,000 1,438,800,000 A conservative estimated market size for residential energy saving products is therefore equal to US$ 1,438,800,000. If we assume that these products are required every ten years, then the annual market size is estimated as US$ 143,880, Commercial:- The commercial market in the Caribbean can be broken down into two main sectors as follows:- a) Hotel sector b) Offices Buildings The market size for each and related energy conservation products are estimated hereunder. a) Hotel Sector. The Caribbean Hotel Association (CHA) represents a membership which together account for 120,000 Hotel rooms in the Caribbean. The Energy use profile of a typical small Hotel is shown in Figure 8 below.
12 Pumps 4% Fig. 8 - Small Hotel Energy Use Profile F & B 4% Fans 2% Misc 5% Lights 10% Hot Water 15% A/C 60% Table IV Hotels Energy Conservation Market Energy Saving Products No. of Units/Room No. of Rooms Cost/ESO US$ Market size US$ CFL 5 120, ,100,000 Electronic Timers 2 /hotel 2,500 Hotels ,000 Air Conditioning Systems 1 75,000 2, ,000,000 Guest Controls Room 1 75, ,750,000 Double Paned Glass 1 75, ,500,000 Solar Water Heater ,000 1,500 90,000,000 TOTAL Value US$ 298,850,000 The total estimated market value is portrayed in Table IV above and is equal to US$ 298,850,000 and assuming that each system last ten years the annual market value will be US$ 29,885,000. b) Offices:- The profile of energy consuming systems in a typical office in the Caribbean is portrayed in figure 9. Energy saving opportunities should be focused on air conditioning systems, building envelope (roof and wall insulation products and double paned glass) and lighting systems.
13 Fig. 9 - Typical Office Energy Use Profile Computers 10% Other 5% Lights 15% A/C 70% An estimate of the market size of energy conservation products for Caribbean offices is a little more difficult to determine. If one assumes the market to be at least twice the size of that for the Hotel sector, we can estimate a total market size of US$ 600,000,000 and an annual market size of US$ 60,000,000 assuming the products have to be replaced every ten (10) years. 3.3 Industrial The author has not performed an analysis of the size of the industrial sector throughout the Caribbean. Most of the industrialized plants are located in the larger islands such as Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. However an analysis of the distillery industry throughout the Caribbean has been performed for which the ESO and market size is indicated hereunder. a) Distilleries Most Caribbean islands have distilleries. The use of back pressure energy steam turbines will provide energy savings to distilleries. High pressure steam, produced by distilleries boilers need to have the pressure reduced before entering the distillery process. This reduction in steam pressure is normally performed by a pressure reducing valve. Installing a back-pressure steam turbine will provide power to operate the distillery and at the same time provide low pressure steam needed for the distillery process. The cost of this system depends on the size of the distillery but can be between US$200,000 to US$ 500,000 with a payback period of 1.5 years. The estimated total market size is approximately US$ 7,500,000. One distillery in the Caribbean uses waste oil from Cruise ships to fuel it boiler. This process has been ongoing for over ten (10) years with great success. Cruise ships prefer to give their waste oil to regional organization at no cost rather than pay an environmental tax and other costs in the developed countries. The cost of treating waste oil has been worked out to be US$ 2.50 / MMBTU, which is far less than the cost of diesel which sells at over US$ / MMBTU, but less than the cost of natural gas in Trinidad at US$ 1.65 / MMBTU. Procuring and selling waste oil can be another viable business venture.
14 4.0 Discussion / Conclusion:- The energy cost in the Caribbean is the highest in the Western Hemisphere and amongst the highest in the world. Most energy saving opportunities provides payback of less than 2.0 years. The annual market value for energy conservation entrepreneurs can be estimated as follows: MARKET ANNUAL VALUE US$ TYPE OF BUSINESS Residential 145,000,000 Retail Sale of Products Commercial Hotel 30,000,000 Engineered Projects Commercial Offices 60,000,000 Engineered Projects Professional Services 300,000 Engineering Services Distilleries/Breweries 7,500,000 Engineered Projects Total Annual Market Value US$ 242,800,000 There are opportunities for retail businesses, engineering consulting firms and energy engineering service companies to build profitable sustainable business and at the same time assist the region to reduce their energy costs. In addition there are also opportunities for Financial Institutions (provide funding) and Design / Product Development Companies to benefit from this vast but slow moving industry... One needs to bear in mind that although the market is estimated at US$ 242,800,000 annually, there are numerous obstacles that the potential energy entrepreneur must face. These include: 1. Lack of awareness by regional energy consumers of the technologies available. This means that much marketing and awareness training is essential. 2. Lack of trained technical personnel within companies and regional consultants 3. Availability of competent suppliers 4. Poor Legal Infrastructure within islands 5. Difficulty of consumers in obtaining funding (financial institutions unaware of industry) 6. High import duty on energy technologies in some islands. Despite these obstacles, the energy entrepreneur will find little competition and will have the ability to choose the projects and customers he wishes to serve.
15 References: 1. Caribbean Electric Utilities Commission (CARILEC) Tariff Information Members United Nations (UN) Statistical Year Book, 49 th Edition Census United Nations Economic Survey of the Caribbean: Caribbean Hotel Association Yearbook 2005.
Design Guide Retrofitting Options For HVAC Systems In Live Performance Venues Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are major energy consumers in live performance venues. For this reason,
Industrial Green Building 101 Opportunities and Challenges Joanne Sawatzky Senior Project Manager, Light House Sustainability at Work Re-visioning a Sustainable False Creek Flats Light Industrial Green
How to Reduce Energy Costs in Your Commercial Building Mark Steinmetz, Energy Advisor, GDS Associates, Inc., an ActOnEnergy Partner Mary Bentsen, Education and Training Coordinator SAIC, an Ameren Illinois
MSV: Square Footage: 24,844 No. of Floors: 1 Year Built: 1963 Type of Use: Lounge and dining area open all night for snacks Steam Water-cooled condenser, 50-Ton York unit with a 6 cylinder-reciprocating
Energy Saving Opportunities for Businesses Presented by Anna Selgert, Outreach Representative Where Energy Efficiency Started... Part of Illinois energy legislation passed in 2007 Utility companies required
Green Guide for Businesses Strategy: Energy Reduce Energy Use in New and Existing Businesses - In the United States buildings account for: o 72% of electricity consumption, o 39% of energy use, o 38% of
Energy Efficiency HOSPITALITY www.energia.ie Your chance to reduce your business energy usage by as much as 20%! 20% is a significant figure and reducing your energy bill by this amount could make a real
HEATING, VENTILATION & AIR CONDITIONING as part of the Energy Efficiency Information Grants Program Heating and cooling can account for approximately 23 % of energy use in pubs and hotels 1. Reducing heating
Certified Energy Auditor Study Guide This guide is to help professional learns about the Certified Energy Auditor (CEA) Program, Apply for the CEA Examination, Register for the CEA Training Seminar and
Home Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Call to Action July 23, 2015 Dave Blake and David Wood REEP Green Solutions Today s Agenda Background Understanding where you are: Energy Usage EnerGuide Home Energy
Switching Energy Providers and PECO Smart Ideas March 23, 2011 Agenda Market Changes Taking Advantage of Competition PECO Smart Ideas for your home Questions Market Changes Utility Functions Before deregulation,
EarthCents (DSM) Program Summary Renewable Energy EarthCents Programs Solar Water Heating This program is available to residential customers for the installation of a qualifying solar thermal water heater.
Energy consumption and heat recovery of refrigeration system in modern Arena By Alexander Cohr Pachai Johnson Controls Building Efficiency Christian X s Vej 201 8270 Hoejbjerg Denmark firstname.lastname@example.org
AIR CONDITIONING EFFICIENCY F8 Energy eco-efficiency opportunities in Queensland Foundries Hot tips and cool ideas to save energy and money! Air conditioning units or systems are often used by foundries
Business Programs and Services At our Delray location, we had an immediate 23 percent drop in lighting kilowatt-hour usage. That has a significant impact on our energy bills. Ken Infante, AutoNation, Inc.
7th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference 2-5 August 2009, Denver, Colorado AIAA 2009-4568 Tracking Number: 171427 Energy Saving by ESCO (Energy Service Company) Project in Hospital Satoru
Energy Conservation Audits for Six Performing Arts Facilities A Toronto s Green Theatres Project Anthony Marshall, P.Eng., CEM January 2012 For Creative Trust for Arts & Culture Table of Contents Introduction
Training for Building Technicians: Energy Efficiency & Sustainability (BEST) Program Seminar Outline & Sample BEST Exam Questions Buildings in the United State consume a significant amount of energy. According
TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... 3 2.0 BACKGROUND... 5 2.1 Space Types 2.2 Occupancy and Use Schedules 2.3 Recent Building System Upgrades and Existing Conditions 2.4 Renewable Energy Assessment
Energy Strategic Plan Los Angeles Community College District Community College League Conference Larry Eisenberg Executive Director, Facilities Planning and Development November 16,2006 West Los Angeles
Chapter 9: Water Heating 145 CHAPTER 9: WATER HEATING Energy costs for water heating can be as great as the costs for heating, for an energy efficient house, in a mild climate. Estimating hot water usage
Case Studies in Existing Building Audits Erica Brabon Steven Winter Associates, Inc. 307 7 th Ave., NY, NY email@example.com Who we are Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) is a 37 yearold architecture
Creating Efficient HVAC Systems Heating and Cooling Fundamentals for Commercial Buildings Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for nearly half of the energy used in a typical
The Only GUY To Call May 2014 412.885.2356 Why are my utility bills so high? What can I do to lower my energy expenses? Did you know... that between 2007 and 2012, the average U.S. household spent more
Page 1 of 12 THE CEA BODY OF KNOWLEDGE AND STUDY GUIDE Preparation for the CEA Certification Exam The CEA Certification Exam is a four-hour open book exam. The examination questions are based on the Body
energy-saving checklist a guide for rental property owners taking responsibility As an individual, your efficient use of energy brings benefits such as lower bills, improved comfort levels in your home
Case Study: Innovative Energy Efficiency Approaches in NOAA s Environmental Security Computing Center in Fairmont, West Virginia Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy s Federal Energy Management Program
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Program Offerings 1 Our energy conservation programs are especially valuable because they give our customers options to save energy and money and to make their own contribution
Carnegie Mellon University School of Architecture, Department of Mechanical Engineering Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics A Presentation of Work in Progress 4 October 2006 in the Intelligent
Best Practice Guide BPGCS007 ENERGY MANAGEMENT Introduction: With rising fuel costs, opening of electricity and gas markets to alternate suppliers and climate change, the requirement to monitor and reduce
Energy Efficiency Tips for Businesses Top 10 Tips Lighting Tips Heating and Cooling Temperature Control Office Equipment Laundry Service Refrigeration Equipment Food Service Equipment Employee Involvement
Air-sourced 90 Hot Water Supplying Heat Pump "HEM-90A" Takahiro OUE *1, Kazuto OKADA *1 *1 Refrigeration System & Energy Dept., Compressor Div., Machinery Business Kobe Steel has developed an air-sourced
Why and how to save energy at home John Irwin, Sierra Club DE, home owner firstname.lastname@example.org Jack Sol-Church, weatherization instructor Presentation will be posted on DE chapter Sierra Club s website
Fact Sheet #3 Tips on Saving Energy in Your Business In this fact sheet you will discover: Quick and easy changes to save energy. Cost effective ways to reduce your heating, cooling, lighting and office
A PRIMER Educational HVAC For Schools How to purchase an HVAC system that meets your school s unique requirements and stays within your budget Contents: Introduction: The best HVAC system is durable, reliable
Section 2: Estimating Energy Savings and Incentives 2.1 Estimating Energy Savings and Incentives... 2 2.2 Customized Measures - Estimation Software... 2 2.2.1 AC&R I - High Efficiency Chiller... 3 2.2.2
THE MULTILATERAL INVESTMENT FUND (MIF) CLEAN & EFFICIENT ENERGY: BUSINESS CASES JENNIFER BALDWIN Georgetown, Guyana April 18, 2012 1. WHAT IS THE MIF? 2. LESSONS FROM CHILE 3. OPORTUNITIES 4. MIF PROJECTS
Chapter 4.9: HVAC System Short type questions 1. Define tons of refrigeration?. One ton of refrigeration is the amount of cooling obtained by one ton of ice melting in one day. It is equivalent to kcal/h,
Greenhouse Gas Implications of HVAC Upgrades in Multi-Unit Residential Buildings J A NUARY 2015 INTRODUCTION This Research Report explores best practices and approaches for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG)
Smart Ideas for Your Business Energy Saving Opportunities for Hospitals Where Are Your Energy Dollars Going? 21% of hospitals do not measure/monitor energy performance Only 23% have a designated energy
Lesson 36 Selection Of Air Conditioning Systems Version 1 ME, IIT Kharagpur 1 The specific objectives of this chapter are to: 1. Introduction to thermal distribution systems and their functions (Section
Engineering Department Public Works Division August 14 th, 2014 Table of Contents 1.0 Current State of Corporate Energy Management... 3 1.1 Energy Data Management... 3 1.2 Energy Supply Management... 3
Solar Power for Metal Finishers By Helmut Hertzog of Atlantic Solar The days of cheap abundant electricity are over! This article forms part of a series of articles where we will explore the possibility
Energy Efficiency Energy Efficient Water Heating: Purchasing a new electric water heater. Water heating accounts for about 18 percent of your home energy bill. Only space heating and cooling account for
Optimization of Water - Cooled Chiller Cooling Tower Combinations by: James W. Furlong & Frank T. Morrison Baltimore Aircoil Company The warm water leaving the chilled water coils is pumped to the evaporator
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy For Schools Jesse Putzel & David Pitcher (energy conservation and solar centre) ecsc - who we are Environmental Charity involved in both energy efficiency and renewable
HOW TO CONDUCT ENERGY SAVINGS ANALYSIS IN A FACILITY VALUE ENGINEERING STUDY Benson Kwong, CVS, PE, CEM, LEED AP, CCE envergie consulting, LLC Biography Benson Kwong is an independent consultant providing
Sustainable Strategies for Rehabilitation Projects: 9th Street Office Building Adaptive Reuse Case Study Robert C. Burns, AIA, LEED AP Principal Director of Historic Architecture 804. 648. 5040, ext. 1107
This questionnaire matches the one you can use to perform an online energy audit of your business. You complete the online questionnaire, or if you prefer, you can print this form and answer the questions
Energy Practice Problems for APES ***last weeks math problems 1. The conventional gas powered 2004 Honda Civic is one of the best gas powered cars in its class for mileage. The conventional Honda Civic
HOMEOWNER STANDALONE Homeowner Information SEPTEMBER 2011 Ecodan Air Source Heat Pump and Flow Temperature Controller 2 Ecodan Air Source Heat Pump Model Number PUHZ-W50VHA(2)-BS PUHZ-W85VHA(2)-BS PUHZ-HW140VHA(2)-BS
ELECTRICITY-SAVING TIPS Use high-efficient appliances and equipments. In most factories, production equipment is the greatest contributor to electricity costs. Use Variable Speed Drive (VSD) with motors.
Chapter 3.4: HVAC & Refrigeration System Part I: Objective type questions and answers 1. One ton of refrigeration (TR) is equal to. a) Kcal/h b) 3.51 kw c) 120oo BTU/h d) all 2. The driving force for refrigeration
School: InspectionId Asset Data Inspection Type Building Assessment Survey 204-205 BROADWAY EDUCATION CAMPUS - MANHATTAN, 26 BROADWAY, MANHATTAN, NY, 0004 Time In Last Edited 255 MECHANICAL 205-05-8 09:00AM
Heat Recovery Dehumidification (HRD) system Designed for municipal swimming pools A dehumidification and ventilation system with dynamic heat pump heat recovery to swimming pool water and air ENVIRONMENTAL
Fact Sheet #6 Air Conditioning In this fact sheet you will discover: The opportunity for energy efficiency How air conditioning works Low cost actions to reduce energy usage now Investments to reduce costs
First Time Home Buyers Energy Efficiency Workshop Guide Why is efficiency important when buying a home? Affordability: lower utility bills Environmental responsibility: reduces your carbon footprint and
Applicability of Trigeneration Systems in Hotel Buildings: The North Cyprus Case M. OZDENEFE, U. ATIKOL Department of Mechanical Engineering Eastern Mediterranean University Gazimagusa, North Cyprus, Mersin
SAVE ENERGY AT HOME INSULATE AND AIR SEAL Check the roof insulation level and add insulation to maintain minimum R-38 (6 of blown cellulose or equal). Use R-19 between frame or R-10 rigid insulation for
DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY FOR ACHIEVING ENERGY SELF-SUSTAINING INDUSTRIAL AREAS Ing. Maria-Anna Segreto LAERTE Laboratory - 1 EUROPEAN DIRECTIVE 2010/31/UE It 's well known that higher
What factors determine the energy efficiency of a data centre? Where is the energy used? Local Climate Data Hall Temperatures Chiller / DX Energy Condenser / Dry Cooler / Cooling Tower Energy Pump Energy
2014/15-2016/17 ELECTRICITY EFFICIENCY PLAN PLAN OVERVIEW Prepared for the New Brunswick Department of Energy and Mines with the assistance of Dunsky Energy Consulting July 2014 This page intentionally
Roadmap for Enhancing Energy Efficiency in New Buildings Shabnam Bassi Bureau of Energy Efficiency Government of India Page 1 of 33 ENERGY CONSERVATION ACT, 2001 Energy Conservation Act, enacted in October
THE EUROPEAN GREEN BUILDING PROGRAMME Technical Module on Combined Heat and Power Contents Foreword...1 1. Introduction...2 2. Inventory of the CHP system...3 3. Assessment of technical energy saving measures...5
EUROPEAN COMMISSION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL FOR ENERGY SAVE II Programme Energy Savings by CHCP plants in the Hotel Sector Energy Audits - Cyprus May 2001 CONTENTS 1. Selection of hotels in Cyprus...2 2 Energy
2015 Demand Side Management Energy Efficiency Programs 2015 Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs Custom Natural Gas and Electric Incentive Prescriptive Natural Gas and Electric Incentive
Reduce Operating Costs through Efficiency Presented by Fort Collins Utilities Michael Authier, Energy Services Engineer Biz Ed June 13, 2012 1 Reduce Operating Costs through Efficiency Agenda Part 1: Business
New Jersey Board of Public Utilities Clean Energy Program Opportunities for Commercial, Industrial and Institutional Buildings Gary E Finger Ombudsman April 2013 NJ Clean Energy Program Background Introduced
Energy Efficiency SUPERMARKETs www.energia.ie Your chance to reduce your business energy usage by as much as 20%! 20% is a significant figure and reducing your energy bill by this amount could make a real
imagine SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING MADE EASY WHY SOLAR COOLING? Imagine...being able to fit a solar air conditioning system to your building that would result in dramatic reductions in electricity consumption
Save money, reduce energy use and earn incentives by improving the energy efficiency of your business. Georgia Power s Commercial Energy Efficiency Program makes incorporating energy-efficient improvements
Heating & Cooling Efficiency Advantages of Geothermal HVAC Efficiency Keith Swilley Gulf Power Company Why Gulf Power Promotes Energy Efficiency? Customer Satisfaction Education Help Customers Make Smart
Sea Water Heat Pump Project Alaska SeaLife Center, Seward, AK Presenter: Andy Baker, PE, YourCleanEnergy LLC Also Present is ASLC Operations Manager: Darryl Schaefermeyer ACEP Rural Energy Conference Forum
This report presents the findings and recommendations of the assessment of energy use and environmental stewardship of Arlington Street Church, Boston, MA. As stewards of the earth it is important that
DVRPC Sustainable Skylines January 31, 2011 WELCOME! We put our energy into helping you save energy and money. Today s Agenda PEeo. An Exelon Company Market Changes PECO Smart Ideas for your business PECO
Quiz Questions Section I- HVAC Distribution System 1.) What is the ideal CO2 level inside a building? a. 400-600 ppm b. 1,500-2,000 ppm c. 2,000-3,000 ppm d. 800-1,000 ppm 2.) What piece of equipment is
Boilers: Hot Water or Steam Turn Your System Green Rod Rhoads, Energy Advisor, GDS Associates Inc., an Ameren Illinois ActOnEnergy Partner Mary Bentsen, Education and Training Coordinator SAIC, an Ameren
ENERGY AUDITS (OR SURVEYS) & ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS SECTION B GOALS OF THE ENERGY AUDIT Clearly identify types and costs of energy use Understand how energy is being used--and possibly wasted Identify
Princeton University Microgrid IDEA evolvingenergy Conference Toronto, Canada 28th 30th October 2014 Edward Ted Borer, PE email@example.com Overview Campus Energy Demands Energy Plant Equipment Combined
Corporate Energy Conservation and Demand Management Plan 201,) C000ui Ontaria,Canada "Ontario's Feel Good Town' Engineering Department Public Works Division August 14th, 2014 Corporate Energy Conservation
Energy & Environmental Solutions Energy Analysis for Internal and External Window Film Applications for Existing Homes in Florida PREPARED FOR: INTERNATIONAL WINDOW FILM ASSOCIATION P.O. BOX 3871 MARTINSVILLE,
Boilers and cogeneration/trigeneration Abhi Sawant Business Development Manager Simons Green Energy HEATING - COOLING - SUSTAINABLE ENERGY ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN BOILERS, COGENERATION & TRIGENERATION Presented
KU DESIGN GUIDELINES APPENDIX XVI RECOMMENDED BAS I/O CONTROL POINTS BY EQUIPMENT / SYSTEM AIR HANDLING UNITS... 1 CHILLERS... 2 COOLING TOWERS... 2 CLOSED LOOP COOLERS... 2 MISCELLANEOUS SUPPLY FANS...
BGE Smart Energy Savers Program Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Programs December 4, 2012 USEA Global Workshop On Clean Energy Development Ruth C. Kiselewich, Director Demand Side Management Programs