WORKSHOP 6: ROADMAP TO 100 G CO 2

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "WORKSHOP 6: ROADMAP TO 100 G CO 2"

Transcription

1 WORKSHOP 6: ROADMAP TO 100 G CO 2 /KM WELL-TO-WHEEL PANELISTS: Neville JACKSON, Ricardo, Chief Technology and Innovation offi cer Andre DOUAUD, Automobile & Energy consulting Joël FOUCARD, Michelin Jean-Jacques CARRE, GKN driveline Electric/Hybrid development, Director of Advanced Engineering, control products, vehicle integration GKN Automotive & GKN plc Kristen de la ROSA, Argonne National Laboratory (US), Dir of Adv Veh Tech Competition (US Argonne Nat Lab) Jean DELSEY, INRETS Research Director Petr DOLEJSI, ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers Association), Director Mobility and Sustainable Transport Paul EVERITT, SMMT, Chief Executive Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders Michel FORISSIER, Valeo, Marketing, Research and Development Director for Valeo Powertrain Systems Hans-Georg FRISCHKORN, VDA, Vice-President Peter GEBHARD, Audi, Head of Vehicle Physics, AUDI AG Philip GOTT, IHS, Managing Director IHS Automotive Gautam KALGHATGI, ARAMCO, Senior Scientist Nicolas LEBIGOT, CCFA, Manager Environmental and Technical Affairs Nicholas LEE, PSA Group London Offi ce Director Karl-Heinz ZIEROCK, BMU (German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature protection and nuclear safety) 47 Michelin Challenge Bibendum - Berlin 2011 WORKSHOPS

2 The brief for this workshop was to define the macro scenarios which would help to reach an average of 100 g CO 2 /km well-to-wheel for new vehicles, in the best economic and technical conditions. This could include the combination and optimization of the ICE/gasoline system, hybridization, resorting to electric motorization and the introduction of non-fossil fuels such as biofuels, natural gas or other low carbon alternatives. More specifically, how close are car makers to meeting 2012 target in Europe (130 g CO 2 /km tank-to-wheel)?, how will they achieve the next target of 95 g CO 2 /km (tank-to-wheel) by 2020?, how and when can we achieve 60 g CO 2 /km (tankto-wheel)? The workshop addressed this brief via some structured sessions that explored: The view from the regulators and policymakers The view from the automotive industry Future consumer requirements and vehicle characteristics The potential for future technologies Outlook and key messages REGULATION & POLICY Many governments view both the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and energy security as high priority policies. Some have even targeted carbon emissions reduction in legally binding legislation. From a regulatory perspective, it is clear that there is increasing pressure in all major markets to address CO 2 emissions. This has generally been specified as fleet average tailpipe CO 2 emissions or fuel economy based on new vehicle sales and on a tank-to-wheel basis. A summary of these regulatory pressures is shown below: WORKSHOPS Michelin Challenge Bibendum - Berlin

3 The target for Europe is second only to Japan in terms of fleet average emissions. One of the key issues that emerge from this type of analysis is that there are a range of different processes and drive cycles to quantify fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. This can drive the need for different approaches or different technologies dependent on specific regulations. There is clear recognition that more needs to be done to ensure that drive cycle fuel economy is more closely aligned to real world consumer experiences. A more consistent global approach with common processes and standards would enable economies of scale and enable more competitive low carbon products to be introduced to market. There are also concerns that changes of government with different views and priorities leads to instability and makes long term forward planning very difficult. Specific examples include the differing priorities for energy security against lower carbon emissions, the trade off between vehicle weight reduction and safety and the need to define measures that address well-to-wheel rather than tank-to-wheel carbon emissions sooner rather than later. Future transport energy is a critical area of government policy as it directly relates to carbon reduction strategies. It is important that governments work towards integrated energy policies. This is specifically relevant to the delivery of increased vehicle electrification, where energy for transport is provided by the electricity grid. Both federal and local governments see electrification of transport as a major focus area and are providing public funding for a range of measures including vehicle subsidies, targeted R&D, charging infrastructure and other non fiscal incentives to encourage purchase and preferential use of battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. to improve safety and improvements in vehicle function and performance. The automotive industry represents 10.2% of EU manufacturing employment including 3.5 million direct and 9.1 million indirect jobs. The automotive industry in Europe produces the largest private sector investment in R&D at 26 billion/year and generates 427 billion of tax revenues. To ensure that the European automotive industry remains internationally competitive, it is important that regulation remains in balance globally with competing nations and produces products that consumers want to purchase. The automotive industry is very supportive of public/ private partnerships between industry and government to help achieve this balance. There is also a need to develop integrated industrial and government policies that balance regulation with fiscal incentives, consumer information and education, public support for R&D and public sector procurement. Whilst the industry also sees electrification as an important contribution to future reductions in carbon emissions, this is seen as only one measure or technology critical to future carbon reduction targets. The general consensus from the automotive community is that there will need to be a breakthrough on battery technology, particularly cost per unit energy stored, to enable battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles to progress from a niche market supported by subsidies to a competitive unsubsidized mass market product. This is thought to be possible but is likely to take some time and during this period, it is important to address a range of other technologies that will be critical in reaching targets in the 2020 to 2030 timeframe. AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY VIEW Whilst it is clear that the automotive industry is committed to the need for sustainable and lower carbon transport, it is also very much focused on the need to ensure that the rate at which carbon emissions are reduced is balanced with industrial capability and economics. Substantial reductions in fleet average fuel consumption have been delivered by the automotive industry with a 22% reduction in fleet average CO 2 since 1995 despite increases in vehicle weight 49 Michelin Challenge Bibendum - Berlin 2011 WORKSHOPS

4 Source: McKinsey study for the BMU FUTURE VEHICLE CHARACTERISTICS Whilst there are likely to be differences in product mix and specific technologies, there is general consensus within the automotive community on the probable introduction and timing of new passenger car technologies to reduce carbon emissions. An example from the UK is shown below. This shows that innovations in IC based powertrains will be vital in supporting the transition to hybrid, plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles. Reductions in vehicle weight and drag reduction are also necessary. In the longer term, there may be potential to introduce fuel cell based vehicles if challenges in on-board hydrogen storage and supply can be overcome. It is also clear that the investment required to bring these technologies to market in the timeframe required to meet new regulations is probably more than the automotive community can afford on its own. It is therefore important that future technologies introduced to the mass market utilize as much existing manufacturing assets and infrastructure as possible. It is also important that future vehicles meet the requirements and aspirations of consumers. Increasing urbanization, an ageing population, car sharing and changes in consumer mobility preferences such as car sharing will all be key factors that will influence future vehicle characteristics. There is also a clear preference from industry that future fuel efficiency or CO 2 regulations are technology neutral and are based on good science and analysis. An example would be the need to move towards well-to-wheel CO 2 emissions to include fuel or energy conversions in the supply chain. In future, a move towards life cycle CO 2 emissions including materials preparation, manufacture, in service use and disposal/ recycling should allow better long term decisions to be made. WORKSHOPS Michelin Challenge Bibendum - Berlin

5 To achieve substantial further reductions to 60 g/km fleet average emissions will require a transformation in the market to clean or low carbon energy. Scenario analysis by IHS to look at a range of future technologies and energy combinations shows that 60 g/km well-to-wheel is possible but needs a transition to hybrid and plug-in hybrid technology that can make use of low carbon biofuels and electricity. 51 Michelin Challenge Bibendum - Berlin 2011 WORKSHOPS

6 FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES & BENEFITS The demand for new fuel efficiency and/or low carbon technologies has been a major driver for the automotive technology suppliers. A broad range of new technologies are now available that were only ideas only a few years ago. These range from weight saving and low loss technologies in driveline and new lightweight designs and materials for vehicle components through to more efficient and less costly electric motors and power electronics to drive them. The challenge for the technology suppliers is to reduce the cost of these technologies to a level where they are attractive to the vehicle manufacturers and ultimately, consumers. Many of the electrification technologies are still too expensive to be considered as mainstream technologies without fiscal incentives. However, electrification of the powertrain has an evolutionary path ranging from micro hybrid or regenerative charging systems coupled to efficient combustion engines to full electric drivelines. Progress is being made to reduce costs but this is probably the limiting factor for market penetration. WORKSHOPS Michelin Challenge Bibendum - Berlin

7 Source: Valeo The most cost effective technologies to improve fuel efficiency at present are associated with more conventional combustion engines. These include downsizing to reduce the swept volume of the engine to reduce friction and other losses whilst boosting the engine to maintain or even improve performance. However, there are also a range of other technologies that deliver incremental improvements at either component or system level that enable future products to consistently reduce CO 2 emissions without compromise in customer expectations or utility. 53 Michelin Challenge Bibendum - Berlin 2011 WORKSHOPS

8 The current view is that the limit for cost efficiency for mass market vehicles is around 40 Euros/gram CO 2. Technologies that cost more than this will only be introduced if they can provide additional customer benefits or as a more limited niche vehicle that supports development of brand identities. The premium vehicle market offers more opportunities for the introduction of new technologies but by definition has less impact on fleet average CO 2 emissions. OUTLOOK AND KEY MESSAGES Stable long term regulation is vital in achieving future targets but should be globally harmonized, technology neutral and address energy production and use Regulation is a vital requirement to achieve significant reductions in CO 2 CO 2 is a global issue and we need international harmonization of regulations/drive cycles to deliver efficient and competitive solutions (economies of scale) Regulations should be technology neutral Industry should be able to explore and deliver the best technical solutions Industry requires internationally stable and consistent regulations with long-term direction and realistic targets Future CO 2 targets should be based on energy production as well as use and should involve all stakeholders in the energy chain Low carbon vehicles must be affordable in the long term but need initial consumer incentives supported by co-ordinated information programs. Finance is also needed for R&D and new fuelling infrastructures Affordability is the key barrier to mass market penetration of low carbon technologies Initial market can be supported by fiscal incentives and other benefits such as preferential parking, use of bus lanes etc. Longer term, it is essential that low carbon products meet consumer demands at a competitive price without intervention We need an integrated approach combining incentives with consumer education and information on the benefits of efficient, low carbon vehicles Fiscal policy should include support for R&D and new infrastructure requirements in addition to vehicle subsidies WORKSHOPS Michelin Challenge Bibendum - Berlin

9 Improvements in vehicle efficiency and some degree of electrification will be required to achieve 100 g/km well-to-wheel. This will also require low carbon electricity and some use of biofuels. Energy security may drive different technologies in some markets The target of 100 g/km CO 2 well-to-wheel will require incremental improvements in vehicle efficiency addressing combustion engine improvements and fuel reformulation, weight reduction, aerodynamic performance and rolling resistance The expert group believes that the 100 g/km target for new vehicles will not be met without some degree of electrification Grid connected vehicles will require low carbon electricity It is possible that we will also require low carbon gaseous and liquid fuels such as biofuels to meet future targets The conflict between low carbon energy and energy security could lead to variations in vehicle technologies dependent on Government policies. 55 Michelin Challenge Bibendum - Berlin 2011 WORKSHOPS

10 TOTAL GROUP - A TECHNOLOGICAL PARTNER OF CHALLENGE BIBENDUM 2011 Number one in the international oil and gas business, Total Group also plays a key role in the chemicals industry. At Challenge Bibendum 2011 in Berlin, Total brought to bear the various facets of its commitment to mobility issues. At the Exhibition Center hosting Challenge Bibendum 2011 in Berlin, the chemicals operation of Total Group presented its latest car-related innovations. In fact, issues of lightweight construction and respect for the environment are gaining importance across the automotive sector and remain a key focus of Total Group s chemicals subsidiaries such as Atotech, Bostik, Hutchinson and Total Petrochemicals. TOTAL EXCELLIUM - the name for the range of new generation fuels used by the vehicles participating in the eleventh Challenge Bibendum. Energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions were also measured. «Challenge Bibendum has become an important platform in the field of sustainable development and future mobility. That s another reason for us to demonstrate that traditional fuels will continue to play a key role in tomorrow s mobility», said Hans- Christian Gützkow, director of TOTAL Germany. Attending from Paris, Jean-François Minster, Director of Research at Total, addressed a public debate at the event s Strategic Day. Subject of workshop: «Energy and Transport». Minster described the multiple prospective activities of the Group in this field, ranging from innovations in lubricants and fuels to more energy efficient lightweight materials for vehicles and alternative energy sources such as hydrogen for propulsion and traction systems. Total operates two hydrogen stations in Berlin and is due to open another two. In this context, Total will produce wind-powered «green» hydrogen at «the service station of the future» for the future Berlin-Schönefeld airport as part of a pilot project run with a partner company. This ecological hydrogen will subsequently be available to customers coming to fill up» their fuel cell vehicles at dedicated charging stations in Berlin. Total not only participated in the exhibition and expert debates; it also put up an entire mobile service station alongside the Challenge Bibendum 2011 test track in front of the historic hangar of Berlin Tempelhof airport. The vehicles taking part in the rallies were thus refuelled with diesel or TOTAL EXCELLIUM petrol. TOTAL EXCELLIUM is the name for a range of fuels combining several advantages: better engine protection, lower consumption and a reduction in polluting emissions. Not to mention their highly developed engine cleaning properties that help to keep engine parts clean and reduce clogging. Dedicated additives help reduce friction between sensitive parts, thereby enhancing engine efficiency. This results in a decrease in fuel consumption and polluting emissions. For further information on the TOTAL EXCELLIUM range of fuels, please look up WORKSHOPS Michelin Challenge Bibendum - Berlin

Impact of the climate change discussion on the

Impact of the climate change discussion on the Investor Visit, Credit Suisse, Ingolstadt, 19 May 2009 Impact of the climate change discussion on the Dr. Guido Haak Central Functions/Processes, Product Management, AUDI AG Facts regarding CO 2 and the

More information

Progressive Performance Audi on the way to the leading premium brand

Progressive Performance Audi on the way to the leading premium brand Progressive Performance Audi on the way to the leading premium brand Axel Strotbek, Member of the Board of Management for Finance and Organization, AUDI AG Deutsche Bank Field Trip, June 3,2013 World car

More information

Germany. Type: Large Market; Large Share. Original Equipment Rank. Aftermarket Rank

Germany. Type: Large Market; Large Share. Original Equipment Rank. Aftermarket Rank Germany Type: Large Market; Large Share Germany ranks number 4 on ITA s list of top U.S. auto parts export markets. After several years of declining auto sales, Western Europe has slowly begun to show

More information

Fleet CO2 and Efficient Mobility

Fleet CO2 and Efficient Mobility Fleet CO2 and Efficient Mobility CONTENTS An evolving policy landscape Vehicle selection, technology and alternative fuels Driver behaviour and eco-driving training Efficient maintenance arval.co.uk An

More information

FOCUS ON GERMANY: ELECTRIC, HYBRID & PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES FY2015 MARKET OVERVIEW. Analysis completed: March 2016

FOCUS ON GERMANY: ELECTRIC, HYBRID & PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES FY2015 MARKET OVERVIEW. Analysis completed: March 2016 FOCUS ON GERMANY: ELECTRIC, HYBRID & PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES FY2015 MARKET OVERVIEW Analysis completed: March 2016 All Rights Reserved JATO Dynamics Ltd 1 INTRODUCTION The electrification of the global

More information

shecco input to EC public hearing on a European strategy on clean and energy efficient vehicles

shecco input to EC public hearing on a European strategy on clean and energy efficient vehicles shecco input to EC public hearing on a European strategy on clean and energy efficient vehicles 11 march 2010 market research b2b platforms public affairs events management Brussels, 11 March 2010 In 1886,

More information

Integrated electronics for enhanced performance, energy efficiency and reduced emissions

Integrated electronics for enhanced performance, energy efficiency and reduced emissions Integrated electronics for enhanced performance, energy efficiency and reduced emissions A SHARED DRIVE Hyperdrive Innovation develops powertrain systems for electric, hybrid and conventionally powered

More information

Cleantech in China The road to increasing electric vehicle adoption

Cleantech in China The road to increasing electric vehicle adoption www.pwc.com/cleantech Cleantech in China The road to increasing electric vehicle adoption March 2013 China has held the title of world s largest auto market since 2009, when it surpassed the U.S. with

More information

Our New MIT Report: On the Road towards 2050. John B. Heywood Sloan Automotive Laboratory, M.I.T.

Our New MIT Report: On the Road towards 2050. John B. Heywood Sloan Automotive Laboratory, M.I.T. Our New MIT Report: On the Road towards 2050 John B. Heywood Sloan Automotive Laboratory, M.I.T. Presentation at 11 th Concawe Symposium Brussels, February 24, 2015 Issued a Series of Reports On the Road

More information

Global collaboration. The Sustainable Mobility Project Mobility 2030

Global collaboration. The Sustainable Mobility Project Mobility 2030 Global collaboration The Sustainable Mobility Project Mobility 2030 April 2000 to July 2004 Sustainable mobility / sustainable transportation The ability to meet the needs of society to move freely, gain

More information

Investigation into the Scope for the Transport Sector to Switch to Electric Vehicles and Plugin Hybrid Vehicles. October 2008

Investigation into the Scope for the Transport Sector to Switch to Electric Vehicles and Plugin Hybrid Vehicles. October 2008 Investigation into the Scope for the Transport Sector to Switch to Electric and Plugin Hybrid October 2008 Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform: Department for Transport Investigation

More information

Reducing CO2 emissions from cars and vans. Backgrounder

Reducing CO2 emissions from cars and vans. Backgrounder Reducing CO2 emissions from cars and vans Backgrounder May 2015 SUMMARY a. The automobile industry in Europe has invested heavily in innovations designed to bring down significantly the CO2 emissions from

More information

There are numerous national policy drivers for low emission vehicles

There are numerous national policy drivers for low emission vehicles There are numerous national policy drivers for low emission vehicles Reducing CO 2 (GHG) emissions from road transport meeting Government s carbon budgets Reducing NOx/PM from road transport, improving

More information

Quantifying the emission saving potential of LPG in the UK fleet. For UKLPG 15/10/2013

Quantifying the emission saving potential of LPG in the UK fleet. For UKLPG 15/10/2013 Quantifying the emission saving potential of LPG in the UK fleet For UKLPG 15/10/2013 Author Celine Cluzel Principal Consultant celine.cluzel@element-energy.co.uk Element Energy Limited Objective and summary

More information

ICCT mission and activities

ICCT mission and activities Global Best Practices in Fuel Efficiency Policies Anup Bandivadekar CSE Workshop on Transport and Climate 24-25 July 2013, New Delhi ICCT mission and activities The mission of ICCT is to dramatically improve

More information

Car CO2 taxation and it s impact on the British car fleet

Car CO2 taxation and it s impact on the British car fleet Car CO2 taxation and it s impact on the British car fleet Ministry of Industry and Information Technology International Council on Clean Transportation Vehicle Fuel Consumption Regulation and Fiscal Policy

More information

Transport Sector in India

Transport Sector in India Transport Sector in India Carbon Emissions: Technology Mitigation Options through 2030 Ankur Chaudhary Indian Institute of Technology Delhi GHG emissions from the Transport Worldwide: Sector 23% of all

More information

The King Review of low-carbon cars. Part 1: The potential for CO 2 reduction Part 2: Policy Recommendations

The King Review of low-carbon cars. Part 1: The potential for CO 2 reduction Part 2: Policy Recommendations The King Review of low-carbon cars Part 1: The potential for CO 2 reduction Part 2: Policy Recommendations Professor Julia King CBE FREng Promoting Low Carbon Vehicles: Policy and Practical Action 7 th

More information

Reducing CO2 Emissions from New Cars: A Study of Major Car Manufacturers' Progress in 2006. November 2007

Reducing CO2 Emissions from New Cars: A Study of Major Car Manufacturers' Progress in 2006. November 2007 Reducing CO2 Emissions from New Cars: A Study of Major Car Manufacturers' Progress in 2006 November 2007 1 Reducing CO2 Emissions from New Cars: A Study of Major Car Manufacturers' Progress in 2006 November

More information

Natural Gas Vehicles and Climate Change A Briefing Paper

Natural Gas Vehicles and Climate Change A Briefing Paper Natural Gas Vehicles and Climate Change A Briefing Paper This is a summary of the issues related to the use of natural gas vehicles to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. It has been prepared to inform

More information

Life Cycle CO 2 Footprint of a LCVTP vehicle

Life Cycle CO 2 Footprint of a LCVTP vehicle Life Cycle CO 2 Footprint of a LCVTP vehicle LCVTP Final Dissemination Event 21 February 2012 Jane Patterson Technology, Innovation & Strategy Ricardo UK RD.12/22401.2 Introduction LCVTP has developed

More information

The Potential for Battery Electric Vehicles in New Zealand

The Potential for Battery Electric Vehicles in New Zealand The Potential for Battery Electric Vehicles in New Zealand Dr Mike Duke 1, Timothy Anderson 2 1,2 Department of Engineering, The University of Waikato Keywords: Battery electric vehicles, New Zealand Abstract

More information

Transformation of the powertrain and implication for business strategy. Dr. Bernd Hense, Daimler AG

Transformation of the powertrain and implication for business strategy. Dr. Bernd Hense, Daimler AG Transformation of the powertrain and implication for business strategy 1 The Global Challenge Limited Resources Creeping Mobility Law / Legislation 100 $/barrel 80 60 40 E.g.: Oil Price? 11/09: $78 Megacities

More information

Michael Bitter, Robert Bosch GmbH

Michael Bitter, Robert Bosch GmbH Perspective on CO 2 - Penetration in CV-Market Michael Bitter, Robert Bosch GmbH 1 CO 2 Emission [g/km] Perspective on CO 2 - Penetration in CV-Market Development of average CO 2 -emission in Europe Heavy

More information

2020 renewable heat and transport targets inquiry Energy and Climate Change Committee

2020 renewable heat and transport targets inquiry Energy and Climate Change Committee 2020 renewable heat and transport targets inquiry Energy and Climate Change Committee 1. Introduction The Climate Change Committee is conducting an inquiry exploring the main challenges with, and potential

More information

Overview of Fuel Cell Programs in IPHE Countries. Dr. Stian Nygaard

Overview of Fuel Cell Programs in IPHE Countries. Dr. Stian Nygaard Overview of Fuel Cell Programs in IPHE Countries Dr. Stian Nygaard 1 IPHE Overview Partnership of 17 countries plus the EC Forum for international collaboration on RD&D, policy, and education IPHE members

More information

and fuel consumption from new cars: Assessing the near-term technology potential in the EU

and fuel consumption from new cars: Assessing the near-term technology potential in the EU www.theicct.org Briefing January 2013 Reducing CO 2 and fuel consumption from new cars: Assessing the near-term technology potential in the EU 1. Effect of the EU-CO 2 regulation The average CO 2 emissions

More information

POLICY ACTIONS INVESTING IN INNOVATION

POLICY ACTIONS INVESTING IN INNOVATION The BC Energy Plan ALTERNATIVE ENERGY Government will work with other agencies to maximize opportunities to develop, deploy and export British Columbia clean and alternative energy technologies. POLICY

More information

Key Solutions CO₂ assessment

Key Solutions CO₂ assessment GE Capital Key Solutions CO₂ assessment CO₂ emissions from company car fleets across Europe s major markets between 2008 and 2010 www.gecapital.eu/fleet Contents Introduction and key findings Reduction

More information

Position Paper 2015 / 04

Position Paper 2015 / 04 Future CO 2 emissions standards for passenger cars Climate change and road transport Document adopted by the 7 th Meeting of the industriall Europe Executive Committee, Brussels, 2 nd December 2015 IndustriAll

More information

THE TECHNOLOGY TO REACH 60 MPG BY 2025

THE TECHNOLOGY TO REACH 60 MPG BY 2025 THE TECHNOLOGY TO REACH 60 MPG BY 2025 Putting Fuel-Saving Technology to Work to Save Oil and Cut Pollution Increasing the fuel efficiency of new cars and trucks is a critical step towards cutting America

More information

Electric Vehicles: Performance, Cost, Penetration

Electric Vehicles: Performance, Cost, Penetration Electric Vehicles: Performance, Cost, Penetration John German October 27, 2014 CCAP MAIN-Latin American Regional Dialogue Washington, DC ICCT is working with governments in the top vehicle markets worldwide

More information

HRS Infrastructure in Germany and Europe - Current activities

HRS Infrastructure in Germany and Europe - Current activities HRS Infrastructure in Germany and Europe - Current activities June 19th, 2014 Washington D.C. Dr. Hanno Butsch Head of International Cooperation NOW GmbH National Organization Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology

More information

Fuel Cell Electric Buses Potential for Sustainable Public Transport in Europe

Fuel Cell Electric Buses Potential for Sustainable Public Transport in Europe Fuel Cell Electric Buses Potential for Sustainable Public Transport in Europe An initiative by the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking Bert De Colvenaer, Executive Director Riga, 13 May 2015 Shifting

More information

How Clean is Your Car Brand?

How Clean is Your Car Brand? How Clean is Your Car Brand? The car industry's commitment to the EU to reduce CO 2 emissions: a brand-by-brand progress report October 2006 How Clean is Your Car Brand? The car industry's commitment to

More information

Comparison of low carbon vehicle technologies in fleet use using the Cenex fleet carbon reduction tool

Comparison of low carbon vehicle technologies in fleet use using the Cenex fleet carbon reduction tool Comparison of low carbon vehicle technologies in fleet use using the Cenex fleet carbon reduction tool Chris Walsh, Steve Carroll, Peter Speers 1), Bernie Porter 2) 1) Cenex, Holywell Park, Loughborough

More information

Advanced ADEPT 48V affordable hybrid on path to meet future ultra-low vehicle emissions

Advanced ADEPT 48V affordable hybrid on path to meet future ultra-low vehicle emissions 29 June 2016 Advanced ADEPT 48V affordable hybrid on path to meet future ultra-low vehicle emissions Ricardo-led ADEPT programme aims to demonstrate technology capable of providing near full-hybrid equivalent

More information

Large-scale rollout of hydrogen powered fuel cell cars in the Netherlands

Large-scale rollout of hydrogen powered fuel cell cars in the Netherlands Large-scale rollout of hydrogen powered fuel cell cars in the Netherlands ALV NWV, Amersfoort, 17 March 2010 Presented by Marcel Weeda Outline Introduction: need for transition in mobility Low carbon concepts

More information

WORKSHOP 1: WHAT IS THE BUSINESS CASE FOR ELECTRIC-DRIVE VEHICLES?

WORKSHOP 1: WHAT IS THE BUSINESS CASE FOR ELECTRIC-DRIVE VEHICLES? WORKSHOP 1: WHAT IS THE BUSINESS CASE FOR ELECTRIC-DRIVE VEHICLES? PANELISTS: Lew FULTON, IEA/ETP/SPT, Senior transport energy specialist Tong ZHANG, Shanghai-Tongji University/FCV, Director of New Energy

More information

Powertrain Systems. From 12+12V to 48V: a new road map for hybridization. Dr. Ing O. COPPIN - Valeo Powertrain Systems - France.

Powertrain Systems. From 12+12V to 48V: a new road map for hybridization. Dr. Ing O. COPPIN - Valeo Powertrain Systems - France. Powertrain Systems From 12+12V to 48V: a new road map for hybridization Dr. Ing O. COPPIN - Valeo Powertrain Systems - France May - June 2016 I 1 May - June 2016 Agenda 1 2 3 Drivers for Hybridization

More information

Electric Mobility in Europe. Dr. Gereon Meyer VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH Berlin, Germany gereon.meyer@vdivde-it.de

Electric Mobility in Europe. Dr. Gereon Meyer VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH Berlin, Germany gereon.meyer@vdivde-it.de Electric Mobility in Europe Dr. Gereon Meyer VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH Berlin, Germany gereon.meyer@vdivde-it.de EV and PHEV in Europe EV 2014 PHEV Country Motorbikes Passenger Vehicles Trucks

More information

A Government Perspective

A Government Perspective A Government Perspective Anna West Head of Consumer Incentives OLEV anna.west@olev.gsi.gov.uk 18 February 2014 ACFO EV Seminar 1. What is OLEV? Department for Energy & Climate Change Office for Low Emission

More information

The economic impact of low-carbon vehicles in the Netherlands

The economic impact of low-carbon vehicles in the Netherlands The economic impact of low-carbon vehicles in the Netherlands Final report for the Dutch Ministry for Infrastructure and the Environment September 2014 Cambridge Econometrics Covent Garden Cambridge CB1

More information

(1) INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY OF THE SURVEY

(1) INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY OF THE SURVEY October 31st, 2011 COMPANY CAR POLICIES TO REDUCE CO 2 -EMISSIONS: A SURVEY AMONGST SELECTED WEC MEMBER COMPANIES Composed by Kristina Modée and Frank Werner, World Environment Center (WEC) Structure of

More information

Global Trends in Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards

Global Trends in Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards Global Trends in Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards Drew Kodjak, Executive Director GFEI Fuel Economy Symposium Ministry of Foreign Affairs & International Development 27 rue de la Convention, Paris

More information

European Engine Outlook Potential of the Gasoline Engine

European Engine Outlook Potential of the Gasoline Engine IHS AUTOMOTIVE Presentation European Engine Outlook Potential of the Gasoline Engine IHS Automotive Customer Briefing Frankfurt 17 June 2015 ihs.com Pavan Potluri, Senior Powertrain Analyst +44 (0) 208

More information

CO2 emissions from Motorcycles: Learning's from cars

CO2 emissions from Motorcycles: Learning's from cars CO2 emissions from Motorcycles: Learning's from cars MCIA electric / alternative powered two wheeler working group Coventry 11 th March 2010 Greg Archer Managing Director Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership

More information

Battery Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: The Definitive Assessment of the Business Case

Battery Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: The Definitive Assessment of the Business Case Battery Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: The Definitive Assessment of the Business Case January 2010 PREPARED BY IHS Global Insight A special report by IHS Global Insight's Automotive Group Battery

More information

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT BY IVECO

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT BY IVECO Iveco S.p.A. Via Puglia, 35 10156 Torino - Italia www.iveco.com Publication: IST.081412 September 2008 The data contained in this publication are purely indicative and not binding. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT

More information

E-Mobility in Hungary and the E-Mobility Network

E-Mobility in Hungary and the E-Mobility Network E-Mobility in Hungary and the E-Mobility Network Humanity has experienced some great inventions that changed our lives significantly 4000 BC 18 th century 19 th century 20 th century 21 th century Wheel

More information

Chevrolet Fuel Cell Vehicle - Project Driveway Carlos Franca

Chevrolet Fuel Cell Vehicle - Project Driveway Carlos Franca Chevrolet Fuel Cell Vehicle - Project Driveway Carlos Franca Fuel Cell Vehicle Deployment Manager GM R&D Global Energy Challenge 35% of the world s energy comes from petroleum Overall demand is increasing

More information

ATTACHMENT 4A. Life-Cycle Analysis of Automobile Technologies

ATTACHMENT 4A. Life-Cycle Analysis of Automobile Technologies ATTACHMENT 4A Life-Cycle Analysis of Automobile Technologies Assessments of new automobile technologies that have the potential to function with higher fuel economies and lower emissions of greenhouse

More information

Drive Towards Zero, Volvo Cars Manufacturing Engineering, Luc Semeese Issue date: 2010-04-20, Security Class: Propriety Page 1

Drive Towards Zero, Volvo Cars Manufacturing Engineering, Luc Semeese Issue date: 2010-04-20, Security Class: Propriety Page 1 Page 1 Volvo Cars Electrification Strategy DRIVe Towards Zero Brussels April 20th 2010 Luc Semeese Director - Volvo Cars Manufacturing Engineering Page 2 Company philosophy : DRIVe towards Zero! Zero accidents

More information

How vehicle fuel economy improvements can save $2 trillion and help fund a long-term transition to plug-in vehicles Working Paper 9

How vehicle fuel economy improvements can save $2 trillion and help fund a long-term transition to plug-in vehicles Working Paper 9 How vehicle fuel economy improvements can save $2 trillion and help fund a long-term transition to plug-in vehicles Working Paper 9 UNEP How vehicle fuel economy improvements can save $2 trillion and help

More information

Powerplaza EV Technology & Global EV Mainstream Analysis

Powerplaza EV Technology & Global EV Mainstream Analysis Powerplaza EV Technology & Global EV Mainstream Analysis Global Business Development / General Manager, Powerplaza Co., Ltd. Soo-Hyun Kwon Powerplaza EV Technology POWER PLAZA CO., LTD. Think Green Technology,

More information

TOWARDS HYDROGEN ENERGY ECONOMY IN INDIA

TOWARDS HYDROGEN ENERGY ECONOMY IN INDIA TOWARDS HYDROGEN ENERGY ECONOMY IN INDIA by Dr. S.K. Chopra Senior Advisor Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Govt. of India UNU Conference on Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Alternatives in the Transport

More information

FLEAT Pilot Actions Reinhard Jellinek, Austrian Energy Agency. Fleet Environmental Action and Assessment

FLEAT Pilot Actions Reinhard Jellinek, Austrian Energy Agency. Fleet Environmental Action and Assessment FLEAT Pilot Actions Reinhard Jellinek, Austrian Energy Agency Fleet Environmental Action and Assessment Importance of fleets Increasing share of corporate vehicles approx. 36% of all vehicles are owned

More information

Multi-year Expert Meeting on Transport, Trade Logistics and Trade Facilitation

Multi-year Expert Meeting on Transport, Trade Logistics and Trade Facilitation Multi-year Expert Meeting on Transport, Trade Logistics and Trade Facilitation Sustainable Freight Transport Systems: Opportunities for Developing Countries 14-16 October 2015 EGYPT'S POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE

More information

Mobility and Transport: Industrial contribution to the societal challenge for Europe

Mobility and Transport: Industrial contribution to the societal challenge for Europe Mobility and Transport: Industrial contribution to the societal challenge for Europe EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Automotive R&D, investing in the future of mobility and transport, contributes to the objectives of

More information

ebus. the smart way Electric buses in Europe: status quo

ebus. the smart way Electric buses in Europe: status quo CIVITAS DYN@MO Summer University 2014 Implementing city and citizen friendly electric vehicles ebus. the smart way Electric buses in Europe: status quo Dr. Wolfgang Backhaus Palma, 14 May 2014 Outline

More information

ESG/SRI Conference November 19, 2015, Société Générale, Paris

ESG/SRI Conference November 19, 2015, Société Générale, Paris Sustainability Management & Environmental Protection @ Daimler Dr. Udo Hartmann I Senior Manager Group Environmental Protection Sustainability Management Environmental Program CO 2 -Strategy & Processes

More information

An evaluation of the UK s shift to CO 2 based Company Car Taxation

An evaluation of the UK s shift to CO 2 based Company Car Taxation Taxation of Company Cars Workshop An evaluation of the UK s shift to CO 2 based Company Car Taxation Stephen Potter Professor of Transport Strategy and member of the UK Green Fiscal Commission Context

More information

Case Study of Transport Sector. The Delhi Metro. - S A VERMA Additional General Manager

Case Study of Transport Sector. The Delhi Metro. - S A VERMA Additional General Manager Case Study of Transport Sector The Delhi Metro - S A VERMA Additional General Manager 15th CLIMATE TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE (CTI) WORKSHOP MARKET MECHANISMS FOR CLIMATE ACTION AT THE URBAN LEVEL Berlin, Germany,

More information

Alternative fuels and powertrains. Energy Transformed Flagship

Alternative fuels and powertrains. Energy Transformed Flagship Alternative fuels and powertrains Energy Transformed Flagship David Lamb Chief Advisor, Automotive Technologies & Strategy July 2008 Let s be realistic Automotive technological developments in Australia

More information

Prepared by the Commission on Environment & Energy

Prepared by the Commission on Environment & Energy Policy statement Energy efficiency: a world business perspective Prepared by the Commission on Environment & Energy Key messages Energy efficiency is a fundamental element in progress towards a sustainable

More information

The Role of Electric Drive Transit Technologies in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

The Role of Electric Drive Transit Technologies in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions The Role of Electric Drive Transit Technologies in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions A. Kolpakov 1 and S. L. Reich 2 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Urban Public Transportation Systems

More information

Fuel Cell Electric Buses; a solution for public transports?

Fuel Cell Electric Buses; a solution for public transports? Fuel Cell Electric Buses; a solution for public transports? Key Summary for Europe Most EU nations have adopted regulations to procure zero emission transit buses from 2020. Electrical drive bus demand

More information

Dr. Rainer Feurer, Senior Vice President Corporate Strategy and Planning, Environment September 28, 2012 THE FUTURE OF SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY.

Dr. Rainer Feurer, Senior Vice President Corporate Strategy and Planning, Environment September 28, 2012 THE FUTURE OF SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY. Dr. Rainer Feurer, Senior Vice President Corporate Strategy and Planning, Environment September 28, 2012 THE FUTURE OF SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY. THE BMW GROUP. THREE AUTHENTIC PREMIUM BRANDS. Sheer driving

More information

Automotive Powertrain Technologies through 2016 and 2025

Automotive Powertrain Technologies through 2016 and 2025 Automotive Powertrain Technologies through 2016 and 2025 University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Conference. Marketing New Powertrain Technologies: Strategies in Transition February 15,

More information

H- 3: Composition of the road motor vehicle fleet by fuel type. 2) Relevance for environmental policy... 2

H- 3: Composition of the road motor vehicle fleet by fuel type. 2) Relevance for environmental policy... 2 H- 3: Composition of the road motor vehicle fleet by fuel type 1) General description... 2 1.1) Brief definition... 2 1.2) Units of measurement... 2 1.3) Context...2 2) Relevance for environmental policy...

More information

K. G. Duleep President, H-D Systems Presented at the Michelin Bibendum Berlin, May 2011

K. G. Duleep President, H-D Systems Presented at the Michelin Bibendum Berlin, May 2011 K. G. Duleep President, H-D Systems Presented at the Michelin Bibendum Berlin, May 2011 Light-duty vehicles have received a lot of attention in the last 10 years and GHG reduction cost is understood. Only

More information

SYNTHETIC FUELS: Driving Towards Sustainable Mobility A PUBLICATION BY ASFE ALLIANCE FOR SYNTHETIC FUELS IN EUROPE

SYNTHETIC FUELS: Driving Towards Sustainable Mobility A PUBLICATION BY ASFE ALLIANCE FOR SYNTHETIC FUELS IN EUROPE SYNTHETIC FUELS: Driving Towards Sustainable Mobility A PUBLICATION BY ASFE ALLIANCE FOR SYNTHETIC FUELS IN EUROPE Introduction DaimlerChrysler s product portfolio ranges from small cars to sports cars

More information

Executive Summary. Innovation in hydrogen fuel cells

Executive Summary. Innovation in hydrogen fuel cells EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7 Executive Summary Innovation in energy technology has widespread implications for OECD economies. Although the energy sector accounts for a small share of GDP, the pervasive use of

More information

Toyota s view. on Alternative Clean Fuels for Transport. Didier Stevens Senior Manager European & Government Affairs Toyota Motor Europe

Toyota s view. on Alternative Clean Fuels for Transport. Didier Stevens Senior Manager European & Government Affairs Toyota Motor Europe Toyota s view on Alternative Clean Fuels for Transport Didier Stevens Senior Manager European & Government Affairs Toyota Motor Europe Brussels, 7 May 2014 1 Toyota in Europe Began selling cars in 1963

More information

City Green Fleet Strategic Plan

City Green Fleet Strategic Plan City Green Fleet Strategic Plan Overview Fleet Services Overview of Services Council Strategic Plan/Corporate Work Plan What is a Green Fleet? Green Fleet Strategic Plan Sustainable Procurement and Green

More information

Policy options to reduce passenger cars CO2 emissions after 2020

Policy options to reduce passenger cars CO2 emissions after 2020 Policy options to reduce passenger cars CO2 emissions after 2020 H.P.J. de Wilde P. Kroon February 2013 ECN-E--13-005 Acknowledgement This report has been commissioned by the Netherlands Ministry of Infrastructure

More information

Policy support tool: Methodology and manual

Policy support tool: Methodology and manual Policy support tool: Methodology and manual Report Status: Final Report Date: October 2008 Disclaimer THIS DOCUMENT IS THE RESULT OF A COLLABORATIVE WORK BETWEEN HYLIGHTS INDUSTRY AND INSTITUTE PARTNERS.

More information

4. The role of fleets and fleet managers

4. The role of fleets and fleet managers 4. The role of fleets and fleet managers 79% 5% 44% To grow by 50% by 2010 over 1998 Role of Fleets - Changing operating environment: national, local government incentives, disincentives - Economies of

More information

Commercial vehicles and CO 2

Commercial vehicles and CO 2 Commercial vehicles and European Automobile Manufacturers Association ACEA position Fuel Efficiency is Market Driven Fuel efficiency is one of the most important competitive factors in developing and selling

More information

Future Technology for Hybrid and Pure Electric Cars 2015-2025

Future Technology for Hybrid and Pure Electric Cars 2015-2025 Future Technology for Hybrid and Pure Electric Cars 2015-2025 How all components and structure will change completely Dr Peter Harrop, Franco Gonzalez and Raghu Das IDTechEx www.idtechex.com Contents Page

More information

SMART CITIES AND MOBILITY

SMART CITIES AND MOBILITY SMART CITIES AND MOBILITY Franco Anzioso Centro Ricerche FIAT SMART CITY:A POSSIBLE DEFINITION Smart Cities can be identified (and ranked) along six main axes or dimensions. These axes are: smart economy;

More information

Argonne s vehicle systems research Future

Argonne s vehicle systems research Future Argonne s vehicle systems research Future Driving the Accelerating the adoption of New Technologies At Argonne National Laboratory s Center for Transportation Research, our goal is to accelerate the development

More information

A variety of services for the driver, fleet management and haulage commissioning: Daimler at the transport logistic 2015 trade show

A variety of services for the driver, fleet management and haulage commissioning: Daimler at the transport logistic 2015 trade show Press-Information A variety of services for the driver, fleet management and haulage commissioning: Daimler at the transport logistic 2015 trade show April 20, 2015 FleetBoard: the key to boosting competitive

More information

Automotive Technology - Today and Tomorrow Changes and Challenges in Powertrain and ADAS Development

Automotive Technology - Today and Tomorrow Changes and Challenges in Powertrain and ADAS Development Automotive Technology - Today and Tomorrow Changes and Challenges in Powertrain and ADAS Development November 2014 Dr. Alexander Heintzel, Angelina Hofacker Agenda Two mega trends in the automotive industry:

More information

Effective Fuel Management. How to minimise fuel spend - both now, and in the future. WHITE PAPER

Effective Fuel Management. How to minimise fuel spend - both now, and in the future. WHITE PAPER Effective Fuel Management How to minimise fuel spend - both now, and in the future. WHITE PAPER Table of contents 2. Executive summary 3. Establishing a fuel policy 3. Choosing the right cars for your

More information

The Future of Road Transport in the UK

The Future of Road Transport in the UK The Future of Road Transport in the UK Professor Julia King CBE FREng Vice-Chancellor, Aston University Birmingham, UK UK Low Carbon Business Ambassador UK s 2050 CO 2 e reduction target and the carbon

More information

The Volkswagen Hybrid Strategy

The Volkswagen Hybrid Strategy The Volkswagen Hybrid Strategy - Hybrid Tour with MainFirst Bank 28 th March 2006 Dr. Tobias Böhm Volkswagen AG Sustainability Based Aspects in Mobility Energy Greenhouse Gases CO 2 Exhaust Emissions CO,NOx,HC,PM

More information

March 9, 2009 Series Editor: Ian Parry Managing Editor: Felicia Day Assistant Editors: John Anderson and Adrienne Foerster

March 9, 2009 Series Editor: Ian Parry Managing Editor: Felicia Day Assistant Editors: John Anderson and Adrienne Foerster March 9, 2009 Series Editor: Ian Parry Managing Editor: Felicia Day Assistant Editors: John Anderson and Adrienne Foerster Welcome to the RFF Weekly Policy Commentary, which is meant to provide an easy

More information

LONG-TERM OUTLOOK FOR GAS TO 2 35

LONG-TERM OUTLOOK FOR GAS TO 2 35 LONG-TERM OUTLOOK FOR GAS TO 2 35 Eurogas is the association representing the European gas wholesale, retail and distribution sectors. Founded in 1990, its members are some 50 companies and associations

More information

G-20 action on vehicle efficiency and emissions

G-20 action on vehicle efficiency and emissions G-20 action on vehicle efficiency and emissions Drew Kodjak, International Council on Clean Transportation; David Shorr, Stanley Foundation; and Sheila Watson, Global Fuel Economy Initiative. This short

More information

Focus on the Future UM Automotive Research Conferences WELCOME! Bruce M. Belzowski Assistant Research Scientist

Focus on the Future UM Automotive Research Conferences WELCOME! Bruce M. Belzowski Assistant Research Scientist Powertrain Strategies for the 21 st Century: Looking Beyond 2016 Focus on the Future UM Research Conferences WELCOME! Bruce M. Belzowski Assistant Research Scientist University of Michigan Transportation

More information

09-10-2012: ecomobiel, Rotterdam. Huub Dubbelman, Manager Corporate Communications, Mercedes-Benz Nederland BV

09-10-2012: ecomobiel, Rotterdam. Huub Dubbelman, Manager Corporate Communications, Mercedes-Benz Nederland BV Waterstof, Is hydrogen de betere the olie fuel of the future? 09-10-2012: ecomobiel, Rotterdam Huub Dubbelman, Manager Corporate Communications, Mercedes-Benz Nederland BV NWBA H2 & Fuel Is waterstof Cell

More information

Key Solutions CO2 Assessment

Key Solutions CO2 Assessment GE Capital Key Solutions CO2 Assessment CO2 emissions from company cars across Europe s major markets between 2008 and 2012 GE imagination at work Contents Introduction and key findings 4 European overview

More information

ELECTRIC VEHICLE INVEST IN SPAIN Investment opportunities in Spain January 2012

ELECTRIC VEHICLE INVEST IN SPAIN Investment opportunities in Spain January 2012 ELECTRIC VEHICLE INVEST IN SPAIN Investment opportunities in Spain January 2012 INDEX I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. INTRODUCTION BUSINESS IDENTIFICATION BUSINESS ANALYSIS OPPORTUNITIES AND PROGRESSION FORECASTS

More information

Decarbonising transport: The role of advanced biofuels in future transport options

Decarbonising transport: The role of advanced biofuels in future transport options VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND LTD Decarbonising transport: The role of advanced biofuels in future transport options European Biofuels Technology Platform (EBTP) 7 th Stakeholder Plenary Meeting

More information

Greenhouse gas abatement potential in Israel

Greenhouse gas abatement potential in Israel Greenhouse gas abatement potential in Israel Israel s GHG abatement cost curve Translated executive summary, November 2009 1 Executive Summary Background At the December 2009 UNFCCC Conference in Copenhagen,

More information

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Steiger The Future of Cars based on technical, social and political framework conditions

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Steiger The Future of Cars based on technical, social and political framework conditions Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Steiger The Future of Cars based on technical, social and political framework conditions 54 th Tylösand Conference 29. August 2011, Halmstad, Sweden Group External Relations Future

More information

2 nd National Workshop on Global Fuel Economy Initiative (GFEI) in Mauritius. Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development 27 th November 2014

2 nd National Workshop on Global Fuel Economy Initiative (GFEI) in Mauritius. Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development 27 th November 2014 2 nd National Workshop on Global Fuel Economy Initiative (GFEI) in Mauritius Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development 27 th November 2014 1 Global Fuel Economy Initiative Background Estimated

More information

The Hart report: The Economics of aeuropean Hydrogen Infrastructure for Automotive

The Hart report: The Economics of aeuropean Hydrogen Infrastructure for Automotive MEDIA BACKGROUNDER The Hart report: The Economics of aeuropean Hydrogen Infrastructure for Automotive Introduction In 24, Linde commissioned David Hart, of e4tech, Switzerland to assess the costs of a

More information

REGULATIONS. 5.6.2009 EN Official Journal of the European Union L 140/1

REGULATIONS. 5.6.2009 EN Official Journal of the European Union L 140/1 5.6.2009 EN Official Journal of the European Union L 140/1 I (Acts adopted under the EC Treaty/Euratom Treaty whose publication is obligatory) REGULATIONS REGULATION (EC) No 443/2009 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT

More information