1 Word Clouds - Educational Tools by Terence Cavanaugh While browsing the web you might see some tag clouds or word clouds, often they are over to the side of the page and look like bunches of words random words put near each other. These word clouds are a form of content map, with the content being the words that are found on a web page or other work. This is a visual depiction may be used describe the content of web sites usually displaying between 30 and 150 terms in the word cloud. These clouds are usually composed of single words and are typically listed alphabetically, and the importance or number of occurrences Word cloud created from the content of this article with Wordle of a word is shown with a change in font size and/or color. Amazon.com does a similar thing with a number of their books with their Concordance, theirs is composed of the 100 most frequently used words in the book in alphabetical order with larger fonts indicating that the word was used more often (to find out how many times, just leave your mouse over the word). Thus by looking at a word cloud a person can quickly identify the most used words within a book, a chapter, or other work. But what one person calls a word cloud another may call a word wall. Creating your own word clouds is actually pretty easy and can make wonderful displays related to your reading content: fiction and nonfiction. Using an online service that creates word clouds teachers, librarians, and students can create an instructional tool for their reading content. The word cloud allows instructors or students to identify key words within a written passage and use the cloud to analyze content or create a form of promotion about an upcoming book or chapter. Cloud created with TagCrowd from the first chapter from Frances Hodgson Burnett's The Secret Garden (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/17396) There are a number of online free tools that will create word clouds including Wordle, TagCrowd, ToCloud, and Tag Cloud Generator. Different tools work with different formats of input, some allowing users to paste in copied text, uploading text files, or directing to an online web page (see the table that follows).
2 Tool TagCrowd Website Cloud Input Max Words Paste text Upload file Varies with input text Link to webpage Wordle User set ToCloud User set Tag Cloud Generator Amazon Concordance Amazon.com's feature Inside This Book My favorite cloud tool is Wordle, created by Jonathan Feinberg, and is a great online service for generating word clouds from text that can be either pasted in or linked from a web page. One of the really nice things about Wordle is that it not only creates the word cloud, but it also puts an artistic slant to it create word cloud art, allowing choices for font structure and word placement design or shape of the completed word cloud. Wordle even has a randomize button to allow users to press and see different design views of their word cloud. With your word cloud created, users can edit the shape, word orientation, select from over thirty font type, choose the color pallet, and arrange the words alphabetically or not. Wordle, like a number of the other cloud creators, uses a remove list which automatically eliminates common words from the word cloud. With Wordle though, users can remove even more by selecting word in the cloud by right-clicking and then choosing the Remove option or use the ~ symbol to connect two or more words together as a phrase. Wordle input page for either pasting text or directing to a webpage.
3 Some ideas for using Word Clouds with students Text analysis - You can paste in short texts such as sample chapters or news articles that the class has been reading. Show the class the word cloud and see if they can remember what the text was about and how the words were used within the text. You can build up a bank of word clouds and use them to get students to recall the books they have studied and their vocabulary. This is especially useful for whole books that can be obtained online. Text comparison - Create word clouds from a number text genres (news article, poem, story, speech, etc.) and use the cloud to if students can identify the genre and state the clues for their decision. Another comparsion would be to have two different text segments that have some kind of relationship (such as articles or poems written on the same topic) and then compare the clouds created by each. Assessment analysis create word clouds related to the criteria associated with an assessment, such as the content in a FCAT rubric, objective descriptions. Course content create a word cloud based on the syllabus contents, the course description, or the standards met in an activity. Prediction - You can create word clouds of texts to use as a pre-reading activity. Ask students to make predictions based on the word cloud content developed from the text. Vocabulary KWL - Create a word cloud based on upcoming content and have the students evaluate what they already know about the topic by reviewing the word cloud. They could also check or discuss new words from the word cloud that they are unsure of before they read or listen. Another way to use the vocabulary concept would be to copy definitions form several sources and then create a cloud from the compiled definitions. Website Evaluation - Create a word cloud based around a topic being researched on the internet. They could also use this as a component of a KWL, as they evaluate what they already know about the topic by skimming the word cloud and the relevance placed on each word. Wordle cloud created from Shakespeare's Love Sonnet #20 from the Literature Network collection (http://www.onlineliterature.com/shakespeare/325/) Word cloud developed with ToCloud from Orwell's Animal Farm.
4 They could then use the terms to identify what they want to know more about. Test Review - Use the word cloud to review for a text or exam. Instructors or groups students could develop word clouds and then share them with the class and explain what they know. This can work especially well for texts or textbooks that have online versions, where the content can be copied and pasted into a word cloud tool. Self Analysis - Students can create word clouds based upon their own stories or writings. Speeches - Create word clouds to visualize the topical content of political speeches. If you search online you should be able to find a number of the speeches from the presidential race that have been clouded. This can be a great method for quick speech analysis on what words were used in speeches. Readability - Students could use a word cloud as an analysis tool, such as for the five finger readability test. With the standard the five-finger test, students are asked to select a page from the book to read to themselves, starting with five fingers and dropping a finger each time the student encounters a word that is hard to read. Here they could do it for the hundred most occurring words. Summary - Use the word cloud as a means of summarizing the content of an essay or other piece of work, provides a quick and useful means of telling you what the article is about. Also the visual representation of such a summary is very different than a list of bullet points (such as may be at the start of a textbook chapter). Assessment The word cloud can be used by the teacher by asking a student to create a word cloud from his/her paper/presentation, and use is as the basis for a discussion, rather than the paper/presentation itself. Survey Word clouds can provide a quick analysis tool for summarizing survey results where the survey uses free text fields. Illustration Use the word cloud to create a visual representation image as a multiple intelligence/learning styles approach Author study take sections of text from different books and combine as a study of an author s diction. Rule cloud create a word cloud based on the classroom or school rules, or the student expectations. Character/setting analysis copy sections of text that describe a character or the setting in a story or use your own sets of character/setting descriptions to develop a cloud from. Bias analysis Use news articles from several sources on the same topic and then analyze the clouds for word indicating bias. Word wall create a cloud composed of terms that want students to use during a period of time. Repeat specific words that you wish to emphasize to increase their size. The previous list is by no means all that can be done. There are a number of fun projects that could be done with a word cloud and a printer. Think about printing the word clouds in color onto overhead Wordle cloud created with the text of Little Red Riding Hood from the University of Southern Mississippi's Cinderella Project offshoot the Little Red Riding Hood Project (http://www.usm.edu/english/fairytales/lrrh/lrrh home.htm)
5 sheets for large display using a projector or even to place them up as window art. Print out the word cloud onto special shrink-plastic sheets (remember Shrinky-Dinks) and then make word cloud key chains or zipper pulls (don t forget to punch holes before baking or you will need a drill). Another fun activity would be to use iron-on transfer sheets and then make your own t- shirt based on one of your favorite books or the book that is being read in class. Most of the word cloud resources allow for direct printing of the cloud, but do not allow users to save the cloud as an image on their computer. To save the created cloud the image usually needs to be copied using a screen capture process. Using Wordle 1. Write or find some text, like a book, chapter, article, or essay. 2. Select all of the text and then copy it to the clipboard. 3. Go to Wordle (http://wordle.net). 4. Click on Create your own. 5. Paste the text. 6. Either use a screen capture program (see below) to obtain the Wordle word cloud as a graphic Or save the Wordle in the public gallery and use the code provided in your blog or web page. Steps for copying Word Cloud to print out for poster or handout: Windows: With the window displaying your word cloud being active (the bar at the top is on or the window is in front), pressing both the Alt key and the PrintScreen key (Alt-PrtScrn) places an image of into the clipboard memory. Pressing PrintScreen by itself places an image of the entire desktop on the clipboard. Then you can paste the word cloud image into image editing software, such as Paint or Photoshop Express, or you can paste it into a document, like Word. Mac: Press three keys together the Apple and Shift-4 and then use the mouse to drag a box around the cloud you want to save or use Apple and Shift-4 and then the Spacebar to capture the whole window. Once you release the mouse button you should get a screenshot image in PNG format on your desktop. Add pressing the Control key to the two shortcuts above to place the screen shot on the clipboard instead of saving it to the desktop Take some time to play with a word cloud generator and see what you can create for yourself and your students. These clouds add a new way to look at a text's content and can be a great tool for learning.
6 Short word cloud made with a Tag Cloud Generator from the nonfiction text Volcanoes from the USGS (http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/volc/text.html)
7 So, how might Wordle be used in an educational context? I would suggest the following 5 ways: As a means of summarizing the content of an essay or other piece of work. This provides a very useful means of telling you what the article is about. "What about a summary at the beginning?", you say? Well, fair enough, but not all of us think in terms of bullet points, and nor do we always need to. Wordle provides an alternative possible approach. Wordle is handy for self-reflection. One of the hazards of essay writing is that students can get carried away, and go off the point completely, or contradict themselves. In the same way, Wordle can be used by the teacher as a means of assessment. Ask a pupil to create a Wordle of her presentation, and use that as the basis for a discussion, rather than the presentation itself. The beauty of this approach is that you don't get bogged down in the minutiae, and end up losing sight of the forest through concentrating on the trees. Wordle is also good for summarizing survey results where the survey uses free text fields. illustrate one's work with a picture of some kind, and a Wordle is just as good a way as any to break up the text a bit! multiple intelligence More ideas and images at: true
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