Security and Integrity of a Distributed File Storage in a Virtual Environment

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1 Security and Integrity of a Distributed File Storage in a Virtual Environment Gaspare Sala 1 Daniele Sgandurra 1 Fabrizio Baiardi 2 1 Department of Computer Science, University of Pisa, Italy 2 Polo G. Marconi - La Spezia, University of Pisa, Italy SISW Workskop, /23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

2 Outline 1 Introduction Secure File Sharing Requirements 2 Proposed Solution: VSFS Overall Architecture Threat Model Implementation 3 Evaluation Performance 4 Conclusion Results and Future Works 2/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

3 Secure File Sharing Applications with Distinct Trust Levels Secure file sharing among applications with distinct trust levels: Web Services. P2P applications. Users share their data only if they receive some assurance about the: Description Enforcement of the security policy that controls the sharing. 3/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

4 Requirements MAC/MLS Policies To enable secure file sharing, we need an architecture that: Describes and enforces in a centralized way a security policy to handle file requests. Forces users to respect their roles when accessing files. Supports a large set of MAC or DAC policies. 4/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

5 Requirements Distributed File System Client-server architecture to implement a distributed file system. Exports to the clients one or more directories of the shared file system. Applications access transparently remote shared files. Limitations of current solutions: untrusted client user credentials. 5/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

6 Overall Architecture Virtualization Technology Software emulation of the hardware architecture: Virtual Machines (VMs). Benefits: 1 Confinement among the VMs. 2 Server consolidation: better resource utilization. 3 Centralized management: easier administration. Widespread usage. 6/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

7 Overall Architecture Type I/II VMM 7/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

8 Overall Architecture Virtual environment Secure File System We propose a software architecture for secure file sharing composed of: A network of multiple interconnected virtual machines. Three disjoint sets of VMs: 1 Application-VMs (APP-VMs): each APP-VM runs some application processes. 2 File System-VMs (FS-VMs): export file systems shared among the application processes. 3 Administrative-VMs (A-VMs): one for each node, to set up and manage VMs for assurance, routing and administrative tasks. 8/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

9 Overall Architecture Architecture 9/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

10 Overall Architecture Application VMs (APP-VMs) Run application processes. Are labeled with a security context. 10/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

11 Overall Architecture File System VMs (FS-VMs) Export file systems. Implement MAC policies to control file sharing. 11/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

12 Overall Architecture Administrative VMs (A-VMs) Protect FS-VM integrity against attacks. Implement anti-spoofing techniques to authenticate each file request before routing it. 12/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

13 Threat Model Threat Model VMMs and A-VMs belong to the Trusted Computing Base. A malicious application may attacks other ones through shared files. Invalidate data integrity. Contamination through viruses. APP-VMs are untrusted: spoofed packets. Communications among the physical nodes cannot be forged or spoofed. Example: Service Provider using VMs. 13/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

14 Implementation Current Prototype Patch to FS-VM Linux Kernel. The prototype is based on Xen. VSFS exploits NFSv3 service to handle file requests. FS-VMs run Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux): 1 to support DAC/MAC policies; 2 to enforce the security policy in a centralized way. 14/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

15 Implementation NFS Subject Changes to SELinux labeling and access rules: new subject corresponding to the NFS client; definition of all the operations it can invoke. the NFS server acts on behalf of NFS clients. VSFS: 1 Defines a distinct protection domain for each NFS client. 2 Dynamically pairs the NFS server process with the security context of the NFS client. Principle of least privilege. 15/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

16 Implementation NFS Request Flow 16/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

17 Implementation Assurance Virtual Machine Introspection: Standford University. Visibility: access FS-VM s state from a lower level. Robustness: protects FS-VM integrity from an A-VM. Anti-spoofing on the Xen virtual bridge: Static IP addresses bound to virtual interfaces. The AVM can freeze the execution of a VM. 17/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

18 Performance IOzone We used the IOzone Filesystem Benchmark to run NFS performance tests. Read/Write test. Four cases depending on whether: APP-VM and FS-VM are on the same or different node. Security policy is enforced or disabled. 18/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

19 Performance IOzone Read Performance Overhead is negligible 19/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

20 Performance IOzone Write Performance Overhead is negligible 20/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

21 Results and Future Works Limitations Current limitations of the prototype: No file system encryption. Assurance is limited to FS-VMs: attacks to APP-VMs are possible. Policy granularity is at the VM level. Security policy is static. 21/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

22 Results and Future Works Results Enforcement of MAC policies on a shared storage: to protect files accessed by applications with distinct trust levels. Ability of securely identifying each APP-VM: reliable association of a security context to an APP-VM according to its trust level. High assurance of the FS-VM integrity. Negligible overhead. 22/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

23 Results and Future Works Future Works Tainting: track data propagation among users and applications. File System encryption. Finer-grained security policy: user-id and NFS client-id. 1 Protection domain is a subset of the VM s domain. 2 Client side authentication. Master A-VM: controls and configures the whole network. Ex.: VM migration. Support for flexible security policies and MLS. 23/23 Gaspare Sala, Daniele Sgandurra, Fabrizio Baiardi University of Pisa

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