1 Climate Change in Coastal Florida: Economic Impacts of Sea Level Rise
2 CLIMTE CHNGE IN COSTL FLORID: ECONOMIC IMPCTS OF SE LEVEL RISE Context Global warming is expected to cause: Sea level rise Increased frequency of major storm events These changes would lead to: Salt-water intrusion affecting drinking water supplies Higher storm surge and increased risk of flooding Erosion of beaches and barrier islands Greater property damages dverse impacts on coastal ecosystems including fisheries. Florida s economy and way of life are closely tied to its coasts. The vast majority of Floridians (80%) live or work in one of the state s 35 coastal counties most of them within ten miles of the coast. In addition, tourism is a major sector of the state economy that is also strongly linked to its coastal resources. In 2005, nearly 86 million tourists visited Florida, generating more than $63 billion in revenue (roughly 10% of Florida s economic output) and creating more than 944,000 jobs. Finally, Floridians are highly vulnerable to property losses and other adverse impacts from hurricanes. Damages from recent storms, including Hurricane Wilma in 2005, have run into the hundreds of millions and even billions of dollars. Value of Land at Risk in Three Florida Counties Using IPCC s Sea Level Rise Scenarios (in 2005$) Sea Level Rise (SLR) Scenarios a County Variable 0.16 feet 0.33 feet 0.49 feet 0.98 feet 2.13 feet Dade Value of land at risk $1.05 $1.4 $2.33 $4.81 $12.3 rea at risk b 5,486 5,861 7,903 11,627 26,467 Per-acre value $0.19 M $0.24 M $0.29 M $0.41 M $0.47 M Duval Value of land at risk $10.4 M $13.7 M $19.6 M $344 M $572 M rea at risk b 1,855 1,868 1,878 10,625 18,743 Per-acre value $5,624 $7,354 $10,462 $32,384 $30,508 Escambia Value of land at risk $126 M $136 M $148 M $194 M $499 M rea at risk b ,863 5,209 Per-acre value $0.16 M $0.15 M $0.15 M $0.10 M $95,760 a. Values calculated for years 2030 and However, the overlap between the mid-2030 scenario and the low 2080 scenario (both 0.33 ft, or 0.1 m) is redundant, and since property value changes over time are not considered, the years are not shown here. b. Unit: acres.
3 112th 87th Property at Risk of Sea Level Rise in Dade County Value of Property t-risk (billions of dollars) $14 $12 cres Inundated 30,000 25,000 $10 20,000 $8 15,000 $6 $4 10,000 $2 5,000 $ Sea-level Rise (cm) Key Findings Effect of Storm Surge and Sea Level Rise on Future Damage Costs County Hurricane Storm surge (in ft.) roward Historical damage cost SRC SLR estimates (in ft.) 1 Miami Damage cost IPCC SLR estimates (in ft.) Land in Red is at Risk Due to Sea Level Rise in Dade County Damage cost Dade Wilma 7.00 $ $ $2.9 Dixie Dennis 9.00 $0.06 M 0.90 $0.07 M 2.13 $0.08 M Duval Frances 5.90 $72.3 M 0.83 $80.15 M 2.13 $98 M Escambia Dennis $70.7 M 1.13 $84.51 M 2.13 $95M Monroe Wilma 2.76 $215.3 M 1.02 $298 M 2.13 $370 M Wakulla Dennis 9.00 $4.42 M 1.05 $5.73 M 2.13 $6.9 M 1. Sea levels will rise Estimates developed by Florida State University (FSU) suggest Florida s coasts will experience sea level rise in the range of feet by 2030 and feet by These estimates are lower than the estimates of global sea level rise generated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in The IPCC s 2001 estimates for global sea level rise are in the range of feet by 2030 and feet by The FSU estimates extrapolate from current trends in sea level rise, whereas the IPCC projections are based on modeling. oth estimates may be conservative, however. The most recent IPCC report acknowledges that rapid melting of major ice sheets, such as the Greenland ice sheet, could result in higher rates of sea level rise in the future. Miami-Dade Study rea Goulds Princeton Naranja Homestead Florida City Miami Monroe iscayne ay Miami each Miami each The sea-level risep projections for this area range from about 0.16 feet to 2.3 feet within this century, with additional increases later th 1 Goulds 248th 268th 989 tlantic Ocean Miami Old Cutler iscayne ay iscayne ay Miles 0 5 Sea Level Rise and Coastal Inundation 10 Miles one-foot rise in sea level can cause the inland movement of the shoreline by 2,000 to 10,000 feet when the land is as flat as the Florida coast.
4 $600 $500 $400 $300 $200 $100 $0 Property at Risk of Sea Level Rise in Escambia County Value of Property t-risk (millions of dollars) cres Inundated Sea-level Rise (cm) 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 Land in Red is at Risk Due to Sea Level Rise in Escambia County 2. causing more frequent storm surge events, s sea level rises, coastal Florida could expect a dramatic increase in the frequency of major storm surge events, even if hurricane intensity and frequency remain unchanged. For instance, the 7-foot high storm surge experienced in Dade County during Hurricane Wilma would under present conditions be expected to recur only once every 76 years. With a sea level rise of 1 foot, the expected frequency of a similar storm surge increases three-fold to once every 21 years. aldwin Escambia Pensacola If sea level rise exceeds 2 feet (the high end of the IPCC range for 2080), the predicted frequency of a 7-foot storm surge in Dade County increases further, to once every 5 years. Perdido ay ig Lagoon Escambia Gulf of Mexico Legend Parcels at Risk from a 25cm Sea-Level Rise; FSU (2080) Parcels at Risk from a 65cm Sea-Level Rise; IPCC ( High) Urban reas 399 Fort Pickens Escambia Santa Rosa Sound Pensacola ay Santa Rosa Miles 3. increased storm damages, s major storm surge events become more frequent, one would expect to see an increase in associated damages. Extrapolating from insurance data on damages from past storms in six coastal counties, the FSU researchers found that changes in sea level could increase damage costs associated with similar-intensity storms in the future anywhere from 10 to 40 percent depending on the extent of sea level rise assumed and other factors.
5 Wingate Land in Red is at Risk Due to Sea Level Rise in Duval County Fernandina each Cumberland Sound 105 Nassau 1 oney Cedar Point Intracoastal Waterway Miles 104 Jacksonville 295 essent 4. larger areas at risk for inundation, Duval Jacksonville each Trout River Jacksonville Soutel ecause of Florida s topography, even a modest change in sea level means a dramatic change in the area of land at risk for inundation. If sea level rise is limited to 0.16 feet (the IPCC s low case ), 5,500 acres in Dade County alone would be at risk for inundation, according to estimates developed by the FSU researchers. If, on the other hand, sea level rise is closer to 2.13 feet (the IPCC s high case ) nearly 26,500 acres in Dade County could be at risk. 5. and more property in harm s way. Combining a GIS (Geographic Information System) model with data on current property values, the FSU researchers developed estimates of the value of land susceptible to inundation under different scenarios. Their results suggest that potential property losses would increase in direct correlation to rising sea levels over time. In the low, 0.16-foot sea level rise scenario, FSU estimated that property losses in Dade County alone could total $1.05 billion (in 2005$). In the higher, 2.13-foot sea level rise scenario, estimated property losses for Dade County increase to $12.3 billion. These results, which do not account for future increases in coastal population or property values, suggest that significant property values in Florida s coastal areas could be at risk, especially if future sea level rise is in line with the high end of current projections. Orange Park Clay St Johns River St. Johns tlantic Ocean Property at Risk of Sea Level Rise in Duval County Miles Value of Property t-risk (millions of dollars) cres Inundated $700 $600 20,000 16,000 $500 $400 12,000 $300 8,000 $200 4,000 $100 $ Sea-level Rise (cm) Limitations of the nalysis Estimates of future sea level rise vary widely because there is still substantial uncertainty about this category of climate-change impact. Linking changes in sea level to future storm impacts and damages compounds these uncertainties. ecause the FSU study did not account for changes in property values over time or the likelihood that population and development along the coast would continue to grow it likely understates future impacts from sea level rise. On the other hand, the study also did not account for adaptation measures that might be undertaken by property owners to reduce losses or damages in the future. Finally, the study does not address the possibility that global warming will likely increase the intensity or severity of tlantic hurricanes all of the damage estimates are based on changes in expected storm surge due solely to sea level rise. ccounting for a likely increase in storm intensity would almost certainly push damage estimates higher, perhaps significantly.
6 This study was conducted by: Dr. Julie Harrington, Director Center for Economic Forecasting and nalysis The Florida State University Dr.Todd L.Walton, Jr., Director eaches and Shores Resource Center The Florida State University For further information about the research, contact: Dr. Julie Harrington (850) Dr.Todd Walton, Jr. (850) This study was supported by a grant from the National Commission on Energy Policy
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