Trans Fats Lessons Learned

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1 Trans Fats Lessons Learned Karen Omichinski, B.H.Ec.,., RD, CDE North Eastman Health Association CDEN Workshop February 9, 2007 Trans Fats: Outline Chemistry History Health Risks of Industrial Trans Fats Canada s s Trans Fat Task Force Options for Replacements

2 Chemistry of Fatty acids E Fats are large shaped molecules Backbone is derived from glycerol Fatty acid molecules connected to the backbone Fatty acid molecules made up of Carbon atoms, each with attached hydrogen atoms Carbon atoms form 4 bonds with other atoms Hydrogen atoms bond with only 1 other atom

3 Diagram of Saturated Fat Reference: Cis-unsaturated fatty acid Reference:

4 Trans-unsaturated fatty acid Reference: Natural Trans Fats: Unsaturated fats in plants eaten by ruminant animals (cows, sheep, goats) undergo biohydrogenation via bacteria found in the gut. The natural process is aided by bacterial enzymes at normal body temperature in these animals.

5 Natural Trans Fats Make Make up 10 percent of all TFAs Have Have not been shown to increase risk of heart disease May May have beneficial health effects Industrial Trans Fats Formed when a liquid vegetable oil is converted into a solid through the chemical process of partial hydrogenation. This occurs under large pressure at very high temperatures with a catalyst.

6 * 90 Percent of all trans fats are manufactured Solid at room temperature Extended shelf life stable Not required for health History of Industrial Trans Fats 1902 Patent provided to German Chemist Wilhelm Normann who showed that liquid oils could be hydrogenated. 1909, Procter and Gamble acquired the US rights of the patent 1911 first hydrogenated shortening sold Crisco was made mostly of cottonseed oil - free cookbooks ensured its success Whale oil could be used now

7 History continued Use of Trans fats increased as animal fat use decreased Guidelines in the 70 s s and early 80 s indicated that trans fats were neutral or beneficial in their influence on blood lipids Nurses Health Study Results Nurses Health Study studied over Nurses over 14 years 1976 NHS and 1989 NHS2 Among the largest prospective investigations into the risk factors for major chronic disease in women.

8 Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Nurses Health Study 1 Gram of TFA per day translates into an 18 Percent Increased Risk of CVD ** Industrial Trans Fats are hazardous to health. Increase: LDL-Cholesterol Total Cholesterol Decrease: HDL-Cholesterol

9 Canadians have the Largest intake of Trans Fats in the WORLD!! Average intake of Canadian adults is 8.4 grams per day; some people can take in up to 20 or 40 grams per day.

10 The highest intake of trans fats in Canada is the year old age group with a documented intake of 12 grams/ male/day 7 grams/female/day Ref:Ratnayake WHN,Chen ZY R Przybylski and BE McDonald (eds). AOCS Press, Champaign, IL; ch 3: What Does This Mean for the Average Year Old? 12 Grams Trans Fats equals an increased risk of CVD of 216%. (males) 7 Grams of Trans Fats equals an increased risk of CVD of 126% (females)

11 Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Nurses Health Study found that a higher intake of saturated fat did not increase the risk of Type 2 Diabetes. But, an intake of 1 gram of trans fat gave an 8 % increased risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes! What Does This Mean for the Average Year Old? 12 Grams Trans Fats equals an increased risk of Type 2 Diabetes of 96% % (males) 7 Grams of Trans Fats equals an increased risk of Type 2 Diabetes of 56% 5 (females)

12 Typical Trans Fat Content of Common Fast Foods A & W Chubby Chicken Burger Donut, glazed and cream filled Shortening Margarine, hydrogenated soybean oil Butter Chocolate Chip Cookies McDonalds Hamburger Happy Meal Small Fries, Apple Juice Box (6.75 fl oz) Ref:Satchithanandan,S et al.2004 Lipids39: Grams Trans Fat 1 6 Grams Trans Fat Grams Trans Fat 1.7 Grams Trans Fat 0.3 Grams Trans Fat 1.4 Grams Trans Fat 4 Grams Trans Fat 1 Tbsp 2 tsp. 2 tsp. 2 Cookies 600 Calories, 22 grams of fat, 6 grams saturated fat Trans Fat Intake of Infants: This is Due to Mothers Diets!! One of Largest sources in food supply is Breast Milk! If you stop trans in the diet for 1 week, trans fat in breast milk is gone! Ref: Dr. Bruce Holub, Oct 2006 CDA/CSEM Professional Conference

13 What is Being Done in Canada about Trans Fats? 1980 Report which encouraged the reduction of trans fats report evidence based information still not acted on to decrease trans fats. October 2004 Pat Martin Private members bill recommended ban on trans fat. World Wide Response to Trans Fats Issues 2003 World Health Organization - recommended that Trans fat intake be limited to <1% of overall energy intake 2003 Denmark first country to set an upper limit on the % of individual products maximum of 2% of total fat in each food item 2005 Canada 1 st country to regulate the mandatory labeling of trans fats on prepackaged foods USA introduced mandatory declaration of Trans fats in foods containing 0.5 g or more per serving.

14 Canada s Trans Fat Task Force (spring 2005) -Recommendations: Limit set at 2% of total fat content for all vegetable oils and soft, spreadable tub margarines sold at retail. For all other foods purchased by a retail or food service establishment for sale to consumers or for use as an ingredient in the preparation of foods on-site, the Trans Fat Task Force recommends that: Other foods sold at limit set at 5% of total fat content. Limit does not apply to food products for which the fat originates exclusively form ruminant meat or dairy products. Trans Fat Free Claims In order to carry a Trans Fat Free claim, a food must contain Less than 0.2 grams of trans fat; and 2 grams or less of saturated fats and trans fats combined (15% or less energy from the sum of saturated fats and trans fats).

15 Task Force Recommendations: Changes should be implemented at a pace that reflects the challenges of the food industry. Regulations be developed within two years Finalized by 2008 Up to two years for implementation Urge all industries to use healthiest oils Urge research and help food industry to communicate changes to consumers Reference: Health Canada, Food and Nutrition, TRANSforming the Food Supply, These Recommendations will: Improve the Health of Canadians Reduce the of intake of trans fats to 1 % of total calories (WHO level) Provide an approach that is feasible with nutrition labeling laws Promote development of alternatives to trans fats

16 Healthier Alternatives Many alternatives to TFA s exist: Soybean, Cottonseed, Sunflower Canola Rice Bran Oil Blends of Healthy Oils Novel Emulsion - 40% Water, 60% Fat, and Monoglyceride. U of Guelph-Personal conversation with Fractec company, January Healthy Alternatives Undesirable to have Saturated fats replacing Trans Fats. ** Important that the decrease in Trans Fats lead to initiatives that promote healthier choices- more vegetables and fruits!

17 Who is Affected by this change? Government Health Departments Growers of Oil Seeds and Processors Food manufacturing industry Food Service Industry Consumers availability, labeling, costs of changing recipes, health Summary All of Us are Affected Goal is to improve Health of All Canadians We are not alone in this quest! This Step is Huge/Critical/Vital/of Extreme Importance/Significant and Health-Forward!

18 The Key is: Awareness

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