Sustainable Strategies for Rehabilitation Projects: 9th Street Office Building Adaptive Reuse Case Study

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1 Sustainable Strategies for Rehabilitation Projects: 9th Street Office Building Adaptive Reuse Case Study

2 Robert C. Burns, AIA, LEED AP Principal Director of Historic Architecture , ext Commonwealth Architects 101 Shockoe Slip, Third Floor Richmond, VA Patrick MacClenahan Associate Principal Integral Group Nuckols Road, Suite 110 Glen Allen, VA

3 Sustainable Strategies / Overlaps / Opportunities For Historic Rehabilitation Projects Take advantage of the inherent nature of the project: Rehabilitating an existing structure is fundamentally green. Adaptive Reuse is the Ultimate Recycling. Restoration of historic fabric Natural Ventilation and Daylighting Insulated or storm sash windows where appropriate Eco-friendly material selection (local & renewable) Projects are often Urban Community connectivity is smart growth at its best.

4 Sustainable Strategies / Overlaps / Opportunities For Historic Rehabilitation Projects Opportunities for New Equipment and Systems Energy Efficient Modern HVAC Systems Possibility of Innovative technologies for renewable energy (solar, geothermal): Less sophisticated, Lower O&M costs Air Quality Ventilation / Circulation Monitoring of CO2 Water Conservation & Efficiency Rainwater Harvesting Cistern Graywater Reuse Reduced-Flow Plumbing Fixtures Waterless Urinals

5 Sustainable Historic Projects: Additional Project Issues The Secretary of the Interior s Standards for Rehabilitation vs. Sustainable Guidelines Flexibility required on both sides Historical Considerations Work with existing building characteristics Aesthetic Considerations New work must coexist in harmony with original LEED-NC vs. Renovations in General Designed for New Construction Not all credits will be applicable

6 Case Study 9 th Street State Office Building Richmond, Virginia PROJECT INFORMATION Original Building Constructed: 1904 / 1911 Renovation Completion Date: Projected March, 2016 Building Area: 175,892 gsf Estimated construction cost: $ 50,000,000. Owner: Commonwealth of Virginia Department of General Services Contractor: Kjellstrom + Lee Richmond, VA Projected LEED Certification Level: LEED-NC 2009 Silver Green Features: High Reflectivity Roof Materials Low Water Usage Plumbing Fixtures High Efficiency VRF Mechanical Equipment Specification of Low VOC emitting materials User controllability of Lighting Systems User controllability of Thermal Comfort Systems

7

8 9 th Street State Office Building: Building History Post Card ca. 1920

9 Hotel Richmond 1904

10 Hotel Richmond ca. 1904

11 Capitol Square 1920s

12 9 th Street Elevation

13 Ninth Street Elevation

14 Grace Street Elevation

15 Grace Street Elevation

16 Detail of Marquee and Stonework of Entrance Door

17 Detail of Two Upper Stories

18 First Floor Plan

19 Section-looking toward new entrance

20 9 th Street Office Building LEED Project Scorecard

21 Architectural Strategy: Restoration of Historic Fabric Research existing systems and building conditions Identify potential sources of water infiltration Specify materials and design repairs compatible with historic systems, BUT Consider modern materials where appropriate for improved performance Care and Craftsmanship in design and implementation

22 Architectural Strategy: Incorporation of New Building Insulation and Water / Air Barriers Perform selective demolition to determine existing building conditions and identify potential sources of air and water infiltration Determine acceptable level of resistance within historic context Consider alternative methods and materials for obtaining desired result Specify materials and design repairs compatible with historic systems, but Consider modern materials where appropriate for improved performance

23 Architectural Strategy: Replacement Windows Research historic window configurations to determine requirements Specify high quality insulated units to match historic configurations where appropriate Consider low maintenance cladding materials as replacement for painted wood units where appropriate

24 Architectural Strategy: Replacement Roof Perform selective demolition to determine full scope of existing roof removal and replacement Take advantage of the opportunity to maximize the insulation value of the new roof system Consider use of tapered insulation to correct preexisting roof drainage issues Specify light colored or coated roof membrane materials to minimize the heat island effect of the roof surface

25 Four Pipe System Central Plant Options: Central Plant in a New Dedicated Plant Structure (SKM-1, 1A and SKM-7) Advantages Provide added Space, more flexibility for future development Possible Lower operating cost Negatives Added first cost for 9th street Cooling tower location and plant access are difficult Central Plant in Basement of Existing Building (SKM-2) Advantages Keep all pertaining systems within the foot print of the 9th street building Lower first cost Negatives Very tight space, difficult access Difficulties with air intake With both options the cooling tower can be on the Roof of the 9th St Building. The existing design for each floor does not change

26 Ventilation air exhaust riser Ventilation air supply riser Fan coil unit 4 pipe riser TYPICAL FOUR PIPE SYSTEM OFFICE LAYOUT

27 Air Cooled VRF: 1 or two air cooled VRF condensing units per floor. About 20 Condensing units on roof. 4 pound of refrigerant per ton. High population spaces will require package DX units on roof and split systems for units in basement. It is difficult to locate condensing units at the lower levels. Water Cooled VRF: 2 or 3 water cooled VRF condensing units for a total of 16 ton per floor. One cooling tower on the roof. 2 pound of refrigerant per ton. High population spaces will use water cooled package condensing units or heat pumps. Floor Distribution: With either of the above options, fan coil units are wall mounted and can be incorporated in a ceiling plenum along the corridor wall.

28 Variable Flow Refrigerant Refrigerant Issues (ASHRAE 15 and IMC Chapter11): Refrigerant is considered hazardous in higher concentration. In case of system failure or leak, ASHRAE and the IMC define the concentration of refrigerant that can be safely released in the occupied space. The size of the space in which the release occur will affect the concentration. Considering that each floor is around 16 tons, the following is to be considered: Water cool system: Air cooled system: The smallest occupied room no smaller than 478 sf. The smallest occupied space no smaller than 925 sf. By providing air transfer between the spaces these limits go away. The open plenum ventilation air relief will provide sufficient transfer to eliminate the room size limit.

29 REFRIGERANT VOLUME SCHEDULE UNIT NO. CONDENSING UNIT LOCATION SPACE VOLUME *NOTE 1 (CUBIC FT) REFRIGERANT TYPE TOTAL CAPACITY (LB) SINGLE CIRCUIT CAPACITY (LB) SMALLEST VOLUME SERVED *NOTE 2 (CUBIC FT) MAXIMUM CHARGE ALLOWED (LB/1000 CF) MINIMUM VOLUME REQUIRED (CUBIC FT) REQUIRED SPACE VOLUME MET REMARKS HP B-1 ROOM B-21 3, A , YES HP B-2 UTILITY ROOM B-31 5, A , YES HP B-3 ROOM B-33 5, A , YES HP B-4 ROOM B-33 5, A , YES HP 1-1 MECHANICAL ROOM B-18 27, A , YES HP 1-2 ROOM , A , YES HP-12-1 MECHANICAL ROOM 120X 3, A , YES HP 12-2 ELEV. MACHINE RM. 10, A , YES AHU-B-1 MECHANICAL ROOM B-18 27, A , YES AHU-B-2 MECHANICAL ROOM B-09 2, A , YES AHU-2-1 MECHANICAL ROOM B-18 27, A , YES AHU-9-1 ROOF/OUTDOOR N/A 410A , YES MAU-1 ROOF/OUTDOOR N/A 410A , ,560 YES MAU-2 ROOF/OUTDOOR N/A 410A , ,920 YES VHP-0201 ROOM 209 7, A , ,216 YES VHP-0301 ROOM 309 7, A , ,064 YES VHP-0401 ROOM 409 7, A , ,064 YES VHP-0501 ROOM 509 7, A , ,064 YES VHP-0601 ROOM 609 7, A , ,064 YES VHP-0701 ROOM 709 7, A , ,064 YES VHP-0801 ROOM 810 5, A , ,064 YES VHP-0901 ROOM 901 7, A , ,216 YES VHP-1001 ROOM , A , ,216 YES VHP-1201 MECHANICAL ROOM 120X 3, A , ,216 YES HP-2-1 ROOM 209 2, A , YES HP-3-1 ROOM 309 2, A , YES HP-4-1 ROOM 409 1, A , YES HP-5-1 ROOM 509 2, A , YES HP-6-1 ROOM 609 1, A , YES HP-7-1 ROOM 709 1, A , YES HP-8-1 ROOM 810 2, A , YES HP-9-1 ROOM 901 2, A , YES HP-10-1 ROOM , A , YES NOTES: 1. VOLUME OF SPACE CONTAINING COMPRESSOR PER VCC AND VMC VOLUME OF THE SMALLEST SPACE SERVED PER VCC AND VMC

30 TYPICAL VRF OFFICE LAYOUT

31

32

33

34 23.6%

35 Water Saving Measures Use Low Flow Fixtures Toilets Pint Urinals Faucet sinks Future showers 1.6 GPF; Consider Dual Flush GPF 0.5 GPF 0.5 GPF Hot water Use heat recovery from condenser and refrigerant loop for domestic hot water. Make up water Reclaim condensate and rain water for cooling tower make up water. This will satisfy: 60% of the HVAC water

36 Summary of a Successful Project Approach For Sustainable Historic Rehabilitation Projects Take advantage of the inherent nature of the project: Rehabilitating an existing structure is fundamentally green. Building Opportunities Urban Opportunities Take advantage of new technologies where appropriate Eco-friendly material selection (local & renewable) Cost does not have to be an issue Be flexible and open minded in approach Secretary s Standards for Rehabilitation vs. Sustainable Strategies and Guidelines Remember: An integrated design approach leads to an efficient and sensible solution

37 Commonwealth Architects & Integral Group Thank You!

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