Comment on the following text in 300 (+/-) 20) words using the given statement as a basis for writing your opinion.

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1 50 p Comment on the following text in 300 (+/-) 20) words using the given statement as a basis for writing your opinion. GAZDASÁGI TÉMÁJÚ MAGYAR NYELVŰ SZÖVEG KOMMENTÁLÁSA CÉLNYELVEN, kb. 300 SZÓBAN; ÁLTALÁNOS, NYOMTATOTT SZÓTÁR HASZNÁLATA MEGENGEDETT (50 pont; 60 perc) Comment on this text in English (approx. 300 words) Több mint kétmillió ausztriai háztartásban foglalkoztatnak rendszeresen külső segéderőt, ráadásul a alkalmazottak által nyújtott szolgáltatásokért javarészt feketén fizetnek. A háztartási alkalmazottak foglalkoztatása a nyolcvanas évek óta folyamatosan terebélyesedik. Az intézet szerint mintegy 650 ezren vállalnak háztartási munkát az országban, túlnyomórészt mellékállásban és az adóhatóság tudta nélkül. A kínálati oldal erősödése elsősorban a korábbi években tapasztalt bevándorlás bővülésével magyarázható, míg a kereslet növekedését a nők munkába állásának terjedése és a lakosság öregebbé válása indokolja. Magyarországon a feketemunka által legfertőzöttebb iparág az építőipar, de a háztartási alkalmazottak körében is alig van legális munkavállaló, valamint a mezőgazdaságban, vendéglátásban is nagyon elterjedt. Egy pénzügyminisztériumi tanulmány szerint a feketemunka aránya 2001 és 2004 között stabilan 22 százalék körül volt Magyarországon. A férfiak aránya jóval magasabb a feketemunkások között, és különösen a éves korcsoportra jellemző az illegális alkalmazás. 134 szó

2 50 p A feketegazdaság elleni küzdelem legjobb módja az adócsökkentés. The use of a dictionary is allowed. You have 60 minutes for this task. Sample commentary As the article mentions, the black or grey economy in Hungary represents a significant problem in terms of loss of earnings for the government and thus the running of the country. One way to tackle this is to reduce taxation so there is more motivation for people to pay taxes and contribute to the economy, but before this would work it is necessary to change people s attitude to the black economy. Currently Hungarian taxes are some of the highest in the world, second only to Belgium in the European Union. This means a very large part of one s salary disappears into state coffers and many people therefore fail to declare most of their earnings. Reducing this high level of taxation would possibly provide an incentive to people to declare more of their earnings but is not the only needed reform to change the current situation. However, primarily the problem in Hungary is one of attitude. There is a general belief that the state should pay for almost everything, but there also exists the perception that not paying taxes is nothing to be ashamed of and many people spend a considerable amount of time finding and exploiting loopholes in the legal system to evade payment. Furthermore, there are few examples of well-known people being caught by the tax authorities and then being punished. The government needs to put in place a more equitable system of taxation but also better explain the need and moral necessity to pay taxes. If people saw their money being more effectively used along with more explanation of how this money benefits everyone by, for example, improving infrastructure, paying for improved health care and paying towards pensions, then a gradual change in attitude towards contributing may take place. Értékelési szempontok a) szakmai feladatteljesítés, tartalmi kivitelezés: 10 p./ b) szakmai kommunikatív hatás: 10 p./ c) szakmai nyelvhasználat: 10 p./ d) szövegalkotás, koherencia: 10 p./ e) nyelvhelyesség és stílus: 10 p./ összesen: 50 p./

3 Lexical-grammatical test Please give all your answers on the enclosed ANSWER SHEET I. Find the correct answer that fits the sentence. (10x1) 10 p e.g. After I had worked very hard my was significantly increased by my boss. A. profit B. salary C. interest D. subsidy 1. There are many kinds of alliance, eg. mergers. A. company B. corporate C. corporation D. company s 2. The new bridge was opened three months ahead of. A. timetable B. schedule C. agenda D. diary 3. The latest model of mobile phone was launched by an unknown firm. A. start-off B. kick-off C. start-up D. take-off 4. Over 25 % of our investment is in Asian bonds. A. file B. portfolio C. collection D. cartel 5. Nowadays more and more contribute to our green energy supply. A. fossil resources B. fossil fuels C. wind islands D. wind farms 6. John s job involves carrying out various simultaneously. A. tasks B. goals C. objectives D. practices 7. development is the only way to preserve our natural resources. A. Lucrative B. Transparent C. Sustainable D. Feasible 8. If the court decides in their favour, our firm will have to pay hefty to the plaintiffs. A. allocations B. damages C. fees D. awards 9. You do not have enough to guarantee our bank loan. A. interest B. accounts C. collateral D. gains 10. The investment bank is asking for a 7% for organising the IPO. A. equity B. brokerage C. sharing D. commission II. Fill in the missing words if necessary /one in every space/. (10x1) 10 p e.g. Finally we have decided not bring up the issue at the meeting. 1. I have been in charge quality control for more than a decade. 2. The figures are definitely not line with the experts forecast. 3. The group of factors bringing satisfaction are called motivators. 4. We to inform you that settlement of your account is three months overdue. 5. All of our offers have been down, much to my boss s annoyance. 6. There are large in per capita water consumption between different countries. 7. Experts are convinced that the austerity measure will cause the economy to pick. 8. I won t be able to reach my goal because of running up some technical problems. 9. I want $500-worth of euros. What is the. rate, please? 10. Low morale in the company can be put to the latest dismissals.

4 III. Complete the sentences using an appropriate form of the word given. (10x1) 10p e.g. All managers of the firm agreed that the campaign should start. (MANAGE) 1. Those sports companies signed agreements with celebrities. (ENDORSE) 2. There was a slow recovery in consumer last year. (CONFIDENT) 3. The structure is designed to conflicts between personal and organisational values. (MINIMUM) 4. The main of the report are about our poor financial situation. (FIND) 5. The agricultural sector is heavily on exports. (DEPEND ) 6. All their and information will have to be used to resolve the problems. (EXPERT) 7. Unfortunately every subsidiary of ours was given feedback on results. (SUFFICIENCY) 8. They should this faulty product from the market as soon as possible. (DRAW) 9. We should on the use of water in households. (ECONOMY) 10. The emergence of new employment opportunities in urban areas has fuelled levels of rural emigration. (PRECEDENT) IV. Complete these sentences with the following words. Use each word once only. There are two extra words! (10x1) 10 p outsource relocated skilled recruiting figures policy offshoring concluded value operations outplacement supplying latest Asia has itself begun to outsource a growing number of back-office 1 to international groups such as IBM. In the first quarter of this year, 13 big deals were 2 in Asia-Pacific countries, matching the region s 3 for all of Companies in China, Thailand, India, and the Philippines made up more than half of the contract 4 in the quarter. According to TPI executives the 5 data are just the start of this trend. Until now outsourcing and 6 have typically been used by US and European companies to cut costs. The transfer of back-office functions to countries where 7 labour is relatively cheap has been criticised by trade unions. Asian banks and airlines have 8 more IT and other work to stay competitive in the globalised economy. Fast-growing Asian telecommunications groups often employed network management at the companies 9 them with hardware. Among the Asian companies that have announced such deals is Mitsui Life, which reached an agreement on insurance 10 processing with IBM.

5 V. Finish each sentence in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence before it. e.g. It s ages since we last had an order from CWP. We haven t had any orders from CWP for ages. (10x2) 20 p 1. We discussed his proposal for three hours. We spent 2. It s a pity that we didn t get the contract because now we re in such a terrible mess. If we 3. The speed at which the Chinese economy is growing is incredible. It s 4. It is clear that rebuilding Iraq has become more dangerous than the Bush administration predicted months ago. Rebuilding Iraq seems 5. The devalued peso has helped boost Argentine exports. Due 6. Nowadays the Japanese finance minister has only one duty; to manage the currency, the yen. Nowadays the Japanese finance minister is restricted There has been a significant drop in demand for oil over the last few months. Demand for oil 8. During the press conference the journalists asked questions of many different kinds. The journalists asked a wide 9. To the best of my knowledge, Turkey isn t an EU member country. As far 10. The government s budget deficit, he promised, will next year fall by 3 % of GDP. He promised a fall

6 Lexical-grammatical test 60/2=30p/ Értékelő: ANSWER SHEET (PLEASE WRITE ALL YOUR ANSWERS ON THIS PAPER) I. Find the correct answer that fits the sentence and write in letter A / B / C or D. (10x1) 10 p II. Fill in the missing words if necessary (only one word in every space). (10x1) 10 p III. Complete the sentences using an appropriate form of the word given. (10x2) 20p IV. Complete these sentences with the following words. (10x1) 10 p V. Finish each sentence in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence before it. 1. We spent (10x1) 10 p 2. If we 3. It s 4. Rebuilding Iraq seems 5. Due 6. Nowadays the Japanese finance minister is restricted Demand for oil 8. The journalists asked a wide 9. As far 10. He promised a fall

7 Lexical-grammatical test ANSWER KEY I. Find the correct answer that fits the sentence and write in letter A / B / C (10x1) 10 p or D. 1. B 2. B 3. C 4. B 5. D 6. A 7. C 8. B 9. C 10. D II. Fill in the missing words if necessary /one in every space/. (10x1) 10 p 1. of 2. in 3. about 4. regret 5. turned 6. differences 7. up 8. against 9. exchange 10. down III. Complete the sentences using an appropriate form of the word given. (10x2) 20p 1. endorsement 2. confidence 3. minimise, 4. findings 5. dependent minimize 6. expertise 7. insufficient 8. withdraw 9. economise, economize 10. unprecedented IV. Complete these sentences with the following words. (10x1) 10 p 1. operations 2. concluded 3. figures 4. value 5. latest 6. offshoring 7. skilled 8. relocated 9. supplying 10. policy V. Finish each sentence in such a way that it means exactly the same as the (10x1) 10 p sentence before it. (Esetenként egyéb helyes megoldások is elfogadhatóak) 1. We spent three hours discussing his proposal. 2. If we had got the contract, we wouldn t be in such a terrible mess. 3. It s incredible how fast the Chinese economy is growing. 4. Rebuilding Iraq seems to be / become / have become more dangerous than the 5. Due to the devaluation of the peso, Argentine exports have increased / have been boosted. 6. Nowadays the Japanese finance minister is restricted to managing the currency, the yen. 7. Demand for oil has significantly dropped over the last few months. 8. The journalists asked a wide range of questions. 9. As far as I know, Turkey isn t an EU member country. 10. He promised a fall of 3 % in the budget deficit next year.

8 Reading comprehension test SZÖVEGÉRTÉS TESZT (30 pont; 60 perc) Hiring Companies Should Show the Love 1. American business folklore is full of stories of people who started in the company mailroom and ended up as CEO. These are great ( ) stories, because they show that brains, determination, and pluck can outstrip formal schooling. Even if the actual instances of mailroom-to-boardroom ascendancy are one in a million, it's pleasant to think that somewhere out there is a person pushing a mail cart or answering phones who will one day run the company. 2. If you're seeking any kind of entry-level opportunity, the watchword is humility. One day you will have skills and experience in spades, but right now, you want to impress an employer as a mature person who will take the assignment seriously and give it all you've got. When your résumé is mostly filler and you're dying for that first break, your best bet is to leave prospective employers with the feeling that you will learn fast, work hard, and take direction willingly. If you can get all that across at the typical entry-level interview, you're way ahead of the pack. 3. For most of us, however, the most effective job-search posture is a little different. Deference and humility have their place, but for those of us the headhunters call "experienced hires," elements such as "confidence" and "insight into the company's current issues" are key because they will determine how the potential employer views us. ( ) 4. A company considering you for an open position will never like you better or be willing to show it more than the day the job offer is extended. So if there's anything odd or less-thansensational about the offer-and-acceptance process, you must view that as an enormous red flag, one that colors the entire employment relationship. If this is the apex of their esteem for you and they're not showing it, what will happen once you're in the door? 5. For starters, if a company calls you with a job offer, they should have all the details ready to explain to you, including title, reporting relationship, compensation ( ) and amount of travel. Now, much of this may have gotten sorted out during the interview process. But because the processes are often so fragmented, you may only have one shot with the hiring manager and the HR person. ( ) 6. These are critical days and hours, and if the company is sending signals like, "Come on, let's get a move on here, we don't have all day and there are other people who want this job if you don't," then you would be well-advised to continue your job search. This company will never love you better than they do right now. If you're not feeling the love today, you're not likely to be higher on their esteem index three or six months down the road. 7. Does this mean that a prospective employer should gush over you and spare no effort or expense to convey its gratitude that you have deigned to consider employment with them? Of course not. It's business, and an offer of employment is a business deal. But carelessness about communications, failure to answer your questions, and pressure on you to accept a job offer before your needs are met are all signals that the company's attention toward you is already used up. If you take a job under conditions like that, you can only expect to pay for your trusting nature down the road. from: Liz Ryan: Careers Insight, Economist, January 29, characters

9 Reading comprehension test PLEASE WRITE YOUR ANSWERS ON THE ANSWER SHEET. I. Are the statements TRUE (T) or FALSE (F)? Circle the correct answer. (5x1) 5p 1. One can often find in America the most outstanding examples for climbing the corporate ladder. 2. Humility is always the primary success factor in a job interview. 3. The signs of affection are not vital when considering taking a job. 4. Inexperienced candidates should be given a full job description during the interview process. 5. Trust any negative feelings in your first judgements. If something seems wrong at the beginning,it will remain so later too. II. Answer the questions briefly on the basis of the text. (5x2) 10p 1. What outcome is to be expected after a successful job interview process? 2. Which party has more responsibilities toward the other party in the process? 3. What does it mean if a company offers compensation? 4. Does the company have any obligation to provide sufficient information to the applicant? 5. When shouldn t you accept a job offer? III. Finish the sentences with the given alternatives. Write the chosen letter on the answer sheet. (5x2) 10p 1. Without work experience you can demonstrate that you are a) a serious person; b) an experienced person; c) a full-fledged person 2. The company likes you the most when they a) interview you; b) hire you; c) offer the job to you 3. You should be very cautious with the company if you see anything a) you do not like; b) humiliating; c) strange 4. During the interview process everything should be a) selected; b) solved; c) thought through/ clarified 5. You should expect from your potential employer a) some effort; b) some appreciation; c) a clearcut deal IV. Explain what the following words/expressions mean in the given context. (5x1) 5p 1. deference 2. apex 3. in spades 4. convey 5. gush

10 Reading comprehension test 30 p I. ANSWER SHEET On the basis of the text are the statements TRUE (T) or FALSE (F)? Circle the correct letter. (5x1 p) 5p 1. T F 2. T F 3. T F 4. T F 5. T F II. Answer the questions briefly on the basis of the text. (5x2) 10p III. Finish the sentences with the given alternatives. Write the chosen letter on the answer sheet. (5x2) 10p IV. Explain what the following words mean in the given context. (5 1) 5p

11 Reading comprehension test I. ANSWER KEY On the basis of the text are the statements TRUE (T) or FALSE (F)? Circle the correct letter. (5x1 p) 5p 1. F 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. T II. Answer the questions briefly on the basis of the text. (5x2) 10p 1. A win-win situation 2. Equal 3. Car, allowances, mobile, etc 4. Yes 5. Par. 6. e.g. III. Finish the sentences with the given alternatives. Write the chosen letter on the answer sheet. (5x2) 10p 1. C 2. C 3. C 4. C 5. C IV. Explain what the following words mean inthe given context. (5 1) 5p 1. respect and politeness 2. the highest point 3. in large amounts or to a very great degree 4. to express a thought, feeling or idea so that it is understood by other people 5. to express a positive feeling, especially praise, in such a strong way that it does not sound sincere

Corvinus LSP Examination Centre English for Economics (OECONOM) Writing skill Intermediate level (B2)

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