BS5839 Part 1:2002 Overview

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1 BS5839 Part 1:2002 Overview 1

2 Contents Introduction So why is the current standard being revised? The brief for the new standard Changes to structure of current Standard Enhanced certification of Fire Alarm Systems The revised Standard gives structure for Variations and arbitrary figures Levels of detection Explanation of categories System fault monitoring Definition of zones Audibility levels for category M and L systems Installation of sounders Visual alarms Fire alarm warning devices for people with impaired hearing Installation of manual call points Selection of detectors Protection of stairwells and riser/lift shafts that penetrate one or more ceilings Protection of voids General spacing of detectors Installation of fire alarm systems Networked systems cable Fire alarm cable recommendations Installation of cable Limitation of false alarms Commissioning and handover System testing and maintenance 2

3 Introduction BS5839-1: 1988 will be withdrawn by 15th July Systems designed to the old standard can be completed to the old standard by mutual agreement with all relevant parties (consultant, end user, insurance company etc.). The following provides a flavour of some the changes, to understand in full Clymac can arrange for a presentation for you and your colleagues at your premises. So why is the current standard being revised? Existing standard 14 years old Out of date with new technology/standards Out of touch with common practice Recommendations needed explanation Not sufficiently flexible Not reflective of how contracts operate No account of risk assessment Not suitable for certification or audit The brief for the new standard was to: Reflect new technology/standards (CO detectors, video detector, EN54-2 etc.) Guidance on reducing false alarms Commissioning/Maintenance guidance Review existing Clause 17 (Wiring) Make more user friendly Simplify existing code Remove unnecessary text Give clear statement of recommendation 3

4 Changes to structure of current Standard Current Code 1 = General 2 = Design considerations 3 = Workmanship, installation and commissioning 4 = User responsibilities New Code 1 = General 2 = Design considerations 3 = Limitation of false alarms 4 = Installation 5 = Commissioning/Handover 6 = Maintenance 7 = User responsibilities Enhanced certification of Fire Alarm Systems Current Code 1 = Installation & Commissioning 2 = Testing (which includes the following) Modifications Routine inspection/test Non-routine attention New Code 1 = Design 2 = Installation 3 = Commissioning 4 = Acceptance (End User) 5 = Verification (optional) 6 = Servicing Routine inspection/test Non-routine attention 7 = Modification 4

5 The revised Standard gives structure for:- Relating to contract (who is responsible for what) Reflecting Common Practice (installation vs commission) Auditing the entire process (optional verification certificate) Variations and arbitrary figures Deviation replaced by Variation Variations listed on relevant certificate for agreement/action Certain parts of the standard are expressed numerically but the values quoted are often arbitrary. Examples of these are: 1. Maximum zones size 2. Maximum area of protection disabled in the event of specified fault condition 3. Maximum travel distance to a MCP 4. Maximum area of coverage by a single automatic fire detector 5. Minimum sound pressure level 6. Minimum duration of standby power supply Levels of detection The new standard uses category to define the level of detection instead of type previously used in the old standard. Type will now be used to describe the principle of operation (e.g. conventional type system). Current Code Types Manual = M Property protection = P1 & P2 Life safety = L1, L2 & L3 New Code Categories Manual = M Property protection = P1 & P2 (M) Life safety = L1, L2, L3, L4 & L5 (M) 5

6 Explanation of categories Category L5 (new) - (Bespoke) Objective identified by risk assessment Coverage may be higher or lower Than L2, L3 or L4 Category L4 (new) - (Escape Routes Only) All escape stairways All corridors Any other areas forming part of the common escape route Open plan office areas excluded - escape route dependent Category L3 Escape routes as L4 Rooms opening onto escape route - except rooms off corridors less than 4m long Open plan office close to doorway leading to escape stairway or corridor greater than 4m Category L2 Escape routes as L3 Rooms of high fire risk determined by risk assessment Category L1/P1 All rooms and areas except: Toilets, showers and bathrooms (subject to RA) Stairway and toilet lobbies Small cupboards - (typically less than 1m 2 ) Category P2 Clearly defined areas with physical barriers (areas to be defined by risk assessment) Barriers need not have fire resistance Category P Systems require automatic link unless premises continuously occupied Detection required in room with ARC transmission equipment All ARC communication cables to be fire resistant Monitored cable between fire alarm panel & communicator 6

7 System fault monitoring Fault monitoring Satisfied by use of BSEN54-2 & 4 control equipment System integrity Single fault loses no more than 2000sqm or 1 floor and 5 devices on adjacent floors Single open/short circuit fault to allow sounder near control panel to operate 2 sounder circuits required in large public areas Circuits for remote PSU to be duplicated Definition of zones Call points on landings of enclosed stairways to be part of zone for adjacent area Single zone can extend from 2,000sqm to 10,000sqm if (was only 2000sqm): 1. It contains call points only 2. It is a single open plan area Maximum zone search distance - 60 metres (was 30m) 7

8 Audibility levels for category M and L systems Generally 65dB or 5dB above background noise level that last for more than 30 seconds. Running water is not included in this. Levels can be reduced to 60dB in the following areas: 1. Stairways 2. Enclosures less than 60sqm 3. Points of limited extent Installation of sounders It is possible to comply with this standard by installing the sounders by the following two methods (although other arrangements are not precluded) Wiring all alarms sounders within the building on a single sounder circuit, with a second circuit containing a single sounder in the vicinity of the control panel Wiring all the alarm sounders on a ring circuit capable of transmitting signal in either direction In unoccupied premises any external sounders should silence automatically after 30 minutes. Radio sounders should silence automatically after 30 minutes. 8

9 Visual alarms Used to supplement alarm sounders Required when ambient noise levels exceed 90db. 2.1m mounting height No closer than 150mm to ceiling Fire alarm warning devices for people with impaired hearing Can Be: 1. Flashing beacon 2. Vibrating pad 3. Radio pager Interconnecting cables and radio transmissions to be monitored for failure Installation of manual call points 3 second response Located at all storey exits and final exits 45m travel distance measured along route that person would actually follow. If the final layout of the building is unknown the maximum straightline distance should be 30 metres. These distances should be reduced to 25 and 16 respectively in the following circumstances: 1. Where a significant proportion of the occupants have a limited mobility and generally be the first person to operate the fire alarm system 2. Where the process in the area result in the likelihood of rapid fire development (e.g. highly flammable liquids or gases) 1.4m mounting height (note +/- 200mm) Storey exit MCP part of the level s zone (i.e. not the stairwell zone) Sited in rooms of high fire hazard (e.g kitchens) Use of hinged cover call point to be recorded as a variation 9

10 Selection of detectors Heat detectors may be used in any area, other than the following: 1. Category P system where a small fire would cause unacceptable damage 2. Escape routes in category L systems (heat ok in rooms off) 3. Where smoke could present a threat to occupants before detected by people or heat detection 4. Areas in which heat detectors may false alarm Smoke detectors may be used in any area, other than the following: 1. Where the fire hazard is presence of flammable liquids or gases that produce little smoke 2. Areas in which smoke detectors may false alarm Protection of stairwells and riser/lift shafts that penetrate one or more ceilings In enclosed stairways fire detectors should be sited at the top of the stairway and on each main landing. With the exception of category L4, L5 and P2 systems fire detectors should be mounted within 1.5m of the penetration. Protection of voids Voids over 800mm to be protected if there is automatic detection in area below. Detection can excluded as variation if void is deemed to be low risk (subject to a Risk Assessment) Voids less than 800mm generally do not require automatic detection unless: 1. Extensive spread of smoke or fire, particularly between rooms and compartments can take place before detection. 2. A Risk Assessment indicates that the fire risk is great enough to warrant additional detection. 10

11 General spacing of detectors The horizontal distance between any point in a protected area and the detector nearest to that point should not exceed 7.5m for smoke detector and 5.3m for heat detector. Section 22.3 Note 2 details that if there is a facility for disabling the smoke element within a multi-sensor leaving only the heat element then the detectors should be spaced as a heat detector. The standard now gives guidance of the spacing and siting of detectors on a horizontal ceiling comprising a series of small cells. The standard now give guidance on spacing and siting of detectors on ceilings with cells formed by joists 11

12 A change to the standard on corridor detector spacing has been included in the new standard Installation of fire alarm systems The installation element only amounts to 2% of total standard. This is to reflect installer s basic responsibility to install system to designer s requirements and to follow good installation practice Networked systems cable Standard fire resisting cable (soft skin) may be used if: 1. The network is configured as a loop & 2. Diverse routing of incoming & outgoing circuits & 3. Short & open circuit protected Otherwise enhanced fire resisting cable (MICC) must be used Fire alarm cable recommendations Enhanced fire resisting cables should generally be used if: 1. The building is unsprinklered with evacuation in 4 or more phases 2. The building is unsprinklered and is greater than 30 metres in height 3. The building is unsprinklered and the occupants will remain in the building during the course of fire e.g. sheltered accommodation/hospitals 4. If it is decided as result of risk assessment 12

13 Installation of cable Methods of cable support should withstand a similar temperature and duration to that of the cable. In effect this recommendation precludes the use of plastic clips, cable ties or trunking where these products are the sole means for support. Other than in the case of joints within system components terminals used to joint cables should be constructed of materials that will withstand a similar temperature and duration to that of the cable The standard recommends that all fire alarm cables should be coloured red Limitation of false alarms Design guidance to minimise false alarms. Systems above 50 detectors to be soak tested False alarm categories include: 1. Unwanted alarms 2. Equipment false alarms 3. Malicious alarms 4. Good intent alarms False alarm rates should be monitored and should trigger an investigation if they exceed recommended limits Commissioning and handover The commissioning engineer is responsible for getting the system to work. It is generally not the responsibility of the commissioning engineer to verify compliance of design or installation. The commissioning engineer should posses basic knowledge of sections 2,3 & 4 in order to comment on design. Any variations to the standards should be documented & referred to designer for agreement or action. 13

14 System testing and maintenance Weekly test by user MCP on rotational basis 50 MCP s = 50 weeks. Previously 13 week cycle by zone Periodic Inspection Frequency based on risk assessment Typically between 3 and 6 months Check panel and visually inspect building Check false alarm log and action accordingly 14

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