Evolution from 3G to LTE

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1 Soluções Wireless - Tecnologias e Tendências Evolution from 3G to LTE December, 09 th, 2008 Adriano Oliveira Radio Access Solution Manager Nokia Siemens Networks 0 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date

2 LTE DRIVERS & TRENDS 1 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

3 Terminal, network and application development drive traffic growth Typical operator case: 350% growth in HSPA data volume in 6 months Advanced terminals HSPA radio networks Internet applications 2 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

4 LTE/SAE Evolution Driver The Begining The need for 3G long-term evolution studies was stated at the end of 2004 within the 3GPP. Maintain the competitive position of UMTS-based technologies for the future. 1st : The Move towards Data Applications Initial 2G systems were built for circuit-switched applications voice. As the World Wide Web became a reality, 2G systems evolved towards packet data. 2nd : Enhanced Radio Interface Capabilities Fixed Internet access capabilities have been improving From the 56-Kb/s V90 modembased access to 10-Mb/s ADSL and 100-Mb/s fiber access, enabling new services and much better user experience. 3 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

5 What are the LTE challenges? The challenge The Users expectation Best price, transparent flat rate Full Internet Click-bang responsiveness Devices & applications drive traffic growth..leads to the operator s challenges reduce cost per bit provide high data rate provide low latency Reduction of network cost is necessary to remain profitable Voice dominated Source: Light Reading (adapted) Data dominated LTE: lower cost per bit and improved end user experience Traffic volume Traffic Time Revenues and Traffic decoupled Revenue Profitability Network cost /bit 4 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

6 LTE/SAE overview Flat Overall Architecture 2-node architecture All-IP Improved Radio Principles peak data rates [Mbps ]: 173 DL, 58 UL Scalable BW: 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz Short latency: ms Access Core Control LTE BTS (enodeb) RF Modulation: OFDMA in DL SC-FDMA in UL MME/GW IMS HLR/HSS New Core Architecture Simplified Protocol Stack Simple, more efficient QoS RAN enodeb MME GW LTE/SAE significantly improves performance for a next generation mobile network 5 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

7 NGMN Consortium LTE/SAE Trial Initiative 6 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

8 NGMN Consortium 7 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

9 NGMN Ltd. status (as of 08/2008) 18 ngmn Members: 29 ngmn Sponsors: 3 ngmn Advisors: 8 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

10 LSTI (LTE-SAE Trial Initiative) - joint test bed for LTE worldwide.. active parties within LSTI LSTI initiatives goals/objectives demonstrate feasibility and capabilities of 3GPP LTE-SAE technology under real world conditions. Indoor & outdoor tests accelerate development of 3GPP specification by identifying shortcomings out of test phases reduce risk of market introduction of new LTE-SAE technology Nokia Siemens Networks drives LSTI. Schedule & Program Office: Proof of Concept Test of OFDM Air Interface Test of basic functions IODT Interoperability IOT Friendly customer trials Trials Public Relation work PR 9 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

11 Standardization overview 10 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

12 Schedule for 3GPP releases Specification: IMS HSDPA MBMS WLAN IW EUL IMS Evolution LTE Studies SAE LTE UMTS Rel 99/4 UMTS Rel 5 UMTS Rel 6 UMTS Rel 7 UMTS Rel year Commercial IMS UMTS WCDMA EUL (HSUPA) HSDPA SAE/LTE 11 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

13 Network Architecture Evolution 3GPP Rel 6 / HSPA Rel Rel99/4 Rel Rel5 Rel Rel6 Rel Rel7 Rel Rel Internet year Node B RNC SGSN GGSN 3GPP Rel 7 / HSPA SGSN GGSN Internet Node B RNC Direct tunnel 3GPP Rel 7 / Internet HSPA 3GPP Rel 8 / LTE Node B (RNC Funct.) Evolved Node B SGSN Direct tunnel MME Direct tunnel GGSN SAE GW Internet Internet 12 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

14 Overall 3GPP LTE Work Plan Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Phy ch, Modulation Coding RAN1 Procedure Measurement F F F F RAN2 UE Idle mode UE capability MAC RLC PDCP RRC A A A A A/F A F F F F F F A: Approval F: Freezing Protocol&Tabular ASN.1 RAN3 Layer 1 Sig. transport Data transport Protocol A A A A F F F F F Protocol&Tabular ASN.1 RAN4 UE Tx/Rx enb Tx/Rx RRM enb Test A/F A/F A A/F F RAN5 Common env. Signaling 13 Nokia Siemens RF Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th A A A

15 Overview of 3GPP Evolution 3GPP Rel. 6 3GPP Rel. 7 3GPP Rel. 8 HSDPA/HSUPA HSPA Evo (step1) HSPA Evo (step2) LTE/SAE I-HSPA (Flat Architecture) Theo. peak rate: Theo. peak rate: DL: 14.4 Mbps Theo. peak rate: DL: 28 Mbps UL: 11.5 Mbps Theo. peak rate: DL: 42 Mbps UL: 11.5 Mbps DL: 173 Mbps UL: 58 Mbps Average Capacity: 2 ) UL: 5.7 Mbps Average Capacity: 1 ) DL: 4 * 2.5 Mbps/cell UL: 4 * 1.5 Mbps/cell RTT: 40-60ms Average Capacity: 1 ) DL: 4 * 6.5 Mbps/cell UL: 4 * 2 Mbps/cell RTT: 25-35ms 25ms Average Capacity: 1 ) DL: 4 * 6.5 Mbps/cell UL: 4 * 2 Mbps/cell RTT: 25-35ms 25ms DL: 36 Mbps/cell UL: 18 Mbps/cell RTT: 10-20ms 1 ) HSPA capacity values normalized to 4 carriers (2 * 20MHz in total) 2 ) LTE values according to Nokia and Nokia Siemens Network simulations for NGMN performance evaluation report V1.3 (macro cell, full buffer, 500m ISD, pedestrian speed, 2x2 MIMO) 14 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

16 LTE/SAE OVERVIEW & KEY FEATURES 15 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

17 LTE/SAE - Key Architectural Concept Flat and Cost effective Mobile Network Access Core Control GSM/EDGE/ 2G BTS BSC MGW MSC UMTS/HSPA W-CDMA BTS RNC SGSN GGSN Shift of functionality MGW IMS HLR/HSS LTE / SAE LTE BTS (enodeb) MME SAE-GW From CS to PS domain (VoIP), split of functions between enodeb & agw Interworking, smooth migration, service continuity and investment protection 16 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

18 LTE/SAE Overview Only one Network Element in Radio and Core each Focus is on enhancement of Packet Switched technology high data rates, low latency, packet optimised flat IP system Comprehensive Security Mobility Concept with tight Integration for 3GPP accesses Streamlined SAE Bearer Model with Network Centric QoS Handling On/Offline & Flow Based Charging Access Core Switching & Transport Core Control PCR F LTE BTS (enodeb) MME SAE-GW IMS HSS/AAA PCRF: Policy and Charging Control Function 17 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

19 LTE/SAE Key Features EPS ( Evolved Packet System ) / SAE ( System Architecture Evolution ) / LTE ( Long Term Evolution ) EUTRAN ( Evolved UTRAN ) EPC ( Evolved Packet Core ) IP Network IP Network IP Network OFDMA/SC-FDMA MIMO ( beam-forming/ spatial multiplexing) HARQ Scalable bandwidth (1.4, 3, 5, 10,.. 20 MHz) Evolved Node B / No RNC IP Transport Layer UL/DL resource scheduling QoS Aware Self Configuration PS Domain only, No CS Domain IP Transport Layer QoS Aware 3GPP (GTP) or IETF (MIPv6) Prepared for Non-3GPP Access 18 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

20 LTE/SAE Key Features Air Interface 1/3 OFDMA Downlink multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Acces Receiver complexity is at a reasonable level it supports various modulation schemes from BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM to 64 QAM. SC-FDMA Uplink multiplexing Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access, a variant of OFDMA Less power consumption and less expensive RF amplifiers in the terminal. 19 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

21 LTE/SAE Key Features Air Interface 2/3 MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output (also called beam-forming or smart antennas) LTE will support MIMO as option, It describes the possibility to have multiple transmitter and receiver antennas in a system. Up to four antennas can be used by a single LTE cell (gain: spatial multiplexing) MIMO is considered to be the core technology to increase spectral efficiency. HARQ Hybrid Automatic Retransmission on request HARQ has already been used for HSDPA and EUL. HARQ especially increases the performance (delay and throughput) for cell edge users. HARQ simply implements a retransmission protocol on layer 1/layer 2 that allows to send retransmitted blocks with different coding than the first one. 20 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

22 LTE/SAE Key Features Air Interface 3/3 Scalable bandwidth LTE air interface allows to drive cells with 1.4 MHz, 3 MHz, 5 MHz, 10MHz & 20 MHz. This gives the required flexibility for operators to use spectrum allocations not available to a non-scalable wide-band or ultra-wide-band system. 21 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

23 LTE/SAE Key Features EUTRAN Evolved NodeB No RNC is provided anymore The evolved Node Bs take over all radio management functionality. This will make radio management faster and hopefully the network architecture simpler IP transport layer EUTRAN exclusively uses IP as transport layer UL/DL resource scheduling In UMTS physical resources are either shared or dedicated Evolved Node B handles all physical resource via a scheduler and assigns them dynamically to users and channels This provides greater flexibility than the older system 22 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

24 LTE/SAE Key Features EPC (Evolved Packet Core) Packet Switched Domain only No circuit switched domain is provided If CS applications are required, they must be implemented via IP Only one mobility management for the UE in LTE. 3GPP (GTP) or IETF (MIPv6) option The EPC can be based either on 3GPP GTP protocols (similar to PS domain in UMTS/GPRS) or on IETF Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) Non-3GPP access The EPC will be prepared also to be used by non-3gpp access networks (e.g. LAN, WLAN, WiMAX, etc.) This will provide true convergence of different packet radio access system 23 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

25 Multiple Access Methods TDMA FDMA CDMA OFDMA Time Division Frequency Division Code Division Frequency Division Orthogonal subcarriers f f f f t t codes t t f f f f User 1 User 2 User 3 User.. 24 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

26 LTE Radio principles Downlink: OFDMA Improved spectral efficiency Reduced interference Very well suited for MIMO Uplink: SC-FDMA Power efficient uplink increasing battery lifetime Improved cell edge performance by low peak to average ratio Reduced Terminal complexity Enabling peak cell data rates of 173 Mbps DL and 58 Mbps in UL * Scalable bandwidth: 1.4 / 3 / 5 / 10 /15 / 20 MHz also allows deployment in lower frequency bands (rural coverage, refarming) Short latency: ms ** * At 20 MHz bandwidth, FDD, 2 Tx, 2 Rx, DL MIMO, PHY layer gross bit rate ** roundtrip ping delay (server near RAN) 25 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

27 Downlink Air Interface Technology - OFDMA OFDM-based air interface Symbol length is constant for all bandwidths 15 khz subcarrier spacing Clock is 2 N (8x) multiple of 3.84 MHz 20 MHz = 1200 subcarriers 10 MHz = 600 subcarriers etc. Scalability between MHz ( 1.4 / 3.0 / 5.0 / 10 / 20 MHz ) Up to 20 MHz (1200 subcarriers) 15 khz frequency 26 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

28 Uplink Air Interface Technology SC-FDMA User multiplexing in frequency domain Terminals are required to be able to receive up to 20 MHz but only to transmit up to 10 MHz Terminal 1 Transmitter FFT IFFT frequency BTS Receiver FFT Terminal 2 Transmitter frequency IFFT frequency 27 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

29 LTE/SAE Mobility Access Specific Local Mobility UE 3GPP IP PoA RNC/BSC SGSN* BTS/NB MME GTP Access Independent Global Mobility UE Global IP PoA PDN GW (HA) Service Layer UE Identifier Global IP Address HLR/HSS (AAA) enode B GTP GTP MIP DNS BS I-WLAN CDMA2000 WiMAX Serving GW epdg for I-WLAN PDSN for CDMA2000 ASN-GW for WiMAX DNS: Domain Name Server GTP: GPRS Tunnel Protocol MIP: Mobile IP SGSN*: upgraded 2G/3G SGSN ( LTE capable) 28 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th (FA). IMS Operator Servicesx Internet / Corporate Services

30 LTE Performance Overview 29 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

31 LTE has Highest Efficiency HSPA R7 and WiMAX have similar Spectral Efficiency LTE efficiency is 3 x HSPA R6 ; HSPA R7 efficiency is 2 x HSPA R6 in downlink All cases assume 2-antenna terminal reception HSPA R7, WiMAX and LTE assume 2-antenna BTS transmission (2x2 MIMO) bps/hz/cell Downlink Uplink HSPA R6 HSPA R6 + UE equalizer HSPA R7 WiMAX LTE R8 ITU contribution from WiMAX Forum shows downlink 1.3 and uplink 0.8 bps/hz/cell Reference: HSPA R6 and LTER8 from 3GPP R , HSPA R6 equalizer from 3GPP R , HSPA R7 and WiMAX from NSN/Nokia simulations 30 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

32 Voice Capacity 15 x more users per MHz with 3GPP LTE than with GSM EFR! User per MHz GSM EFR GSM AMR GSM DFCA WCDMA CS voice 5.9 kbps HSPA VoIP/CS 12.2 kbps HSPA CS 5.9 kbps LTE VoIP 12.2 kbps 31 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

33 Scenario: LTE used for high speed packet data access only Operator voice service provided over CS network Laptop with LTE data card Data LTE radio network MME SAE GW Internet 2G/3G terminal CS voice 2G/3G radio network MSC Server System Operator IP network LTE network is applied to provide high speed packet data access LTE network can be accessed with laptop data cards Operator provided voice service is implemented via 2G/3G CS (incl.cs over HSPA) Subscribers may use Internet based VoIP services over LTE Similar limitations as with Internet VoIP apply (limited QoS capabilities, no handover to 2G/3G) 32 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

34 Scenario: Fallback to CS voice LTE PS capable Data MME SAE GW Internet CS voice LTE radio network 2G/3G CS network Control plane interface Operator IP network MSC Server System Terminal is simultaneously attached to both LTE and 2G/3G CS radio networks Terminal automatically uses 2G/3G CS network when the user initiates a voice call via operator network When the user receives a voice call, the UE is moved from LTE to 2G/3G CS network before the call is set up Procedure is standardized in 3GPP Rel 8 33 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

35 Scenario: Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC) CS voice LTE PS/VoIP capable VoIP LTE radio network 2G/3G CS network MME Interworking function enabling PS to CS handover 34 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th Operator VoIP control for LTE and VCC MSC Server System SAE GW Internet Operator IP network IMS is the 3GPP standardized connectivity control machinery for voice and multimedia sessions MME makes a handover for PS voice session Interworking function is needed between MME and MSS Voice session is handed over to 2G/3G CS voice, procedure is standardized in 3GPP Rel-8 Simulatenous voice and data sessions can be supported: In 3G network when multi-rab is enabled In 2G network when Dual Transfer Mode is enabled IMS

36 LTE UE Categories All categories support 20 MHz 64QAM mandatory in downlink, but not in uplink (except Class 5) 2x2 MIMO in other classes except Class 1 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5 Peak rate DL/UL 10/5 Mbps 50/25 Mbps 100/50 Mbps 150/50 Mbps 300/75 Mbps RF bandwidth 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz Modulation DL 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM Modulation UL 16QAM 2 16QAM 2 16QAM 2 16QAM 2 64QAM Rx diversity Yes 1 Yes Yes Yes Yes BTS tx diversity 1-4 tx 1-4 tx 1-4 tx 1-4 tx 1-4 tx MIMO DL Optional 2x2 2x2 2x2 4x4 1 Performance requirements are based on 2-rx, but 2-rx is not mandated directly 2 No 64QAM 35 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

37 Qualcomm announcing chipsets for LTE devices Qualcomm Press Release- Feb.7, 2008: Qualcomm to Ship Industry s Multi-mode LTE Chipsets in 2009 New Family of Multi-mode LTE Device Solutions to Deliver Backward Compatibility to Existing UMTS and CDMA2000 Networks Qualcomm Incorporated (Nasdaq: QCOM), today announced that it has expanded its device chipset roadmap to include Long Term Evolution (LTE). The new family of three multi-mode Mobile Data Modem (MDM ) chipsets will deliver significant flexibility to the industry by supporting LTE, as well as other 3GPP and 3GPP2 standards. The MDM9xxx-series chipsets will allow UMTS and CDMA2000 operators to upgrade seamlessly to future LTE services while preserving backward compatibility to existing 3G UMTS & CDMA2000 networks. The LTE solutions are scheduled to sample in the second quarter of Qualcomm is in a very unique position with LTE, being one of the very few companies that will be able to offer multi-mode solutions that deliver an upgrade path for operators looking to complement their existing 3G networks with LTE, said Steve Mollenkopf, senior vice president of product management for Qualcomm CDMA Technologies. We are pleased that we will be able to leverage our industry-leading technology position to offer LTE solutions to our customers. The new family of MDM9xxx-series LTE device chipsets will include: MDM9200 chipset designed to support UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE MDM9800 chipset designed to support EV-DO Rev. B, UMB and LTE MDM9600 chipset designed to support UMTS, HSPA+, EV-DO Rev. B, UMB and LTE All MDM9xxx-series chipsets will offer full backward compatibility. The chipsets will support FDD and TDD duplex modes, different carrier bandwidths and will be capable of supporting peak data rates of up to 50 Mbps on the downlink and 25 Mbps on the uplink 36 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

38 LTE Downlink Peak Bit Rates 2x2 MIMO 64QAM Pilot symbols 1 out of 14 Reference symbol overhead 7.7% Result : 172 Mbps in 20 MHz and 86 Mbps in 10 MHz Resource blocks Subcarriers Modulation coding 1.4 MHz 3.0 MHz 5.0 MHz 10 MHz 20 MHz QPSK 1/2 Single stream QAM 1/2 Single stream QAM 3/4 Single stream QAM 3/4 Single stream QAM 4/4 Single stream QAM 3/4 2x2 MIMO QAM 4/4 2x2 MIMO QAM 4/4 4x4 MIMO Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

39 LTE Uplink Peak Bit Rates Single stream transmission 16QAM Pilot symbols 1 out of Mbps in 20 MHz and 28 Mbps in 10 MHz Resource blocks Subcarriers Modulation coding 1.4 MHz 3.0 MHz 5.0 MHz 10 MHz 20 MHz QPSK 1/2 Single stream QAM 1/2 Single stream QAM 3/4 Single stream QAM 4/4 Single stream QAM 3/4 Single stream QAM 4/4 Single stream QAM 4/4 V-MIMO (cell) Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

40 SUMMARY 39 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

41 Overview of LTE/SAE design benefits Flat Overall Architecture 2-node architecture All-IP Improved Radio Principles peak data rates [Mbps ]: 173 DL, 58 UL Scalable BW: 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz Short latency: ms Access Core Control LTE BTS (enodeb) RF Modulation: OFDMA in DL SC-FDMA in UL MME/GW IMS HLR/HSS New Core Architecture Simplified Protocol Stack Simple, more efficient QoS RAN eutran MME GW 40 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

42 Questions?? GSM/EDGE WCDMA/HSPA I-HSPA Multiradio Site Solution Flexi Platform WCDMA/HSPA I-HSPA LTE Multiradio GSM/EDGE WCDMA/HSPA I-HSPA LTE Flexible GSM EDGE Yesterday Today Tomorrow One all-purpose Base Station Modular Easy to Install Cost-Optimized 41 Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

43 Adriano Oliveira Mobile: Fixed: Nokia Siemens Networks Seminário Soluções Wireless/ Adriano Oliveira / Dec, 9th

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