1 ÖZET TÜRKÇEDE ÜNLÜ ALMAŞMASI Semra BATURAY Bu çalışma Türkçe yansıma ikilemelerdeki ses değişimlerini araştırmakta ve bağlamdan bağımsız ses değişimlerini ifade etmek için kullanılan almaşma temelli bir çözümleme önermektedir. Çalışma Türkçe yansıma ikilemelerinin barındırdıkları ses değişmeleri açısından bir eğilim sergileyip sergilemediklerini sorgulamaktadır. Çalışmada, bağlamdan bağımsız olarak var olan ses değişimlerinin aslında bir tür ses almaşması olduğu ve Guerssel & Lovenstamm (1996) da önerilen Almaşık örgü yü takip ettiği savunulmaktadır. Buna göre Türkçe yansıma ikilemelerdeki [a]-[u] ve [e]-[ü] ünlü değişimleri Almaşık örgü deki A U değişimine tabi olarak açıklanabilmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: almaşma, yansıma ikilemeler. ABSTRACT APOPHONY IN TURKISH The present work investigates the sound alternations in Turkish onomatopoeic reduplications and offers an analysis based on apophony, which is the label for context-free sound alternations. It questions whether Turkish onomatopoeic reduplication displays any regularity with respect to the vocalic changes observed in the forms. The study claims that context-free sound alternations in onomatopoeic reduplications are some form of apophony and follows the Apophonic path offered by Guerssel and Lowenstamm (1996). Turkish implements A U alternation for both [a]-[u] and [e]-[ü] changes observed in onomatopoeic reduplications. Arş. Gör. Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi, Batı Diller ve Edebiyatları
2 202 Semra BATURAY Key Words: apophony, onomatopoeic reduplication. 1. Introduction In general terms, vowel harmony is a context dependent vocalic alternation where the quality of the vowel is dependent on the quality of preceding or following vowels in terms of palatality, height, length or labiality of the vowel segment. This implies that there is a particular context which acts as a trigger for the vocalic alternation. Turkic languages have long been observed to involve two types of vowel harmony (palatal harmony and labial harmony). However, there are also vocalic alternations observed in languages which do not seem to be following a specific context, i.e. the alternation is a context-free vocalic alternation. The context free sound alternations have been observed in the morpho-phonological systems of many languages. A more detailed investigation of these alternations revealed that they seem to follow certain patterns which have been labeled apophony in the literature. Consider the perfective-imperfective derivation in (1a-d) from Classical Arabic. The examples are slightly modified for present purposes. (1) a. b. c. d. Gloss Perfective Imperfective lbs dress labis+a ya+lbas+u ktb write katab+a ya+ktub+u drb hit darab+a ya+drib+u kbr be great kabur+a ya+kbur+u Guerssel and Lowenstamm (1996:1) example (1) The underlined sounds in (1c-d) have been analyzed as indicating different grammatical functions and involving a regular pattern of sound alternation. In this alternation a derivational process is assumed to be present between the two sounds in that one is derived from the other. This process is labeled apophony by Guerssel and Lowenstamm (1996) and assumed to be universally present in all languages. Similar to languages where apophony is observed, Turkish has some alternations which seem to exhibit some regularity. I point
3 Apophony In Turkish 203 out that the sound alternations observed in onomatopoeic reduplications are that sorts of alternations which are exemplified in (2a-c) below. We provide theoretical discussions on the availability of analyzing these alternations as following some form of apophony. (2) a. tak tuk b. kem küm c. takır tukur rat tat tat faltering rattling (2a-c) present the data in which basic vocalic changes are observed. 1 As seen from the examples (2a-b), we have [a]-[u] and [e]- [ü] alternations which may also be observed in non-onomatopoeic reduplications such as yanlış yunluş in a wrong way and tek tük one or two. (2c) shows that the alternation is also observed in polysyllabic onomatopoeic reduplications where vowel harmony is also observed alongside the apophony. Note that [a]-[u] and [e]-[ü] alternation is not the only option in onomatopoeic reduplications. Consider the non-alternating pairs in (3a-b) which show that the vocalic alternation is not an obligatory process and vowels may remain the same in onomatopoeic reduplications. (3) a. tak tak b. fel fel knock knock meaningless glance Working on the regular vocalic alternations in onomatopoeic reduplications exemplified above, I argue that the sound alternations in Turkish onomatopoeic reduplications can be analyzed as following from the Apophonic path provided by Guerssel and Lowenstamm (1996) and developed by Ségéral and Scheer (1998). Turkish implements the A U alternations from the path for vocalic alternations. Moreover, there seems to be a relationship between vowel harmony and apophony in poly-syllabic onomatopoeic reduplications. 2 The contribution of the study is twofold. First, the present study is the first theoretical study on sound alternations in onomatopoeic reduplications in Turkish. Some earlier and comprehensive works such as Tuna (1948), Hatipoğlu (1971, 1981), Zülfikar (1995) and Demircan (2009) observed and described reduplications and the alternations mentioned above. However, a 1 There are also consonantal changes observed in onomatopoeic reduplications such as çat pat smattering, zırt pırt frequently, pat küt with biffs and bams, hır gür noisy squabble. These alternations are excluded from the analysis here. 2 The relationships between apophony and vowel harmony is excluded from the analysis here. See Baturay (2010) for an analysis based on the idea that apophony is a morphological operation and follows vowel harmony which is a phonological operation.
4 204 Semra BATURAY theoretical work on the issue has so far been lacking. Therefore, as the first study on apophony in Turkish, it contributes to the theoretical description of Turkish. Second, the study provides further evidence for the universality of the Apophonic path offered by Guerssel and Lowenstamm (1996). Therefore, our study also contributes to the general theory by providing discussions of more data. The article is organized as follows: In section 2 I will provide a brief discussion on onomatopoeic reduplication. I will introduce the theoretical background of the study in Section 3. Section 4 will discuss the apophony observed in onomatopoeic reduplications. Finally, the conclusion part will summarize the work. 2. Onomatopoeic reduplication The sound alternations I focus on are those involved in onomatopoeic reduplications in Turkish. Reduplication is a phenomenon which means the repetition of any linguistic units for various grammatical purposes such as intensifying and strengthening the meaning, enriching the concept, and deriving new words. There are different analyses on the issue of reduplication as to whether reduplication involves phonological copying (McCarthy & Prince 1995) or morphological doubling (Inkelas & Zoll 2005). I will not go into the details of these analyses here but see Baturay (in press) for a classification based on Inkelas and Zoll s (2005) system. Reduplication in Turkish has a wide range of application, and the data displaying the phenomenon are quite diverse, making it a challenge to provide a complete analysis. Therefore, as an initial step, I distinguish between reduplication with lexical forms such as kalem kağıt pen paper, ana baba mother father and reduplication with onomatopoeic forms such as şapır şupur smacking, tak tuk rat tat tat, and restrict the analysis here to the latter category. 3 As for the onomatopoeic forms, they are considered here as reflections of sensations which can be perceived via the five senses, and not just those which are purely sound reflections. Although onomatopoeia and reduplication are usually seen as two distinct phenomena, they are related to each other in a number of respects. That is to say, onomatopoeia can be observed in reduplication in Turkish: e.g. şak şak sound of applause, car car chatty. Thus, reduplication seems to be a morphological device with which onomatopoeic forms are turned into usable linguistic forms 3 Note that this is only a rough generalization based on the present purposes. See Baturay (in press) for a detailed discussion on the classification of reduplication like constructions in Turkish.
5 Apophony In Turkish 205 with a function in the sentence. That is, an onomatopoeic form such as şak cannot stand alone, but reduplication which is used as a word formation process can form a new lexical item out of şak, namely şak şak sound of applause, which now can stand alone. 3. Theoretical framework: Government Phonology The theoretical background of the present study is Government Phonology and the discussions and analyses here are based on the basic premises of the theory as proposed by Kaye, Lowenstamm & Vergnaud (KLV) (1985, 1990), Kaye (1990), Kaye (1995). The ground rules of this theory are privativeness, universality and non-arbitrariness (KLV, 1990:194). In Government Phonology there is no order of phonological processes. The processes apply only when they are necessary as stated in the Minimality Hypothesis (Kaye, 1995:291). This is given in (4) below. (4) Minimality Hypothesis Processes apply whenever the conditions that trigger them are satisfied. (Kaye, 1995:291) example (1) Now, let us describe the basic tenets of GP with respect to the issues of constituent structure, empty categories and elements in phonological theory Constituent structure Government Phonology is a non-linear approach to phonology where words consist of sequences of onsets (O) and rimes (rhymes) (R), where the rime in turn contains the nucleus (N). O refers to consonants and N to vowels. These constituents, which can also be branching, dominate skeletal positions which can be occupied by phonological expressions, yielding individual sounds such as [k, m, a], etc. (KLV, 1990:199). Consider (5a-b) below which represent these constituents.
6 206 Semra BATURAY (5) a. O N b. O R N X X X X X [b] [a] [b] [a] [b] These three constituents are subject to three universal principles given in (Kaye, 2000:6). Consider (6a-c). onset. (6) a. Every nucleus can and must license a preceding b. Every onset must be licensed by a following nucleus. c. Every constituent licenser must dominate a skeletal point. KLV (1990:203) point out that two positions which are dominated by a single constituent are in a government relationship. A government relationship is a binary, asymmetrical relationship consisting of a governor and a governee. Consider (7). (7) O (Governor) X X (Governee) KLV (1990:199) indicate that the government relationship depends on two universal constraints which are given in (8a-b) below. (8) a. Strict Locality b. Strict Directionality Strict locality means that the two positions in a governing relationship must be adjacent as a phonological string. Strict directionality, which universally defines how constituents are grouped together within a domain such as a word, means that the direction of government is not subject to parametric variation. Also, the Projection Principle defines the level of government relations. Consider (9) below.
7 Apophony In Turkish 207 (9) The Projection Principle: Governing relations are defined at the level of lexical representation and remain constant throughout a phonological derivation. (Kaye, 1990:221) example (60) Kaye (1990:199) points out that all syllabic constituents are maximally binary, a process known as The Binarity Theorem. This is exemplified in (10). (10) *O X X X According o this theorem, a constituent can dominate no more than two positions. Thus, (10) is not a correct structure. After giving the theoretical assumptions of Government Phonology on constituent structure, let us now discuss how empty categories are handled in Government Phonology Empty categories Within Government Phonology, an empty category is considered as a skeletal position with no melodic material associated to it. This is exemplified in (11). (11) O 1 N 1 O 2 N 2 X X X X t a ş stone In (11) N 2 has no phonological material; thus it is an empty category. An empty category is interpreted according to the Empty Category Principle (ECP) which is given in (12) (Kaye, 2000:10).
8 208 Semra BATURAY (12) The Phonological ECP: 4 A p(rosodic)-licensed (empty) category receives no phonetic interpretation. P-licensing occurs when domain-final (empty) categories are parameterized as on / off. This means that a language can allow domain final empty categories by parameter and p-licensing occurs as in (12). Turkish is an example of such languages. Also, properly governed (empty) nuclei are p-licensed. In addition to p-licensing, there is a case called magic licensing by which s+c sequences p- license a preceding empty nucleus. 5 Now let us see how Government Phonology approaches phonological expressions Elements In Government Phonology, phonological expressions, i.e. the melody attached to skeletal positions are composed of elements such as A, I, U, H, L, ʔ (Kaye, 2001:252). These elements roughly represent the properties given in (13). (13) A: represents openness in vowels, coronality in consonants. nasality. I: represents height in vowels, palatality in consonants. U: represents roundness in vowels, labiality in consonants. L: represents low tone, slack vocal cords, voice consonants, H: represents high tone, stiff vocal cords, voicelessness in consonants, friction. ʔ: represents stopness. (Balcı, 2006:23) example (21) 4 Proper government: α properly governs ß if 1. α and ß are adjacent on the relevant projection, 2. α is not itself licensed, and 3. Neither α nor ß are government licensers. Government licensing: A nuclear position is a government licenser if its onset governs a preceding rimal complement (direct government licensing). A nuclear position is a government licenser if its onset is the head of a branching onset (indirect government licensing) (Kaye 1995:295). 5 See Kaye (1995) and Kaye (2000) for further discussion.
9 Apophony In Turkish 209 Kaye (2000) also refers to Ø which is also be interpreted as a phonological expression. Elements are monovalent (KLV, 1990:202). In a phonological expression, there may be more than one element, i.e. (A.I) or (A.U) etc. An element can be an operator or a head (Charette and Göksel, 1994, 1996). The head of an expression licenses its operators. For example, in some Scandinavian languages, there are two types of [ü]: while [ü] headed by I can be represented as (U.I), [y] headed by U can be represented as (I.U) (Charette & Göksel, 1996:3). According to Kaye (2001:253), licensing constraints are used in order to regulate the combination of the elements into phonological expressions. In other words, licensing constraints are language specific laws on phonological expressions which reduce the elemental combinations not used in a language by determining the roles an element can assume in a phonological expression. Kaye (2000:2) states that expressions can be headed or headless. The ones headed by the identity operator Ø are called headless That is to say, they are the expressions headed by an empty head. The others are headed. 4. The Apophonic path and Turkish onomatopoeic reduplication This section introduces the theoretical apparatus of apophony and discusses the Turkish onomatopoeic alternations in terms of the Apophonic path. We focus on [a]-[u] and [e]-[ü] alternations. Before getting into the details of these alternations, let us describe how the Apophonic path works in language General remarks on the Apophonic path As stated in Guerssel and Lowenstamm (1996), apophony is the regular alternation of sounds within a word that serves some grammatical function as exemplified in (1a-d) in the introduction section. (1a-d) is repeated below as (14a-d). (14) a. b. c. d. Gloss Perfective Imperfective lbs dress labis+a ya+lbas+u ktb write katab+a ya+ktub+u drb hit darab+a ya+drib+u kbr be great kabur+a ya+kbur+u
10 210 Semra BATURAY Guerssel and Lowenstamm (1996:1) example (1) As seen in (14a-d), the second vowel (underlined) indicates different grammatical functions, namely perfectiveness and imperfectiveness. Guerssel and Lowenstamm (1996:1) state that the vocalic change is sometimes constant and sometimes variable. That is to say, the vocalic alternation seems to be irregular since [a] changes into [u] and [i] in different cases. In ktb write, for instance, [a] in the second vocalic position of the perfective seems to turn into [u] in the imperfective: katab+a ya+ktub+u. In drb hit, on the other hand, [a] in the second vocalic position of the perfective seems to turn into [i] in the imperfective: darab+a ya+drib+u. Guerssel and Lowenstamm (1996:1) claim that this presumed irregularity can be reduced in that there is a very clear pattern hidden in the seeming randomness, and this clear pattern comes from apophony. Guerssel and Lowenstamm (1996:2) propose that the two vowels involved in an apophonic alternation are related to each other by a morphological derivation which follows what they call the Apophonic path. According to this analysis, the derived term of an apophonic alternation is predictable on the basis of the source term. Guerssel and Lowenstamm (1996:13) show that Classical Arabic follows the Apophonic path and furthermore suggest that the Apophonic path is not specific to Classical Arabic but a universal mechanism, which is available in the grammatical systems of all languages. Guerssel and Lowenstamm (1996), Ségéral and Scheer (1998) and Bendjaballah (2001) argue that the Apophonic phenomena observed in Classical Arabic, New High German and Kabyle Berber, respectively, can all be explained by the Apophonic path. The goal of such a theory is to show that among the alternating vowels, only one is lexically present, the others being predictable. The derivational link that relates the lexical and the derived vowel(s) is universal. Consider (15) which represents the derivational link in apophony. (15) ø=>i=>a=>u=>u The derivational link in (15) starts with [ø] and ends in [u]. Moreover, Ségéral and Scheer (1998:56) suggest that onomatopoeia makes use of reduplication and vocalic alternations of the sort found in apophony. Both Guerssel and Lowenstammm (1996) and Ségéral and Scheer (1998) claim that the Apophonic path exists in other languages too. Ségéral and Scheer (1998) state that the Apophonic path has been argued to be operative in Ge'ez (Ségéral 1995) and Kabyle Berber
11 Apophony In Turkish 211 (Bendjaballah 1995) (both cited in Ségéral and Scheer, 1998:31). In recent works Ségéral and Scheer (1994) and Ségéral (1995) (cited in Ségéral and Scheer, 1998:31) have shown that the entire system of strong verbs of Modern German, 43 different vowel patterns altogether, can be interpreted as a mere instantiation of the Apophonic path. They argue that this cross-linguistic stability of apophonic alternations indicates the universality of the Apophonic path. Vocalic alternations in Turkish onomatopoeic reduplications have been observed by Marchand (1952), Hatipoğlu (1971, 1981), Müller (2004), Zülfikar (2005) and Karahan (2008) among others. Below, I will examine how the context-free vocalic alternations in onomatopoeic reduplication in Turkish can be explained with the Apophonic path. Let us begin with the [a] [u] alternation [a] [u] alternation In Turkish onomatopoeic reduplication we frequently observe alternations in which the first member of the pair has an [a] in the first vocalic position while the second member of the pair has an [u]. This is exemplified in (16a-b). (16) a. tak tuk rat tat tat b. fart furt pretentiously Following Guerssel and Lowenstamm s (1996) analysis, this change can be analyzed within Apophonic path theory in the following way. Consider (17a-b). (17) a. Apophonic path (AP): ø=>i=>a=>u=>u b. A U t k t k CVCV CVCV a (17b) shows that the Turkish onomatopoeic reduplication example tak tuk rat tat tat follows the Apophonic path repeated in (17a), namely the portion where [a] goes to [u]. 6 However, we also AP u 6 In the analysis, I take the first member of the reduplication form as the source of the derivation. This position is supported by theory internal reasons and
12 212 Semra BATURAY observe onomatopoeic reduplications where [a] stays [a] as I have pointed out before. Consider (18a-b) where (18b) shows how the onomatopoeic reduplication in (18a) is derived. (18) a. tak tak knock knock b. A A t k t k CVCV a CVCV a..no AP... (18b) shows that the Apophonic path is not always applicable to onomatopoeic reduplication. 4.3 [e] [ü] alternation As I have stated before Apophonic path is ø i a u u. However, some examples in Turkish show that there is not only an [a] [u] alternation but also one with [e] [ü]. The Apophonic path offered by Guerssel and Lowenstamm (1996) indicates the existence of [a] and [u] in the path but not [e] or [ü] sounds. In this section I try to show that the [e] [ü] alternation, despite first appearances, is an apophonic derivation parallel to [a] [u]. Guerssel and Lowenstamm (1996) study Classical Arabic, whose vocalic inventory includes only three vowels: [i], [a] and [u]. That is why they examine only the vocalic alternations involving those three sounds within the Apophonic path. However, languages have different sound systems, despite the presence of common properties. That is to say, while there are just three basic vowels in some languages such as Classical Arabic, some other languages such as New High German and Turkish have more than three basic vowels, as also observed in Ségéral and Scheer (1998:42): in New High German there are also mid vowels and front rounded vowels. Those vowels are called complex vowels since they are more marked when compared to [i, a, u]. At this point, Ségéral and Scheer (1998:42) discuss the complex vowels via the decomposition of the segments into smaller there is empirical evidence for this position. See Baturay (2010) for a detailed analysis.
13 Apophony In Turkish 213 units; elements in terms of Government Phonology. Let us now see what elements mean for the apophony process Elements in the Apophonic path Ségéral and Scheer (1998:43) claim that apophony applies to phonological elements, not to entire sounds. To illustrate this, they provide an example from New High German. Consider (19), which gives the infinitive, preterite and the past participle forms of the strong verb bergen to salvage. (19) Infinitive PreteritePast Participle bergen barg geborgen Ségéral and Scheer (1998:43) In (19) while [e] is present in the first vocalic position of the infinitive form, there is an [a] in the preterite form. There is an [o] in the corresponding position of the past participle form. According to the Apophonic path, the derivation has to conform to the following pattern. (20) Ø I A U U Ségéral and Scheer (1998:43) example (27) In (19) [e] turns into [a] and [a] to [o], but the Apophonic path given in (20) does not say anything about [e] and [o] at all. However, what we know is that [e] and [o] are complex vowels in which there is more than one element. Consider (21a-b) which represent the internal structure of these phonological expressions. (21) a. A.I [e] b. A.U [o] What Ségéral and Scheer (1998) also propose is that the Apophonic path applies to phonological elements, not to the segments. If we look at the example (19) from this point of view, we will be able to see the following pattern of alternation in (22). The example is slightly modified for present purposes.
14 214 Semra BATURAY (22) Infinitive Preterite Past Participle bergen barg geborgen I A U A A Ségéral and Scheer (1998:43) example (25) According to the Apophonic path, there is no change from [e] to [a] or [a] to [o]. The reason for that is two folds: (i) there is no [e] and [o] in the Apophonic path, which are not elements themselves but complex expressions, and (ii) the Apophonic path applies to phonological elements, not to complex expressions. When we follow the alternation in (22) based on phonological elements, we will see that the Apophonic path works without problems as I will discuss in the next section Complex vowels in Turkish Similar to New High German, Turkish does not only have the vowels [i, a, u] but also other high and mid vowels. We can present the vocalic inventory of Turkish in (23) ([ε] and long vowels are omitted). (23) Table 1: Vocalic inventory of Turkish 7 Vowels A e ı i elements A U Ø I Vowels O ö u ü elements A. U A.U. I A. I U.I In Section 4.2 I looked at the [a] [u] alternation in terms of the Apophonic path. However, the alternation in onomatopoeic reduplications not only consists of [a] [u] alternations, but also [e] [ü]. Consider (24a-b). 7 This is actually an incomplete representation of the vocalic inventory of Turkish. There are more vowels occurring in some specific contexts. However, I do not include them to the Table 1 in (23) since the study is not related to these vowels.
15 Apophony In Turkish 215 (24) a. kem küm faltering b. ef(il) üf(ül) 8 blowing not very slowly As seen in (24a-b), Turkish also has an [e] [ü] alternation in onomatopoeic reduplications. Recall that according to Guerssel and Lowenstamm (1996), there is no [e] [ü] change since they only refer to the three vowels [i, a, u]. However, Ségéral and Scheer (1998) deal with elements and state that apophony applies to elements not to complex expressions. Here, I will follow Ségéral and Scheer (1998) and analyze the vocalic alternation in the light of elemental composition. First, I will look at kem küm faltering. Consider (25ad). (25) a. kem c. küm b. I.A [e] d. I.U [ü] 9 In (25a) we observe that [e] is a sound composed of the I and A elements and in (25b) [ü] is the result of the fusion of I and U. Note that vocalic change involves only the A and U elements given that the I elements is present in both forms. Thus, it seems to be the case that only one element is active in the apophony process. Ségéral and Scheer (1998) propose a distinction between apophonic element versus parasitic element for the similar situation in New High German. In the similar line of reasoning, I propose a distinction between apophonic versus non-apophonic elements in that the former actively participates to apophony while the latter remains the same. 10 Thus, similar to New High German, we have to decide on which element is apophonic and which one is non-apophonic in order to understand apophony in complex vowels. With this aim, we can analyze kem küm faltering where we have four possibilities with respect to the apophonic versus non-apophonic elements. The first one is given in (26). 8 At this point, we ignore the -il and -ül parts of efil and üfül respectively since we focus on the vocalic alternation in the first vowel position of the onomatopoeic forms. See Baturay (2010) for the analysis on poly-syllabic onomatopoeic reduplications. 9 I do not mark the head in the expressions since it is not relevant to my present discussion. 10 See Baturay (2010) for the discussion on the apophonic versus nonapophonic distinction and how it differs from Ségéral and Scheer s (1998) original distinction.
16 216 Semra BATURAY (26) kem küm I I (Apophonic Line) A U (Non-Apophonic Line) In (26) we observe that I remains as I but we lose A instead of which we get U in küm. However, that kind of explanation fails since I does not turn into I according to the Apophonic path, i.e. I turns into A, not into I (Ø I A U U). Also, if we claim that I turns into I, we cannot explain how we lose A and get U given that the source of U remains a question. The second hypothesis is given in (27). (27) kem küm I U (Apophonic Line) A I (Non-Apophonic Line) (27) is similar to (26) in terms of the loss of A and the addition of I. If I turns into U, which is impossible according to the Apophonic path, what is the job of I Element in küm? Therefore, this option is out, too. The third hypothesis says that A turns into I as given in (28). (28) kem küm A I (Apophonic Line) I U (Non-Apophonic Line) In (28) the first two problems are repeated: we have an alternation (A I) that goes against the Apophonic path; also, the unexplainable loss of I and the addition of the element U without any reason. These three hypotheses show us that we are not free to change an element into another. The Apophonic path restricts our choices. For unconditioned vocalic changes, the elemental alternation depends on the Apophonic path. Also, the three hypotheses cannot explain the loss and the addition of some elements. Thus, we eliminate all of them and focus on the fourth hypothesis given in (29).
17 Apophony In Turkish 217 (29) kem küm A U (Apophonic Line) I I (Non-Apophonic Line) According to (29), A turns into U as expected by the Apophonic path. I, on the other hand, is passed on to the second form k_m as a non-apophonic element. Ségéral and Scheer (1998) do not provide a thorough discussion on the status of non-apophonic (parasitic in their terminology) elements. What they state is that if an element is non-apophonic in a language, it cannot be an apophonic element. However, they do not point out what happens to the nonapophonic element after apophony. Both in New High German and Turkish, it can be observed that the non-apophonic element sticks to the apophonic element and the apophonic element carries it to the next form, unaffected by an apophonic alternation such as A U. So far we have shown that when [e] [ü] alternation occurs in onomatopoeic reduplication, the A element in the first form is the apophonic element and I is non-apophonic. Therefore, A turns into U in apophony; I is carried to the second form non-apophonically and we get [ü] as in küm. The next question regarding the non-apophonic element I is if the element I goes to the second member via spreading as in Turkish vowel harmony. The answer of my analysis is no, since the members of an onomatopoeic reduplication have their own internal domains. Whether vowel harmony applies across domains or not is a controversial issue. Moreover, there are other complex vowels in which there are more than two elements such as [o] = A.U in hor hor rushing water and [ö] = A.U.I. in kös kös pensively. If we claimed that the element I spreads into the second member as in vowel harmony, we would have to say that A and I also spread into the second member. As there is no A spreading in Turkish vowel harmony (Charette and Göksel, 1994), this claim does not find support from the facts we observe. Thus, I suggest that the non-apophonic element I in kem does not spread into the second member as in vowel harmony but just goes there non-apophonically in a similar way the other nonapophonic elements do. Another question is related to the independent evidence for the apophonic and non-apophonic elements in Turkish. One aspect can be Turkish vowel harmony. According to Charette and Göksel (1996),
18 218 Semra BATURAY Turkish involves I harmony in which the I element in the vowel spreads into the next vocalic position on the right side; and U harmony in which the U element in the vowel spreads into the next vocalic position where it will be the head. 11 Among the three elements A, I and U, only A does not spread. Moreover, it prevents U from spreading into a position where A itself sits. Thus, the fact that A does not have an active role such as spreading in Turkish vowel harmony may be a reason for A to take an active role in apophony. However, that needs to be studied in a more detailed way in future investigations. 5. Conclusion Languages have been observed to involve seemingly context free sound alternations in their phonological systems. Taking this fact as a departure point, in this study I investigated sound alternations in Turkish onomatopoeic reduplications and proposed an analysis based on apophony. I basically argued that the sound alternations in Turkish onomatopoeic reduplications follow from the Apophonic path (Ø I A U U) provided by Guerssel and Lowenstamm (1996) and developed by Ségéral and Scheer (1998). Particularly, I argued that Turkish implements A U alternation for both [a]-[u] and [e]-[ü] changes observed in our data. In this way, the study provided further evidence for the universality of the Apophonic path. The present study contributes to the theory for providing the first theoretical discussion on sound alternations in onomatopoeic reduplication. Moreover, being the first study on apophony in Turkish, the study contributes to the theoretical description of Turkish. REFERENCE BALCI, Ercan (2006) A Government Phonology Analysis of Turkish Consonants, Boğaziçi University, Ph. D. Dissertation. BATURAY, Semra (2010) Apophony in Turkish Onomatopoeic Reduplications, Boğaziçi University, M.A. Thesis. 11 This is a very rough description of vowel harmony in Turkish. Since I will not go into the details of the process, I present it briefly here. See Charette and Göksel (1996) for further information.
19 Apophony In Turkish 219 BATURAY, Semra (in press) Reduplication in Turkish: Phonological Duplication or Morphological Reduplication, Proceedings of The 10th International Language, Literature and Stylistics Symposium, Gazi University, Ankara, 3-5 November, BENDJABALLAH, Sabrina (2001) The Negative Preterite in Kabyle Berber, Folia Linguistica, XXXIV 3-4, CHARETTE, Monik & GÖKSEL, Aslı (1994) Switching and Vowel Harmony in Turkic Languages, SOAS Working Papers in Linguistics and Phonetics, 4, CHARETTE, Monik & GÖKSEL, Aslı (1996) Licensing Constraints and Vowel Harmony in Turkic Languages, SOAS Working Papers in Linguistics and Phonetics, 6, [Also (Ed.) Eugeniusz Cyran, Structure and Interpretation: Studies in Phonology, Folium, Lublin, 1998, 65-88]. DEMĠRCAN, Ömer (2009) Türkçenin Ses Dizimi, Der Yayınları, Ġstanbul. GUERSSEL, Mohand & LOVENSTAMM Jean (1996) Ablaut in Classical Arabic Measure I Active Verbal Forms, Ms. University of Paris 7. HATĠPOĞLU, Vecihe (1971) Türk Dilinde İkileme, Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları, Ankara. HATĠPOĞLU, Vecihe (1981) Türk Dilinde İkileme, Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları, Ankara. INKELAS, Sharon & ZOLL, Cheryl (2005) Reduplication: Doubling in Morphology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. KARAHAN, Leyla (2008) Tekrar Gruplarında Ünlü Düzeni-Anlam Ġlişkisi Üzerine Düşünceler, (Ed.) Ekrem Arıkoğlu, Prof. Dr. Ahmet B. Ercilasun Armağanı, Akçağ Yayınları, Ankara, KAYE, Jonathan (1990) `Coda' Licensing, Phonology, 7, 2, KAYE, Jonathan (1995) Derivations and Interfaces, (Ed.) Jacques Durand, & Francis Katamba, Frontiers of Phonology, Longman, London & New York,
20 220 Semra BATURAY KAYE, Jonathan (2000) A Users' Guide to Government Phonology, Ms., University of Ulster. KAYE, Jonathan (2001) Working with Licensing Constraints, (Ed.) Katarzyna Dziubalska-Kolaczyk, Constraints and Preferences, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin & New York, KAYE, Jonathan, LOWENSTAMM, Jean & VERGNAUD, Jean- Roger (1985) The Internal Structure of Phonological Representations: A Theory of Charm and Government, Phonology Yearbook, 2, KAYE, Jonathan, LOWENSTAMM, Jean & VERGNAUD, Jean- Roger (1990) Constituent Structure and Government in Phonology, Phonology, 7, MARCHAND Hans von (1952) Alliteration, Ablaut und Reimin der Türkischen Zwillingsformen, Oriens, 5, McCARTHY, John & Prince, Alan (1995) Faithfullness and Reduplicative Identity, University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics 18: Papers in Optimality Theory, Amherst, MÜLLER, Hans-Georg (2004) Reduplikationen im Türkischen Morphophonologische Untersuchungen, Turcologica 56. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden. SÉGÉRAL, Philippe & SCHEER, Tobias (1998) A Generalized Theory of Ablaut: The Case of Modern German Strong Verbs, (Ed.) Albert Ortmann, Ray Fabri & Teresa Parodi, Models of Inflection, Niemeyer, Tübingen, TUNA, Osman Nedim (1948) Türkçede Tekrarlar, İstanbul Üniversitesi Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Dergisi, Cilt III, Ġstanbul, ZÜLFĠKAR, Hamza (1995) Türkçede Ses Yansımalı Kelimeler, Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları, Ankara.
A Typology of English Consonant Clusters Csaba Csides 1 Abstract: This paper concentrates on the classification of English biconsonantal clusters and makes an attempt at giving a principled answer to the
Stricture and Nasal Place Assimilation Jaye Padgett Stricture Stricture features determine the degree of constriction in the vocal tract; [son], [ cons], [cont] [-cont]: Verschluss im mediosagittalen Bereich
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS At the completion of this study there are many people that I need to thank. Foremost of these are John McCarthy. He has been a wonderful mentor and advisor. I also owe much to the other
English is a European language of which the grammatical structure is considerably simplified. It has lost much of its former complicated structures consisting of declensions and conjugations, which are
Lecture 1: OT An Introduction 1 Generative Linguistics and OT Starting point: Generative Linguistics Sources: Archangeli 1997; Kager 1999, Section 1; Prince & Smolensky 1993; Barbosa et al. 1998, intro.
Contemporary Linguistics An Introduction Editedby WILLIAM O'GRADY MICHAEL DOBROVOLSKY FRANCIS KATAMBA LONGMAN London and New York Table of contents Dedication Epigraph Series list Acknowledgements Preface
The Buckingham Journal of Language and Linguistics 2013 Volume 6 pp 15-25 ABSTRACT IP PATTERNS OF MOVEMENTS IN VSO TYPOLOGY: THE CASE OF ARABIC C. Belkacemi Manchester Metropolitan University The aim of
EXTRACT 1 Basic concepts It has become a tradition to begin monographs and textbooks on morphology with a tribute to the German poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who invented the term Morphologie in 1790
The sound patterns of language Phonology Chapter 5 Alaa Mohammadi- Fall 2009 1 This lecture There are systematic differences between: What speakers memorize about the sounds of words. The speech sounds
378 Abstracts HILKE ELSEN The Role of Gestalt in Language Processing This article discusses gestalt phenomena in language processing, compiling data from three empirical studies that analyze language acquisition,
: Revitalization of an Ancient Classification Method Institute of Language and Information University of Düsseldorf email@example.com GfKl 2008 The Problem: Sometimes we are forced to order things
L2 EXPERIENCE MODULATES LEARNERS USE OF CUES IN THE PERCEPTION OF L3 TONES Zhen Qin, Allard Jongman Department of Linguistics, University of Kansas, United States firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
THE COLOUR SIGNALING PROCESS IN TURKISH SIGN LANGUAGE Erhan Aslan - Gülşen Danacı - Neşe Arslan Abstract This study deals with the analysis of the signs used to name colors in Turkish Sign Language (TID).
A single minimal complement for the c.e. degrees Andrew Lewis Leeds University, April 2002 Abstract We show that there exists a single minimal (Turing) degree b < 0 s.t. for all c.e. degrees 0 < a < 0,
Europass Curriculum Vitae Personal information First name(s) / Surname(s) Address(es) Elza Semedova Gedirli Street, home N 5, Yasamal district, AZ1006, Baku, Azerbaijan Fax(es) +994 12 498 85 57 E-mail
Contribution of Error Analysis to Foreign Language Teaching Vacide ERDOĞAN Abstract It is inevitable that learners make mistakes in the process of foreign language learning. However, what is questioned
University of Massachusetts Boston Applied Linguistics Graduate Program APLING 601 Introduction to Linguistics Syllabus Course Description: This course examines the nature and origin of language, the history
The Rational Gambler Sahand Rabbani Introduction In the United States alone, the gaming industry generates some tens of billions of dollars of gross gambling revenue per year. 1 This money is at the expense
Historical Linguistics Diachronic Analysis What is Historical Linguistics? Historical linguistics is the study of how languages change over time and of their relationships with other languages. All languages
Supplementary Readings Supplementary Readings Handouts Online Tutorials The following readings have been posted to the Moodle course site: Contemporary Linguistics: Chapter 2 (pp. 15-33) Handouts for This
TÜRKÇE SESLERİN İSTATİSTİKSEL ANALİZİ Pakize ERDOGMUS (1) Ali ÖZTÜRK (2) Abant Izzet Baysal University Technical Education Faculty Electronic and Comp. Education Dept. Asit. Prof. Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi
Regret and Rejoicing Effects on Mixed Insurance * Yoichiro Fujii, Osaka Sangyo University Mahito Okura, Doshisha Women s College of Liberal Arts Yusuke Osaki, Osaka Sangyo University + Abstract This papers
1 Author's Name: Stuart Davis Article Contract Number: 17106A/0180 Article Serial Number: 09-005 Article Title: Loanwords, Phonological Treatment of Loanwords, Phonological Treatment of The term loanword
How Not to Win a Million Dollars: A Counterexample to a Conjecture of L. Breiman Thomas P. Hayes arxiv:1112.0829v1 [math.pr] 5 Dec 2011 Abstract Consider a gambling game in which we are allowed to repeatedly
What Is Linguistics? December 1992 Center for Applied Linguistics Linguistics is the study of language. Knowledge of linguistics, however, is different from knowledge of a language. Just as a person is
WHAT ARE MATHEMATICAL PROOFS AND WHY THEY ARE IMPORTANT? introduction Many students seem to have trouble with the notion of a mathematical proof. People that come to a course like Math 216, who certainly
Offline 1-Minesweeper is NP-complete James D. Fix Brandon McPhail May 24 Abstract We use Minesweeper to illustrate NP-completeness proofs, arguments that establish the hardness of solving certain problems.
Çankaya Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi, Journal of Arts and Sciences Say : 4 / Aral k 2005 Amply Fws Modules (Aflk n, Sonlu Zay f Eklenmifl Modüller) Gökhan B LHA * Abstract In this work amply finitely
Doctoral School of Historical Sciences Dr. Székely Gábor professor Program of Assyiriology Dr. Dezső Tamás habilitate docent The theses of the Dissertation Nominal and Verbal Plurality in Sumerian: A Morphosemantic
MS Health Care Administration (2014 2015) Program Information Point of Contact Alberto Coustasse (firstname.lastname@example.org) Support for University and College Missions Marshall University is a multi campus
COURSE SYLLABUS ESU 561 ASPECTS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Fall 2014 EDU 561 (85515) Instructor: Bart Weyand Classroom: Online TEL: (207) 985-7140 E-Mail: email@example.com COURSE DESCRIPTION: This is a practical
Noam Chomsky: Aspects of the Theory of Syntax notes Julia Krysztofiak May 16, 2006 1 Methodological preliminaries 1.1 Generative grammars as theories of linguistic competence The study is concerned with
International Journal of Engineering Inventions e-issn: 2278-7461, p-issn: 2319-6491 Volume 2, Issue 12 (August 2013) PP: 17-22 The Effect of Anticipatory Coariticulation in VCV Sequences in Chinese Maolin
Bibliometric study on Dutch Open Access published output 2000-2012/2013 Preliminary research report to the Dutch Ministry of Science, Culture & Education (OC&W) January 2015 Center for Science & Technology
Exploratory Testing in an Agile Context A guide to using Exploratory Testing on Agile software development teams. Elisabeth Hendrickson 2 Exploratory Testing. So you bang on the keyboard randomly, right?
A New Interpretation of Information Rate reproduced with permission of AT&T By J. L. Kelly, jr. (Manuscript received March 2, 956) If the input symbols to a communication channel represent the outcomes
Practical Time Series Analysis Using SAS Anders Milhøj Contents Preface... vii Part 1: Time Series as a Subject for Analysis... 1 Chapter 1 Time Series Data... 3 1.1 Time Series Questions... 3 1.2 Types
INDISTINGUISHABILITY OF ABSOLUTELY CONTINUOUS AND SINGULAR DISTRIBUTIONS STEVEN P. LALLEY AND ANDREW NOBEL Abstract. It is shown that there are no consistent decision rules for the hypothesis testing problem
Program curriculum for graduate studies in Speech and Music Communication School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH (Translated version, November 2009) Common guidelines for graduate-level studies
Comprendium System Overview May 2004 Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION...3 2. WHAT IS MACHINE TRANSLATION?...3 3. THE COMPRENDIUM MACHINE TRANSLATION TECHNOLOGY...4 3.1 THE BEST MT TECHNOLOGY IN THE MARKET...4
Morphemes, roots and affixes 28 October 2011 Previously said We think of words as being the most basic, the most fundamental, units through which meaning is represented in language. Words are the smallest
1 epresentation of Games Kerschbamer: Commitment and Information in Games Game-Theoretic Description of Interactive Decision Situations This lecture deals with the process of translating an informal description
Index Index 343 Index A A, an (usage), 8, 123 A, an, the (articles), 8, 123 diagraming, 205 Abbreviations, correct use of, 18 19, 273 Abstract nouns, defined, 4, 63 Accept, except, 12, 227 Action verbs,
Study Plan for Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics is awarded by the Faculty of Graduate Studies at Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) upon the fulfillment
Hacking-proofness and Stability in a Model of Information Security Networks Sunghoon Hong Preliminary draft, not for citation. March 1, 2008 Abstract We introduce a model of information security networks.
Prof. Dr. Dr. Fabian Jintae Froese Guidelines for seminar / bachelor / master theses Chair of Human Resource Management and Asian Business (last update: 10/2012) Contents 1 General information about seminar
Proceedings of elex 2011, pp. 203-208 What Makes a Good Online Dictionary? Empirical Insights from an Interdisciplinary Research Project Carolin Müller-Spitzer, Alexander Koplenig, Antje Töpel Institute
CS/Math 24: Introduction to Discrete Mathematics Fall 25 Reading 3 : Finite State Automata and Regular Expressions Instructors: Beck Hasti, Gautam Prakriya In this reading we study a mathematical model
DRA2 Word Analysis correlated to Virginia Learning Standards Grade 1 Quickly identify and generate words that rhyme with given words. Quickly identify and generate words that begin with the same sound.
Ebner 1 Becca Ebner Pre-position? Preposterous! Preface The goal of my essay is to tackle the age-old rule never end a sentence with a preposition! I agree with this to a certain degree, but that s usually
KAMU PERSONEL SEÇME SINAVI ÖĞRETMENLİK ALAN BİLGİSİ TESTİ YABANCI DİL (İNGİLİZCE) ÖĞRETMENLİĞİ TG 8 ÖABT İNGİLİZCE Bu testlerin her hakkı saklıdır. Hangi amaçla olursa olsun, testlerin tamamının veya bir
2. Basic Relational Data Model 2.1 Introduction Basic concepts of information models, their realisation in databases comprising data objects and object relationships, and their management by DBMS s that
Mathematical Induction (Handout March 8, 01) The Principle of Mathematical Induction provides a means to prove infinitely many statements all at once The principle is logical rather than strictly mathematical,
MA in English language teaching Pázmány Péter Catholic University *** List of courses and course descriptions *** Code Course title Contact hours per term Number of credits BMNAT10100 Applied linguistics
Yıl/Year: 2012 Cilt/Volume: 1 Sayı/Issue:2 Sayfalar/Pages: 40-47 Differences in linguistic and discourse features of narrative writing performance Abstract Dr. Bilal Genç 1 Dr. Kağan Büyükkarcı 2 Ali Göksu
Music Theory IV Final Exam All Chapters H&VL Prof. Andy Brick I pledge my honor that I have abided by the Stevens Honor System. 04/08/08 Due Week of, May 04 2008 Due Week of April 13: Exposition & Development
Units of Study 9th Grade First Semester Theme: The Journey Second Semester Theme: Choices The Big Ideas in English Language Arts that drive instruction: Independent thinkers construct meaning through language.
Points of Interference in Learning English as a Second Language Tone Spanish: In both English and Spanish there are four tone levels, but Spanish speaker use only the three lower pitch tones, except when
Guidelines for Using the Retrospective Think Aloud Protocol with Eye Tracking September, 2009 Short paper by Tobii Technology Not sure of how to design your eye tracking study? This document aims to provide
A simple algorithm with no simple verication Laszlo Csirmaz Central European University Abstract The correctness of a simple sorting algorithm is resented, which algorithm is \evidently wrong" at the rst
1. Learner language studies The establishment of learner language research as a particular area of linguistic investigation can be traced to the late 1940s and early 1950s, when CA and EA started to compare
Language and Literacy In the sections below is a summary of the alignment of the preschool learning foundations with (a) the infant/toddler learning and development foundations, (b) the common core state
Chapter 7 Process Analysis and Diagramming Chapter 5 introduced the concept of business process and composition as an aspect of process design. But how can you recognize a process in a description of business
Data Analysis 1 Unit 2.1 Data Analysis 1 - V2.0 1 Entity Relationship Modelling Overview Database Analysis Life Cycle Components of an Entity Relationship Diagram What is a relationship? Entities, attributes,
Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences Department of Farm Management Prof. Dr. Detlev Möller Guidelines for composition of a Bachelor or Master thesis Contents 1 Introductory wording 2 Composition and
Abstract Phonetic and phonological properties of the final pitch accent in Catalan declaratives Eva Estebas-Vilaplana * This paper examines the phonetic and phonological properties of the last pitch accent
María del Pilar García Mayo and María Luisa García Lecumberri, eds. 2003: Age and the Acquisition of English as a Foreign Language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. M. Luz Celaya Universidad de Barcelona
Pronunciation of -s and -ed Endings Marla Yoshida University of California Irvine Extension International Programs Teaching English as a Foreign Language Certificate Program In this presentation, we re
Chapter IX. Data quality and metadata This draft is based on the text adopted by the UN Statistical Commission for purposes of international recommendations for industrial and distributive trade statistics.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 6.042J/18.062J, Fall 05: Mathematics for Computer Science September 26 Prof. Albert R. Meyer and Prof. Ronitt Rubinfeld revised September 26, 2005, 1050 minutes Solutions
CV Afife Başak Ok Tomurcuk Sok. Petek Apt. No: 11 Daire: 12 06540 Aşağı Ayrancı ANKARA E-posta: firstname.lastname@example.org EDUCATION: Ph.D. (Social Psychology), Middle East Technical University (METU), Department
Constraints in Phrase Structure Grammar Phrase Structure Grammar no movement, no transformations, context-free rules X/Y = X is a category which dominates a missing category Y Let G be the set of basic
MS Health Care Administration (2013 2014) Program Information Point of Contact Alberto Coustasse (email@example.com) Support for University and College Missions Marshall University is a multi campus
Supplementary Readings Supplementary Readings Handouts Online Tutorials The following readings have been posted to the Moodle course site: Contemporary Linguistics: Chapter 2 (pp. 34-40) Handouts for This
Physics Performance Data Mining An Interactive Qualifying Project Report submitted to the Faculty of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor
THE SOURCES OF PHONOLOGICAL MARKEDNESS A Dissertation Presented By KATHRYN GILBERT FLACK Submitted to the Graduate School of the University of Massachusetts Amherst in partial fulfillment of the requirements
B. Agard and A. Kusiak, Standardization of Components, Products and Processes with Data Mining, International Conference on Production Research Americas 2004, Santiago, Chile, August 1-4, 2004. Standardization
The compositional semantics of same Mike Solomon Amherst College Abstract Barker (2007) proposes the first strictly compositional semantic analysis of internal same. I show that Barker s analysis fails
2. Information Economics In General Equilibrium Theory all agents had full information regarding any variable of interest (prices, commodities, state of nature, cost function, preferences, etc.) In many
Metodološki zvezki, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2012, 81-93 Statistical Forecasting of High-Way Traffic Jam at a Bottleneck Igor Grabec and Franc Švegl 1 Abstract Maintenance works on high-ways usually require installation
DATA MINING, DIRTY DATA, AND COSTS (Research-in-Progress) Leo Pipino University of Massachusetts Lowell Leo_Pipino@UML.edu David Kopcso Babson College Kopcso@Babson.edu Abstract: A series of simulations
Learning Today Smart Tutor Supports English Language Learners By Paolo Martin M.A. Ed Literacy Specialist UC Berkley 1 Introduction Across the nation, the numbers of students with limited English proficiency
We Can Early Learning Curriculum PreK Grades 8 12 INSIDE ALGEBRA, GRADES 8 12 CORRELATED TO THE SOUTH CAROLINA COLLEGE AND CAREER-READY FOUNDATIONS IN ALGEBRA April 2016 www.voyagersopris.com Mathematical
ERP indices of lab-learned phonotactics Claire Moore-Cantwell, Joe Pater, Robert Staubs, Benjamin Zobel and Lisa Sanders RUMMIT UMass Amherst, April 6th 2013 Introduction: learning phonology in the lab
17 Chapter Three Voices: Layered Tone Colors Timbre in African Music (pp. 47-52) Timbre (the color or texture of a sound) is an essential element in creating the palette of sounds associated with African
Structure of Clauses March 9, 2004 Preview Comments on HW 6 Schedule review session Finite and non-finite clauses Constituent structure of clauses Structure of Main Clauses Discuss HW #7 Course Evals Comments
CHARTES D'ANGLAIS SOMMAIRE CHARTE NIVEAU A1 Pages 2-4 CHARTE NIVEAU A2 Pages 5-7 CHARTE NIVEAU B1 Pages 8-10 CHARTE NIVEAU B2 Pages 11-14 CHARTE NIVEAU C1 Pages 15-17 MAJ, le 11 juin 2014 A1 Skills-based