The Interface between the NLP and DM modules in OVIS3

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1 The Interface between the NLP and DM modules in OVIS3 Gert Veldhuijzen van Zanten May 27, 1999 Introduction Within the NWO priority programme on Language and Speech Technology a number of demonstrator systems are being developed. This document describes the interface between the natural language processing module and the dialogue module in the OVIS3 demonstrator, the successor of OVIS2. As in OVIS2, the natural language processing modules send update expressions to the dialogue module. These update expressions represent the meaning of user utterances as the intentions of the user to change the mental state of the system. The updates for OVIS2 are formulated in the update language that was described in TST document #24 Semantics of Update Expressions (Veldhuijzen van Zanten 1995). For the new version of the system, OVIS3, we revised the update language. This is because in the larger domain of OVIS3 some additional expressions are needed to represent different kinds of tickets and their prices. Furthermore, from our Speech Recognizer Language Processor ISDN line Controller Dialogue Manager Database Figure 1: OVIS3 architecture Speech Synthesizer Language Generator experience with OVIS2 we have learned that particular properties of the update formalism were hardly used, and some others were missing. In particular, the focus brackets for assertions, confirmations and corrections could not be placed accurately without the use of prosody or contextual information. Neither of which is available to the NLP modules at present. This means that extensive robustness algorithms had to be built into the dialogue module that would deal with incorrectly placed focus brackets. In the revised update language, the topic-focus distinction will be simplified. 1 Architecture Figure 1 shows the architecture of the OVIS3 demonstrator. The whole system is controlled by a controller module. This module also manages the interface to the ISDN telephone line. The input from that line is passed on to a speech recognizer. The speech recognizer generates a word graph that is passed on to the natural language processor. The natural language processor disambiguates the word graph and generates an update expression that is passed on to the dialogue manager. The dialogue manager governs the behavior of the dialogue system. It maintains an information state, which records the progress that is made during the dialogue and it determines which actions are appropriate depending on the status of information in the information state. When appropriate speech acts have been determined, the language generator attempts to generate a natural language utterance that expresses these acts. It reports back to the dialogue manager which acts have actually been expressed and passes a prosodically annotated natural language utterance onto the speech recognizer. The speech recognizer produces speech, and sends it to the controller, who passes it on to the ISDN line. In this document, we will focus on the interface between the natural language processor and the dialogue manager. The update expressions contain instructions for changing information state that is maintained by the dialogue manager. The information state for OVIS3 is different from the one used in OVIS2. In OVIS2, we

2 used sets of objects with relations. In OVIS3, we use slots that can have values. In the domain of OVIS3, we have slots for origin and destination stations, dates and times, etc. Values for these slots are the actual stations, dates and times. E.g. Amsterdam CS, November 16, Slots are part of a hierarchical structure. At the top of the hierarchy, we have the main slot. The values of the main slot represent a possible world. 2 Information States The semantics of an update expression is defined as a change of the information state. In OVIS2, the information state consists of a set of objects and relations between them. A pair of objects serves as a slot, and the relationship served as a value for that slot. In OVIS3, we use a fixed set of slots, and a number of constants can serve as values for these slots. The slots form a hierarchy, in the sense that we have sub- and super-slots, and the value of a slot depends on the values of its sub-slots and vice versa. For instance, a date slot may have sub-slots for the year, the month and the day. Given the values for the sub-slots 1999, june and 28, respectively, the value for the date super-slot will be 6/28/1999. Thus, the between slots have a functional interpretation. As in year (6/28/1999) = 1999 month(6/28/1999) = june day(6/28/1999) = 28 In OVIS3, the information state consists of a number of propositions and issues with associated grounding status. A proposition is a statement about the value of a slot. There are two kinds of propositions. Both involve a slot and a value. The positive proposition [s=v] states that slot s has a value v, and the negative proposition [s v] states that slot s does not have the value v. Slots for which no proposition is given can have any value. Issues describe what is under discussion. Typically, issues are raised by questions. There are five forms of issues. An open issue [s?] asks what the value of s is. An alternatives issue [s?v 1...v n ] asks which of the values v 1 through v n is the value of s. A yes/no issue [s?v] asks whether v is the value of s. A verification issue [s?+v] verifies if the dialogue partner intends to convey that v is the value of s. And finally, a check issue [s?!v] checks whether the dialogue partner literally said that v is the value of s. Issues are important to determine the semantics of updates that contain underspecifications or anaphora, and for the updates yes, no, neither, both and okay. 3 Update expressions Update expressions consist of paths, communicative functions, and values. The paths determine which slots are updated, and the communicative functions determine the kind of update. We will first describe the syntax of update expressions, and explain their semantics. The grammar for update expressions is given in Figure 2. Compared to OVIS2 the following should be noted; Focus brackets are omitted, and the scope of communicative functions always runs down to the value level. Communicative functions are denoted differently, using :=, +=,!= and # for assertion, confirmation, correction and denial, respectively. update ::= update ; ; update path yes no both neither okay sorry hello goodbye error message path ::= commfunc value path2 path2 ::= feature. path2 [feature commfunc] value ( path ; ; path value ::= ( value ; ; value ) feature. value identifier integer feature ::= identifier commfunc ::= :=!= += # message ::= not_understood nothing_recorded Figure 2: Update Grammar

3 The communicative function for answering has been deleted. Use assertions instead. Update expressions without communicative functions are still allowed. Their semantics is similar to assertions. Conjunctions can no longer be extended to the right using a dot anymore. Thus, an update like (origin; destination).town := amsterdam is not allowed. Anaphors are added. The dialogue manager will generate alternatives questions. An alternative question is a question like Do you want information about the return trip or about the price?, in which several alternative answers are suggested. Because alternatives are not necessarily mutually exclusive, possible answers are both and also neither. Here, both means that all given alternatives are accepted, and neither means that none of the alternatives is accepted. Paths may contain values that are not an argument of a communicative function. Such paths are called references. The typical use of a reference is in cases where the user refers to an already grounded item. For instance, Ik wil om tien uur in Amsterdam aankomen, while Amsterdam is already grounded, would be translated as user.wants.arrival.(town.amsterdam; time := hour.10) References will be treated by the dialogue manager, however, as uncertain communicative functions, so when the referenced information is not grounded in the information state, then it will be asserted. As a new feature in OVIS3 updates, we have added a special kind of references, called anaphora. Anaphora are denoted and are used to refer to unnamed values. For instance, Ik wil daar om tien uur aankomen may be translated as time := hour.10 The semantics of update expressions is defined in terms of dialogue acts. A list of dialogue acts and corresponding typical forms of update expressions is shown in Figure 3. The communicative functions that appear in update expressions determine the dialogue acts. A dialogue acts operates on a slot that is determined by the path expression that leads to the communicative function, and the value expression behind the communicative function is the operand of the dialogue act. Assertion Confirmation Correction s := v s += v s!= v Denial s # (p 1 ; ; p n ) Reference Anaphor Boolean confirmation Boolean denial Accept all alternatives Deny all alternatives Handshaking Greeting Closing Apology Error Figure 3: Dialogue acts s. v Yes The semantics of value expressions is a set of values. This set contains all values that are consistent with the expression. For simple values, such as integers and constants like monday, the semantics is a singleton set containing the value that corresponds to the integer or constant. For more complex value expressions we have the following [[ f.v ]] = { v f (v ) [[ v]] } [[ ( v 1 ;... ; v n )]] = [[ v 1 ]]... [[ v n ]] [[ c]] = { c } where f is the function that corresponds to the feature f, and c is the value that corresponds to the constant c. For example, we note that [[ hour.19]] = { 19:m m {0,...,59} } [[ minute.30]] = { h:30 h {0,...,23} } [[ hour.19;minute.30]] = { 19:30 } The semantics of an update expression is an set of information state changes. We use a set, because update expressions may be ambiguous, and each element in the set represents one interpretation. For the specification, we define a semantic function, that returns a set of No Both Neither Okay Hello Goodbye Sorry Error m p: linear path ::= s. v s: slot ::= f 1.. f n v: value f: feature

4 pairs, whose first element is a slot and the second element is the information state change. The first element is needed for the semantics of parts of update expressions. For complete update expressions the fist element is ignored. The simplest update expressions consist of a communicative function and a value. They correspond to the basic information state changes assert, confirm, correct and deny that will be defined in section.... [[ :=v]] = {(s, Assert (s, [[ v]] )) s slots [[ v]] } [[ :+v]] = {(s, Confirm (s, [[ v]] )) s slots [[ v]] } [[ :!v]] = {(s, Correct (s, [[ v]] )) s slots [[ v]] } [[ #v]] = {(s, Deny (s, [[ v]] )) s slots [[ v]] } where the function slots returns the set of slots that are appropriate for storing the values in its argument. More complex update expressions contain paths. Each path leads to a slot that serves as the locus of change for the dialogue act. The communicative function and the value determine which kind of change is to be applied. A path expression can be seen as a roadmap through the slot hierarchy. Each feature describes the next road to take. The paths, however, may be incomplete and underspecify the slots. Therefore, update expressions may ambiguously refer to several slots. As in OVIS2, we make sure that this ambiguity is kept within limits by requiring that the type of a conjuction is chosen as low as possible. [[f.p]] = { (s,a) (s,a) [[p]], f(s )=s } [[ p 1 ;...; p n ]] = { (s 0, a 1 ;...; a n ) (s i, a i ) [[p i ]], s 0 s 1... s n } Here, a 1 ;...; a n means that the information state changes a 1 through a n are to be applied in sequence. Thus, we have that f ; g (x) = g( f (x)) The meet operator determines a set of slots that are super-slot of both arguments, and that are of a type that is the lowest super-type of the type of the arguments. This set is empty for slots that are too far apart. For instance, while departure.moment.time.hour arrival.moment.time.minute = arrival.moment.time.hour arrival.moment.time.minute = { arrival.moment.time } Anaphora and referring expressions don t change the information state, but they do affect where updates take place. Anaphora and referring expressions refer to information that is already in the information state. We model this information rather loosely as a set of topics. The maintenance of the topic set is the responsibility of the dialogue manager and will not be described in this document. We will assume that the reader has some intuitive notion of what slots are accessible for anaphora and which are not. = { (s, I) s topics } [[v]] = { (s, I) s topics slots( [[v]]) } The semantics of anaphora and referring expressions depends heavily on the meet operation that was introduced for the semantics of conjunctions. We have expressed the semantics of update expressions in terms of basic dialogue acts assert, confirm, correct and deny. We will now define these basic dialogue acts. Each act takes a slot and a set of values as arguments. In principle, the meaning of the dialogue acts could be defined as follows. Assert (s,v) The information that the value of s is an element of V is added to the information state. Confirm (s,v) If the information that the value of s is an element of V is in the information state, then it is grounded, otherwise it is added. Correct (s,v) The information that the value of s is an element of V is added to the information state, while any information that is inconsistent with it is removed. Deny (s,v) The information that the value of s is not an element of V is added to the information state. Unfortunately, the information state can only store information in terms of propositions. I.e. slots can only have one value and we cannot store the information that the value of s is an element of V for sets V other than singleton sets or their inverses. We can, however, construct sets of propositions that approximate the same information, by referring to sub-slots. props (s, V) = case V of : {v}: {[s=v]} V: {props (f(s), {f(v) v V} ) f F such that f(s) is defined } The function props takes a slot and a set of values, and returns a set of propositions, that approximates the information that the value of the slot should be one of the values in the set. The approximation does not cause

5 problems, because for value sets that occur as the semantics of an update expression, the approximation is exact. We can now define the semantics of dialogue acts as follows. Assert (s,v) Add propositions props(s,v) to the information state. Confirm (s,v) Ground the propositions in props(s,v) that are already present, and add the other ones. Correct (s,v) Add propositions props(s,v) to the information state, while any information Deny (s,v) that is inconsistent with it is removed. If props(s,v) is a singleton set {v}, then add the proposition [s v]. Otherwise, remove the propositions from the information state, and put them up for questioning by the dialogue manager. Besides update expressions that paths, consist of communicative functions and values, there are also the atomic update expressions, such as yes and no. The semantics of these is defined as follows. Yes No Both Neither Okay Add the proposition [s=v] for any issue [s?v] or [s?+v] in the information state. If there is only one issue of the form [s?v] or [s?+v] then add the proposition [s v]. Otherwise, remove all propositions [s=v] such that [s?v] or [s?+v] is an issue in the information state. Add propositions [s=v i ] for any issue [s?v 1,...,v n ] in the information state Remove propositions [s=v i ] for any issue [s?v 1,...,v n ] in the information state. Same as yes. A consequence of the way that we have defined the semantics of update expressions, is that most of the communicative functions distribute over the ;-operator. Therefore, it is possible to transform paths into a sequence of basic paths of the form basic_path ::= slot comm_func basic_value slot ::= feature.. feature For example, the update the_route.moment.date := (month.november; day.25) is semantically equivalent to the_route.moment.date.month := november; the_route.moment.date.day := 2 The only communicative function that does not distribute over the ;-operator, and for which this transformation is therefore not possible, is the denial (#). For instance, the update the_route.moment.date # (month.november; day.25) does not mean the same as the_route.moment.date.month # november; the_route.moment.date.day # 25 The latter is too strong; it says that neither is the month November nor is the day the 25 th, while the latter says that at least one of the two is not the case. 4 Variants In OVIS2, we allowed update expressions such as user.wants.info.the_route in which no value occurs. These were not very useful in OVIS2 because there was only one kind of information that the system could supply. However, in OVIS3, something similar could be useful. We would like to have update expressions such as. user.wants.info := the_route or user.wants.info := the_price However, we also want to have updates like the following. user.wants.info.the_route.origin := amsterdam Thus, the identifier the_route serves a dual role, as a feature and as a value. To allow this we introduce socalled variants. Variants are represented by identifiers that can serve both as and as values. They serve a similar role as cases in PASCAL-like variant record structures. An update expression like user.wants.info := the_route sets the variant to the_route, and therefore disables all slots below other variants (such as the_price ). An update such as user.wants.info.the_route.origin := amsterdam implicitly sets the variant. To deal with the semantics of variants, we add a feature named variant in the appropriate position, and the dialogue manager uses an internal dialog act called presupposition. For such up-

6 dates, the dialogue manager adds a presupposition dialogue act. user.wants.info.variant %= the_route The semantics of presuppositions are very similar to those of assertions, except that they apply only to variants and they are less easily overruled by contradicting information. update_alt ::= confidence update path_alt ::= confidence path value_alt ::= confidence value confidence ::= <. {digit}* > An example of an update with confidence measures is. user.wants.place := {<.31> weesp <.22> beesd} 5 Ambiguities The NLP modules will try to disambiguate the word graph as much as possible, but should not attempt to remove all ambiguities, because the dialogue manager may have information that would yield certain alternative interpretations as invalid. For example, when an explicit verification was disconfirmed. In such cases, we should select a second or third best alternative. This is particularly useful in cases where two or more words are hard to distinguish acoustically. For this purpose, we allow alternatives interpretations in the update expressions. The update grammar will be extended by the following rules. update ::= { update_alt update_alt } update_alt ::= update path ::= { path_alt path_alt } path_alt ::= path value ::= { value_alt value_alt } value_alt ::= value This way, we can have updates of the following form. user.wants.place := {weesp beesd} The most likely alternative should be listed first. 6 Confidence Measures In order to decide whether to generate an explicit verification, or to just give feedback, the dialogue manager needs some form of confidence measures. In the first version of OVIS3 these measures will not be used, and the DM will generate explicit verification questions for all newly acquired information. We foresee, however, that the user-friendliness of the system could be enhanced if confidence measures were used. Therefore, we propose to add syntactic means for adding confidence measures in update expressions. 7 Annotations In OVIS2 we added annotation to the update expressions, that showed which words the user used to express parts of the update. It is yet unclear whether the language generator will make user of such annotations. However, they may be added using the following syntactic constructs. update ::= update annotation path ::= path annotation value ::= value annotation annotation ::= " word word " 8 The Domain Specification The dialogue module of the OVIS3 system is parameterized by a domain specification. This specification determines which slots and values are present in the domain, and what their semantics is. Every slot and value is associated with a type. In this document, we will not discuss the specification of the semantics, but only give the type declarations, for as far as they are relevant for the interface between the NLP and DM modules Type declarations Part of the frame specification consists of a list of type declarations. Each type declaration consists of a type name and a body. In the body, six different sections can occur: a -section, a -section, a variantssection, a relations-section, a values-section, a refssection (and a semantics-section, which will not be discussed in the document). Type declarations determine which slots occur, what the relations between slots are and what values each slot can contain. The simplest kinds of type declarations simply list the values that can be assigned to a slot of the declared

7 type. For instance, a DayOfWeek type is declared as follows. DayOfWeek = { values monday, tuesday, wednesday, thursday, friday, saturday, sunday } Slots of type DayOfWeek can hold either of the days of the week as a value. Other types of slots have more structured imposed on their values. These slots have sub-slots that are accessed via are accessed via, or variants. For instance, the Date type is declared as follows. Date = { year: Year, month: Month, day: Day week: Week, day_of_week: DayOfWeek, kind_of_day: KindOfDay refs today, tomorrow, day_after_tomorrow } The Date type has, and referents. Keys are special kinds of. The difference between and is a pragmatic one and can, for the purpose of this document, be ignored. For the Date type, no values are specified, but there are some referents. A referent is similar to a value, except that values are mutually exclusive, while referents do not exclude values from being assigned to a slot. So, when a date slot contains the referent tomorrow, it does not exclude a date value constructed from the year 1998, the month november and the day 24. This is particularly useful on November 23 rd, Also, when a slot contains a referent, the slot is not necessarily considered known Variants Some types have variants. For instance, the Info type is declared as Info = { variants the_route: Connection the_price: Ticket, the_return_trip: Connection } This means that the info slot has three sub-slots, of which only one can be active at a time. The active one is stored in a separate slot that is automatically added as if declared as follows. Info = { variants the_route: Connection the_price: Ticket, the_return_trip: Connection variant: InfoVariant } InfoVariant = { values the_route, the_price, the_return_trip } 8.3. Relations The informational state of the dialogue is expressed as constraints on the slots. The user, for instance, will constrain a connection slot, by supplying values for some of its sub-slots, e.g. origin, destination, date and arrival time. The effect of this is that a set of connection values will be limited to the appropriate set of hypothetical connections. The system can then apply its knowledge about real train connections, and tell the user about them. Almost all constraints can be expressed in terms of values that are associated to subslots, but not all. For instance, a constraint like a co n- nection that arrives before 10 o clock cannot be expressed in such a way, because there is no functional relation between a connection and the time before which it arrives. For this purpose, we define reference slots. Reference slots exist purely for the purpose of constraining other slots. The constraint is defined by a relation between the slot and a reference slot. Relations are defined in the relations-section of a type declaration. We assume that the reference slot is of the same type as the slot that is being constrained. Therefore, no type needs to be specified for a relation. Moment = { date: Date, time: Time refs now relations after, before } Relations can occur in updates in the same way as (and ) can. Their omission, however, will never be interpreted as underspecification of the relation. Thus, the update user.wants.info.the_route.moment := now will mean that the moment is now, and not after or before now. Ik wil voor vijf uur aankomen can be translated as user.wants.arrival.before.clock_hour.5

8 8.4. Selectors An example of other kind of constraint that cannot be described in terms of, is the following: Ik wil de snelste verbinding ( I want to know the fastest connection). This constraint is relative to a set of connections, it selects a connection based on a comparison with the other connections that satisfy the constrained mentioned so far. For this purpose, we have added selectors to the slot structure. Connection = { trajectory: Trajectory, moment: Moment, mom_ref: Reference departure: Event, arrival: Event, repeat: Bool selectors earlier, later, fastest, least_changes, first, last } The effect is that a kind of feature named selector is added whose value can be one of the selectors. Thus, an update the_route.selector := least_changes becomes possible. Selectors are mainly used in the navigation phase after a train connection has been given, but they can also be used in the slot filling phase, e.g. Ik wil met de eerste trein na negen uur user.wants.(means.train; after.clock_hour.9; selector.first)

9 9 Appendix A: the frame specification TYPES World = { user: User } User = { wants: set of Want, is: Place, status: UserStatus } UserStatus = { values ok, confused } Want = { variants info: Info, repeat: Repeat, more, quit } Repeat = { values connection, price, last_utterance } Info = { variants the_route: Connection the_price: Ticket, the_return_trip: Connection } Ticket = { trajectory: Trajectory, kind: TicketKind repeat: Bool } TicketKind = { class: Class, fare: Fare, sort: TicketSort } Class = { values first_class, second_class } Fare = { values normal, reduction } TicketSort = { values one_way, return, weekend_return } Connection = { trajectory: Trajectory, moment: Moment, mom_ref: Reference departure: Event, arrival: Event, repeat: Bool selectors earlier, later, fastest, least_changes, first, last } Trajectory = { origin: Place, destination: Place means: MeansOfTransport } Reference = { values depart, arrive } MeansOfTransport = { values train, bus, tram, metro } Event = { place: Place, moment: Moment } Place = { town: Town, suffix: Suffix values from Stations (column 1) } Town = { values from Stations (column 2), // Plus some towns that have no train station drachten, dronten, emmeloord, kaatsheuvel, nes, oosterhout, schiermonnikoog, spijkenisse, stadskanaal, terschelling, uden, uithoorn, veendam, zierikzee } Suffix = { values from Stations (column 3), // Plus some suffixes that are used to refer to // non-existent train stations arena, busstation, capelsebrug, efteling, kralingse_zoom, leidscheplein, marconiplein, markt, marnixstraat, metro_centrum, van_knobelsdorfplein, zuidplein } Moment = { date: Date, time: Time in: Interval refs now relations after, before }

10 Date = { year: Year, month: Month, day: Day week: Week, day_of_week: DayOfWeek, kind_of_day: KindOfDay, special: SpecialDate refs today, tomorrow, day_after_tomorrow, same } SpecialDate = { celebration: Celebration, rank: Rank } Celebration = { values easter, ascention, pentecost, sinterklaas, christmas } Rank = { values first, second } Year = { refs next values } Month = { refs next values january, february, march, april, may, june, july, august, september, october, november, december } MinutesInterval = ( values } Time = { hour: Hour, minute: Minute refs currtime } Hour = { clock_hour: ClockHour, ampm: AmPm part_of_day: PartOfDay values } AmPm = { values am, pm } PartOfDay = { values night, morning, afternoon, evening } ClockHour = { values } Hour = { values } Minute = { values } Bool = { values true, false } Day = { refs next values } Week = { refs next values } DayOfWeek = { values monday, tuesday, wednesday, thursday, friday, saturday, sunday } KindOfDay = { values weekend, weekdays } Interval = { months: MonthsInterval, weeks: WeeksInterval, days: DaysInterval, hours: HoursInterval, minutes: MinutesInterval } MonthsInterval = { values } WeeksInterval = { values } DaysInterval = { values } HoursInterval = { values }

11 Stations (Place, Town, Suffix) { (a, aachen, no_suffix), (atn, aalten, no_suffix), (ac, abcoude, no_suffix), (akm, akkrum, no_suffix), (amr, alkmaar, no_suffix), (amrn, alkmaar, noord), (aml, almelo, no_suffix), (amri, almelo, de_riet), (alm, almere, cs), (alm, almere, no_suffix), (almb, almere, buiten), (almm, almere, muziekwijk), (almp, almere, parkwijk), (apn, alphen, aan_den_rijn), (amf, amersfoort, no_suffix), (amfs, amersfoort, schothorst), (asa, amsterdam, amstel), (asb, amsterdam, bijlmer), (asd, amsterdam, cs), (asdl, amsterdam, lelylaan), (asdm, amsterdam, muiderpoort), (asdv, amsterdam, de_vlugtlaan), (asdz, amsterdam, zuid_wtc), (ass, amsterdam, sloterdijk), (rai, amsterdam, rai), (ana, anna_paulowna, no_suffix), (atw, antwerpen, no_suffix), (apd, apeldoorn, no_suffix), (apg, appingedam, no_suffix), (akl, arkel, no_suffix), (arn, arnemuiden, no_suffix), (ah, arnhem, no_suffix), (ahp, arnhem, velperpoort), (ahpr, arnhem, presikhaaf), (asn, assen, no_suffix), (brn, baarn, no_suffix), (bf, baflo, no_suffix), (brd, barendrecht, no_suffix), (bnc, barneveld, centrum), (bnn, barneveld, noord), (bdm, bedum, no_suffix), (bk, beek, elsloo), (bsd, beesd, no_suffix), (bl, beilen, no_suffix), (bgn, bergen_op_zoom, no_suffix), (rdr, berkel, rodenrijs), (bet, best, no_suffix), (bv, beverwijk, no_suffix), (bhv, bilthoven, no_suffix), (bll, bloemendaal, no_suffix), (bdg, bodegraven, no_suffix), (bn, borne, no_suffix), (bsk, boskoop, no_suffix), (bkf, bovenkarspel, flora), (bkg, bovenkarspel, grootebroek), (bmr, boxmeer, no_suffix), (btl, boxtel, no_suffix), (bd, breda, no_suffix), (bdpb, breda, prinsenbeek), (bkl, breukelen, no_suffix), (bmn, brummen, no_suffix), (brusc, brussel, centraal), (brusc, brussel, no_suffix), (brusn, brussel, noord), (brusz, brussel, zuid), (bp, buitenpost, no_suffix), (bde, bunde, no_suffix), (bnk, bunnik, no_suffix), (bsmz, bussum, zuid), (cps, capelle, aan_de_ijssel), (cas, castricum, no_suffix), (cvm, chevremont, no_suffix), (co, coevorden, no_suffix), (cl, culemborg, no_suffix), (ck, cuyk, no_suffix), (da, daarlerveen, no_suffix), (dln, dalen, no_suffix), (dl, dalfsen, no_suffix), (dei, deinum, no_suffix), (ddn, delden, no_suffix), (dt, delft, cs), (dtz, delft, zuid), (dz, delfzijl, no_suffix), (dzw, delfzijl, west), (dld, den_dolder, no_suffix), (gv, den_haag, hs), (gvc, den_haag, cs), (gvc, den_haag, no_suffix), (gvm, den_haag, mariahoeve), (gvmw, den_haag, moerwijk), (laa, den_haag, laan_van_noi), (hdr, den_helder, no_suffix), (hdrz, den_helder, zuid), (dn, deurne, no_suffix), (dv, deventer, no_suffix), (dvc, deventer, colmschate), (did, didam, no_suffix), (dmn, diemen, noord), (dmnz, diemen, zuid), (dr, dieren, no_suffix), (dtc, doetinchem, no_suffix), (dtch, doetinchem, de_huet), (ddr, dordrecht, no_suffix), (ddrs, dordrecht, stadspolders), (ddzd, dordrecht, zuid), (ddr, dordt, no_suffix), (db, driebergen, zeist), (drh, driehuis, no_suffix), (drp, dronrijp, no_suffix), (dvn, duiven, no_suffix), (dvd, duivendrecht, no_suffix), (dussel, duseldorf, no_suffix), (ec, echt, no_suffix), (ed, ede, wageningen), (edc, ede, centrum), (ehb, eindhoven, beukenlaan), (ehv, eindhoven, no_suffix), (est, elst, no_suffix), (emn, emmen, no_suffix), (emnb, emmen, bargeres), (ekz, enkhuizen, no_suffix), (es, enschede, no_suffix), (esd, enschede, drienelo), (eml, ermelo, no_suffix), (etn, etten_leur, no_suffix),

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