Mobile Computing. Basic Call Calling terminal Network Called terminal 10/25/14. Public Switched Telephone Network - PSTN. CSE 40814/60814 Fall 2014

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1 Mobile Computing CSE 40814/60814 Fall 2014 Public Switched Telephone Network - PSTN Transit switch Transit switch Long distance network Transit switch Local switch Outgoing call Incoming call Local switch - Transfer mode: circuit switching - All the network (except part of the access network) is digital - Each voice channel is usually 64kb/s 1 Basic Call Calling terminal Network Called terminal Off-hook Resource allocation Translation + routing Dial tone Dialing Ring indication Remove ring indication Alert signal Off hook Conversation On hook Bi-directional channel Billing On hook signal 2 1

2 Cellular Network Basics Cellular network/telephony is a radio- based technology; radio waves are electromagnegc waves that antennas propagate Most signals are in the 850 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, and 1900 MHz frequency bands Cell phones operate in this frequency range (note the logarithmic scale) Cellular Network Base stagons transmit to and receive from mobiles at the assigned spectrum MulGple base stagons use the same spectrum (spectral reuse) The service area of each base stagon is called a cell Each mobile terminal is typically served by the closest base stagons Handoff when terminals move Architecture of Cellular Networks Server (e.g., Home Location Register) Mobile Station Base Station Mobile Switching Center External Network Cellular Network 5 2

3 6 Registration Nr: 079/ Tune on the strongest signal 7 Service Request 079/ / / /

4 Paging Broadcast 079/ ? 079/ ? 079/ ? 079/ ? Note: paging makes sense only over a small area 9 Response 079/ / Channel Assignment Channel 47 Channel 47 Channel 68 Channel

5 Conversation 12 Handoff (or Handover) 13 Message Sequence Chart Caller Base Station Switch Base Station Callee Periodic registration Periodic registration Service request Service request Paging broadcast Page request Page request Paging broadcast Paging response Paging response Tune to Ch.47 Assign Ch. 47 Assign Ch. 68 Tune to Ch. 68 Ring indication Stop ring indication Ring indication Stop ring indication User response Alert tone User response 14 5

6 Cellular Network Genera3ons It is useful to think of a cellular network in terms of genera+ons: 0G: Briefcase- size mobile radio telephones 1G: Analog cellular telephony 2G: Digital cellular telephony 3G: High- speed digital cellular telephony (including video telephony) 4G: IP- based anygme, anywhere voice, data, and mulgmedia telephony at faster data rates than 3G (being deployed now) Evolu3on of Cellular Networks 1G 2G 2.5G 3G 4G The Mul3ple Access Problem The base stagons need to serve many mobile terminals at the same Gme (both downlink and uplink) All mobiles in the cell need to transmit to the base stagon Interference among different senders and receivers So we need mulgple access scheme 6

7 Mul3ple Access Schemes 3 orthogonal Schemes: Frequency Division MulGple Access (FDMA) Time Division MulGple Access (TDMA) Code Division MulGple Access (CDMA) Frequency Division Mul3ple Access frequency Each mobile is assigned a separate frequency channel for the duragon of the call Sufficient guard band is required to prevent adjacent channel interference Usually, mobile terminals will have one downlink frequency band and one uplink frequency band Different cellular network protocols use different frequencies Frequency is a precious and scare resource. We are running out of it cognigve radio research Time Division Mul3ple Access Guard Gme signal transmihed by mobile terminals at different locagons do not arrive at the base stagon at the same Gme Time is divided into slots and only one mobile terminal transmits during each slot Each user is given a specific slot. No compeggon in cellular network Unlike Carrier Sensing MulGple Access (CSMA) in WiFi 7

8 Code Division Mul3ple Access Use of orthogonal codes to separate different transmissions Each symbol of bit is transmihed as a larger number of bits using a user- specific code Spreading Bandwidth occupied by the signal is much larger than the informagon transmission rate But all users use the same frequency band together Orthogonal among users GSM (2G) AbbreviaGon for Global System for Mobile CommunicaGons Concurrent development in USA and Europe in the 1980s The European system was called GSM and deployed in the early 1990s GSM Services Voice, 3.1 khz Short Message Service (SMS) 1985 GSM standard that allows messages of at most 160 chars. (incl. spaces) to be sent between handsets and other stagons mulg- billion $ industry General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) GSM upgrade that provides IP- based packet data transmission up to 114 kbps Users can simultaneously make calls and send data GPRS provides always on Internet access and the MulGmedia Messaging Service (MMS) whereby users can send rich text, audio, video messages to each other Performance degrades as number of users increase GPRS is an example of 2.5G telephony 2G service similar to 3G 8

9 GSM Channels Channels Downlink Uplink Physical Channel: Each Gmeslot on a carrier is referred to as a physical channel Logical Channel: Variety of informagon is transmihed between the MS and BTS. Different types of logical channels: Traffic channel Control Channel GSM Frequencies Originally designed on 900MHz range, now also available on 800MHz, 1800MHz and 1900 MHz ranges. Separate Uplink and Downlink frequencies One example channel on the 1800 MHz frequency band, where RF carriers are spaced every 200 khz UPLINK FREQUENCIES DOWNLINK FREQUENCIES 1710 MHz 1785 MHz 1805 MHz 1880 MHz UPLINK AND DOWNLINK FREQUENCY SEPARATED BY 95MHZ GSM Architecture 9

10 Mobile Sta3on (MS) MS is the user s handset and has two parts Mobile Equipment Radio equipment User interface Processing capability and memory required for various tasks Call signalling EncrypGon SMS Equipment IMEI number Subscriber IdenGty Module Subscriber Iden3ty Module A small smart card EncrypGon codes needed to idengfy the subscriber Subscriber IMSI number Subscriber s own informagon (telephone directory) Third party applicagons (banking, etc.) Can also be used in other systems besides GSM, e.g., some WLAN access points accept SIM based user authengcagon Base Sta3on Subsystem Transcoding Rate and AdaptaGon Unit (TRAU) Performs coding between the 64kbps PCM coding used in the backbone network and the 13kbps coding used for the Mobile StaGon (MS) Base StaGon Controller (BSC) Controls the channel (Gme slot) allocagon implemented by the BTSes Manages the handovers within BSS area Knows which mobile stagons are within the cell and informs the MSC/VLR about this Base Transceiver System (BTS) Controls several transmihers Each transmiher has 8 Gme slots, some used for signaling, on a specific frequency 10

11 Network and Switching Subsystem The backbone of a GSM network is a telephone network with addigonal cellular network capabiliges Mobile Switching Center (MSC) A typical telephony exchange (ISDN exchange) which supports mobile communicagons Visitor LocaGon Register (VLR) A database, part of the MSC Contains the locagon of the acgve Mobile StaGons Gateway Mobile Switching Center (GMSC) Links the system to PSTN and other operators Home LocaGon Register (HLR) Contain subscriber informagon, including authengcagon informagon in AuthenGcaGon Center (AuC) Equipment IdenGty Register (EIR) InternaGonal Mobile StaGon Equipment IdenGty (IMEI) codes for e.g., blacklisgng stolen phones Home Loca3on Register One database per operator Contains all the permanent subscriber informagon MSISDN (Mobile Subscriber ISDN number) is the telephone number of the subscriber InternaGonal Mobile Subscriber IdenGty (IMSI) is a 15 digit code used to idengfy the subscriber It incorporates a country code and operator code IMSI code is used to link the MSISDN number to the subscriber s SIM (Subscriber IdenGty Module) Charging informagon Services available to the customer Also the subscriber s present LocaGon Area Code, which refers to the MSC, which can connect to the MS. Other Systems OperaGons Support System The management network for the whole GSM network Usually vendor dependent Very loosely specified in the GSM standards Value added services Voice mail Call forwarding Group calls Short Message Service Center Stores and forwards the SMS messages Like an E- mail server Required to operate the SMS services 11

12 Loca3on Updates The cells overlap and usually a mobile stagon can see several transceivers (BTSes) The MS monitors the idengfier for the BSC controlling the cells When the mobile stagon reaches a new BSC s area, it requests a locagon update The update is forwarded to the MSC, entered into the VLR, the old BSC is nogfied and an acknowledgement is passed back Handoff (Handover) When a call is in process, the changes in locagon need special processing Within a BSS, the BSC, which knows the current radio link configuragon (including feedbacks from the MS), prepares an available channel in the new BTS The MS is told to switch over to the new BTS This is called a hard handoff In a son handoff, the MS is connected to two BTSes simultaneously 4 types of handover MS MS MS MS BTS BTS BTS BTS BSC BSC BSC MSC MSC 12

13 Handover decision receive level BTS old receive level BTS old HO_MARGIN MS MS BTS old BTS new Handover procedure MS BTS old BSC old measurement measurement report result HO command HO command clear command clear complete HO decision HO required HO access Link establishment MSC HO request BSC new resource allocagon ch. acgvagon BTS new HO request ack ch. acgvagon ack HO command clear command clear complete HO complete HO complete Roaming When a MS enters another operators network, it can be allowed to use the services of this operator Operator to operator agreements and contracts Higher billing The MS is idengfied by the informagon in the SIM card and the idengficagon request is forwarded to the home operator The home HLR is updated to reflect the MS s current locagon 13

14 Evolu3on from 2G 2G IS-95 GSM- IS-136 & PDC 2.5G IS-95B HSCSD GPRS EDGE 3G Cdma2000-1xRTT Cdma2000-1xEV,DV,DO Cdma2000-3xRTT 3GPP2 W-CDMA EDGE TD-SCDMA 3GPP Service Roadmap Improved performance, decreasing cost of delivery Typical average bit rates (peak rates higher) A number of mobile services are bearer independent in nature Voice & SMS GSM 9.6 kbps 3G-specific services take advantage of higher bandwidth and/or real-time QoS Multitasking WEB browsing Multicasting Corporate data access Streaming audio/video MMS picture / video xhtml browsing Application downloading Presence/location Push-to-talk GPRS 171 kbps EGPRS 473 kbps Video sharing Video telephony Real-time IP multimedia and games WCDMA 2 Mbps Broadband in wide area HSDPA 1-10 Mbps CDMA x CDMA EVDO CDMA EVDV GSM Evolu3on to 3G High Speed Circuit Switched Data Dedicate up to 4 timeslots for data connection ~ 50 kbps Good for real-time applications c.w. GPRS Inefficient -> ties up resources, even when nothing sent Not as popular as GPRS (many skipping HSCSD) GSM 9.6kbps (one timeslot) GSM Data Also called CSD GSM HSCSD GPRS General Packet Radio Services Data rates up to ~ 115 kbps Max: 8 timeslots used as any one time Packet switched; resources not tied up all the time Contention based. Efficient, but variable delays GSM / GPRS core network re-used by WCDMA (3G) Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution Uses 8PSK modulation 3x improvement in data rate on short distances Can fall back to GMSK for greater distances Combine with GPRS (EGPRS) ~ 384 kbps Can also be combined with HSCSD EDGE WCDMA 14

15 SD 10/25/14 UMTS Universal Mobile TelecommunicaGons System (UMTS) UMTS is an upgrade from GSM via GPRS or EDGE The standardizagon work for UMTS is carried out by Third GeneraGon Partnership Project (3GPP) Data rates of UMTS are: 144 kbps for rural 384 kbps for urban outdoor 2048 kbps for indoor and low range outdoor Virtual Home Environment (VHE) UMTS Frequency Spectrum UMTS Band MHz and MHz for 3G transmission In the US, MHz and MHz will be used instead, as the 1900 MHz band was already used. UMTS Architecture Base Station Mobile Station Subsystem Network Subsystem Other Networks SIM ME BTS BSC MSC/ VLR GMSC PSTN EIR HLR AUC PLMN RNS USIM ME Node B RNC SGSN GGSN Internet + UTRAN Note: Interfaces have been omitted for clarity purposes. 15

16 UMTS Network Architecture UMTS network architecture consists of three domains Core Network (CN): Provide switching, rougng and transit for user traffic UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN): Provides the air interface access method for user equipment. User Equipment (UE): Terminals work as air interface counterpart for base stagons. The various idengges are: IMSI, TMSI, P- TMSI, TLLI, MSISDN, IMEI, IMEISV UTRAN Wide band CDMA technology is selected for UTRAN air interface WCDMA TD- SCDMA Base stagons are referred to as Node- B and control equipment for Node- B is called as Radio Network Controller (RNC). FuncGons of Node- B are Air Interface Tx/Rx ModulaGon/DemodulaGon FuncGons of RNC are: Radio Resource Control Channel AllocaGon Power Control Seqngs Handover Control Ciphering SegmentaGon and reassembly 3.5G (HSPA) High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is an amalgamagon of two mobile telephony protocols, High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), that extends and improves the performance of exisgng WCDMA protocols 3.5G introduces many new features that will enhance the UMTS technology in future. 1xEV- DV already supports most of the features that will be provided in 3.5G. These include: - AdapGve ModulaGon and Coding - Fast Scheduling - Backward compagbility with 3G - Enhanced Air Interface 16

17 4G (LTE) LTE stands for Long Term EvoluGon Next GeneraGon mobile broadband technology Promises data transfer rates of 100 Mbps Based on UMTS 3G technology OpGmized for All- IP traffic Advantages of LTE Comparison of LTE Speed 17

18 Major LTE Radio Technogies Uses Orthogonal Frequency Division MulGplexing (OFDM) for downlink Uses Single Carrier Frequency Division MulGple Access (SC- FDMA) for uplink Uses MulG- input MulG- output (MIMO) for enhanced throughput Reduced power consumpgon Higher RF power amplifier efficiency (less bahery power used by handsets) 18

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