Green Development of Infrastructure and Campus: Modern Practice and Approach in District Heating and Cooling System

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1 Green Development of Infrastructure and Campus: Modern Practice and Approach in District Heating and Cooling System Hongxi Yin, Ph.D. School of Civil Engineering January 22, 2009 Page 1

2 The Impacts of Built Environment The built environment, composed of buildings and physical infrastructure, has created stress on the natural environment, as well as on human health and productivity. Buildings in the U.S. are responsible for : 71% of electricity, 39% of total energy use, 38% of carbon dioxide emissions, 12% of water consumption, 40% of non-industrial waste, and 87% of our time spent in buildings, A university campus is often an ideal application for combine heating and power or cooling heating and power (CHP or Cogeneration) because thermal loads (heating /cooling) match well with power requirements and existing district energy systems. January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 2

3 In this example of a typical CHP system, to produce 75 units of useful energy, the conventional generation systems use 154 units of energy 98 for electricity production and 56 to produce heat resulting in an overall efficiency of 49 percent. However, the CHP system needs only 100 units of energy to produce the 75 units of useful energy, resulting in a total system efficiency of 75 percent. This diagram illustrates the CO 2 emissions from power and thermal energy generation for two systems: (1) a conventional system with a fossil fuel-fired power plant and a natural gasfired boiler; and (2) a 5 megawatt natural gas turbine CHP system power. The conventional system emits a total of 49,000 tons of CO 2 per year (13 kilotons from the boiler and 36 kilotons from the power plant), while the CHP system, with its higher efficiency, emits 23,000 kilotons of CO 2 per year. Courtesy of EPA CHP Partnership January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 3

4 Cogeneration/CHP Can Make Our Campus Greener! Congregation systems increase the overall efficiency of power plants. It uses this reject heat to heat, cool, and/or dehumidifies buildings through a district energy system. Large campuses centralize heating and cooling and have large electrical loads. A common way is to size boilers for the entire campus s heating load. Large facilities may choose to oversize the boiler, enabling the use of excess steam to power a steam turbine for electrical generation or a steam-driven chiller. This steam may make the generation of electricity or cooling less expensive than conventional methods such as purchasing from the grid and using conventional electric chillers. January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 4

5 Cogeneration/CHP Can Make Our Campus Greener! CHP systems on US campuses currently provide over 967 MW of generation, with another 675 MW in planning, consideration or construction. The average campus CHP system was 15 MW in size, with a wide range, from 0.18 to 85 MW installed on campuses. In the US, with over 160 institutions in DOE census, 43 million lb/h (20 tons/h) of 150 psig steam installed heating capacity, coupled to 4.5 million linear feet (1400 km) of piping networks. Campuses have a total of 900,000 tons of cooling capacity, coupled with 1.7 million linear feet (500km) of chilled water distribution networks. Campus cooling systems often use steamdriven absorption chillers. Colleges and universities are installing CHP in response to campus load growth and a shift toward year-round operations and the growth of attendant air conditioning loads. January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 5

6 Thermally-Activated Technologies in CHP Distributed Generation Technologies Thermally-Activated Technologies 800ºF Gas-turbine Solid Oxide Fuel Cell 600ºF Triple-Effect Absorption Chiller 360ºF Double-Effect Absorption Water-Cooled Chiller Micro-turbine Commercial Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell 180ºF I.C. Engine Residential PEM Fuel Cell Single-Effect Absorption Chiller Desiccant Technology January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 6

7 Micro Scale Cascaded Energy Supply System The Intelligent Workplace Energy Supply System o o o o o o January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Renewable Energy Distributed BCHP Thermally Activated Technology (TAT) Indoor Temperature and Humidity, and CO2 Concentration Control Air Purification and Desiccant Dehumidification Web-based Control Page 7

8 Community Cogeneration Beddington Zero Energy Development (ZED) Reference: Courtesy of ARUP January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 8

9 January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 9

10 District Energy Generation Forum 2000 Barcelona Reference: Courtesy of Green Perspective, Broad Air Conditioning Co. January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 10

11 Hazelwood Almono Site Redevelopment January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 11

12 Hazelwood Redevelopment Energy Consumption 1997 US Average Household IEA Total: 121 GWh IECC 2006 Total: 65.5 GWh Heating 25% Cooling 23% Heating 15% Cooling 24% Domestic Hot Water 7% Power (Building) 26% Domestic Hot Water 6% Power (Building) 28% Building exterior lighting 5% Ventilation (Winter) 9% Ventilation (Summer) Major Streets 1% 1% Open space 1% Building exterior lighting 10% Ventilation (Winter) 15% Ventilation Major Open space (Summer) Streets 2% 1% 1% January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 12

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17 Hazelwood Energy Consumption GWh 250 Total Annual Equivalent Natural Gas Consumption EIA Data (1997) IECC 2006 Combined Heating & Power January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 17

18 Qualcomm s World Energy efficiency and demand reduction at Qualcomm are second nature. In our buildings and new construction projects our focus on energy efficiency is designed to save energy and promote environmental stewardship without impacting business operations. January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 18

19 Building Project Demolition of a portion of an existing building leaving 115,00 m 2 turned into: 38,00 m 2 of office space 12,00 m 2 data center 65,00 m 2 of lab space A new 12-story, 415,00 m 2 office building New central plant CHP system 4,388 MW significantly limiting the purchased power 4,132 Kw of cooling January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 19

20 Building Project High-efficiency lighting using low-wattage fixtures while motion light sensors and skylights were also installed. Natural light to all common spaces, including lounges, hallways and dining facilities. The building envelop included high-performance insulated glazing and photovoltaic shade canopies. CHP plant including a recuperative natural gas turbine, HRSG and high-efficiency absorption chiller. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 20

21 Qualcomm CHP Plant January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 21

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23 Solar Mercury 50 January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 23

24 Broad BE400-1,300 RT January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 24

25 CHP Plant Efficiency without hot water recovery η E = 4,388 kw net 12,895KW fuel = 34% HHV NOTE the US Electric Grid is 34% HHV According to the Energy Information Agency η O = 4,388 NET kw + 4,643 KW 12,895KW fuel = 70% HHV E E = 4,388 NET kw 12,895KW fuel 3,517KW fuel absorber = 47% HHV January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 25

26 CHP Plant Efficiency with hot water recovery η E = 4,388 kw net 12,895KW fuel = 34% HHV NOTE the US Electric Grid is 34% HHV According to the Energy Information Agency η O = 4,388 NET kw + 4,643 KW + 3,515KW 12,895KW fuel = 97% HHV E E = 4,388 NET kw 12,895KW fuel 3,517KW fuel absorber 4,396KW fuel hot water = 89% HHV January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 26

27 US Electric Grid January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 27

28 Primary Energy Savings CHP vs the Grid plus Conventional Electric Chiller Primary Energy Savings 1,000KW/Year National Eastern Western ERCOT Alaska Hawaii CHP Cooling and Power 24,482 27,909 3,789 37,355 37,003 53,347 CHP Cooling Heating and Power 66,535 69,962 45,842 79,408 79,056 95,400 January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 28

29 GHG Emissions CO2e CHP Plant NERC Interconnection Grid kw + CW Grid kw + CW + HW 26,810 National 36,675 46,485 Eastern 38,212 48,022 Western 28,769 38,579 ERCOT 40,408 50,218 Alaska 37,553 47,363 Hawaii 41,946 51,755 January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 29

30 Energy Sustainability Workshop in ASME ES The Role of Combined Heating and Power (CHP) in Climate Change, July 19 January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 30

31 Our Future, Our World The honorable Al Gore encourages us to become the third generation hero in American history to fight for the Climate Crisis. A milestone project of Qualcomm Data Center January 22, 2009 Purdue University Green Building Workshop Page 31

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