1 CHAPTER 18 BUILDING E-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS AND INFRASTRUCTURE Content How Sterngold Outsourced Its E-Commerce System Development 18.1 The Landscape and Framework of EC Applications Development 18.2 The Major EC Applications and Their Functionalities 18.3 Development Options for EC Applications 18.4 Criteria for Selecting a Development Approach 18.5 Third-Party Providers of EC Software Packages and Suites 18.6 Connecting to Databases and Other Enterprise Systems 18.7 Rise of Web Services, XML, and Service- Oriented Architecture 18.8 Vendor and Software Selection 18.9 Usage Analysis and Site Management Managerial Issues Real-World Case: Whirlpool s Trading Portal Learning Objectives Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Discuss the major steps in developing an EC application. 2. Describe the major EC applications and list their major functionalities. 3. List the major EC application development options along with their benefits and limitations. 4. Discuss various EC application outsourcing options including the use of an application service provider (ASP) and utility computing. 5. Discuss the major EC software packages and EC application suites. 6. Describe various methods for connecting an EC application to back-end systems and databases. 7. Discuss the value and technical foundation of Web Services in EC applications. 8. Understand service-oriented architecture (SOA) and its relationship to EC. 9. Describe the criteria used in selecting an outsourcing vendor and package. 10. Understand the value and uses of EC application log files. 11. Discuss the importance of usage analysis and site management. Revised by Dr. Linda Lai of the City University of Hong Kong. 1
2 TURBMC18_ QXD 7/27/05 12:39 PM Page 2 HOW STERNGOLD OUTSOURCED ITS E-COMMERCE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Sterngold (sterngold.com), a century-old manufacturer of dental materials, is a subsidiary of London-based Cookson Group PLC. Sterngold is based in Attleboro, Massachusetts. It has only 90 employees but has offices in Europe and South America. The Problem The company sells more than 4,000 products either directly to between 350,000 and 400,000 dental professionals and through distributors to another 5 million dental professionals. Orders come in small quantities, and very frequently from repeat customers, with a frequent demand for same-day shipment. Sterngold realized that moving its sales online might create easy ordering for its customers, while reducing its own transaction costs, and enabling customers to get their products faster all of which will help to provide competitive advantage to the company. The company already had a simple Web site, but without any real selling capabilities. Sterngold decided that it had two choices to solve this problem: (1) to develop an e-commerce application in-house, or (2) to find an outsourcer to provide the application. The Solution The company wanted a technology solution that allows for a fast time-to-market, access to best-of-breed technology and people, high security, superb reliability, and the ability to focus on the company s core competency. Having only one IT person, the company knew that the in-house solution would require hiring additional personnel, which would temporarily create a large IT department. Therefore, Sterngold decided on the application outsourcing option instead. The Process Surebridge followed its own proprietary emethodology approach. First, an implementation team was created. The team started by evaluating Sterngold s business needs, using interviews to gather the information. Next, specific goals and a timetable were created. A major consideration was to finish the project before the industry s annual trade show, so that Sterngold would be able to demonstrate to its customers the ease of ordering products using the online store. The next step was to create an architecture. This step included a front-end ordering system (phase I) and its integration with the back-office systems (phase II). This was not an easy task, given that there were over 4,000 products with information attributes residing in separate areas of the company. The The Results The new system offers a number of major capabilities. Because the ordering system was integrated with the back office, manual data entry errors are reduced. Real-time inventory status is given to customers before they place an order, and a tracking feature provides an idea of the real-time status of any order. Discounts are related to specific customers, so they know what they will pay as soon as they log in. Real-time authorization of customers credit cards is provided when orders are placed. In addition, the company now can offer promotions to its customers without the need to send letters by post. The site also offers the ability to track customer clickstream movements, enabling the company to personalize products and offer cross- The question then became how to select a trusted business partner who understood the need to move quickly, but carefully. After long deliberation and interviews with potential outsourcers, the company selected Surebridge Inc. to develop and then host the e-commerce application. The selection was blessed by Sterngold s parent company, Cookson Group. relevant information was channeled into a large database. A major task was the creation of a search engine that would be useful to diverse groups of customers (e.g., dentists and dental labs). Each group of customers had different knowledge, requirements, and buying habits. Working hand-in-hand, Sterngold and Surebridge completed phase I in less than three months. They faced many challenges in executing phase II. First, expertise was needed on how financial, inventory, and order fulfillment could best be integrated with the ordering system. This required a consultant and resulted in the redesign of some business processes. For example, several internal policies were modified to support the Web initiative. Also, the company s complex pricing policy was simplified by creating clear rules about discounting. sell and up-sell products and services. Also, the site includes capabilities for conducting marketing campaigns using permission marketing. By 2005, three years after implementation, Sterngold has recorded the following concrete results: By offering free shipping, Sterngold has encouraged more customers to order online, thus increasing the customer base (at the expense of its competitors). More product promotion, which has been easy to do online, has resulted in additional customers and sales. Both the company and the customers have experienced increasing efficiencies and savings on administrative costs.
3 Chapter Eighteen: Building E-Commerce Applications and Infrastructure 3 Much of the communication via fax and postal mail has been eliminated. The online presence has resulted in greater exposure to business partners. Sterngold has created a strong relationship with its technology partner. (Because Sterngold owns the IT infrastructure and Surebridge just operates it, finger pointing in case of problems is minimized.) Use of an outside vendor enabled phase I to be finished in less than three months, rather than two to three years if it had been done in-house. This enabled Sterngold to be the first mover in its industry. The Web site is now being translated into several languages for the global market. Sources: Compiled from Craig (2003) and from sterngold.com (accessed May 2005). WHAT WE CAN LEARN... First, the case demonstrates how an EC application development is initiated. Then it describes how a company selects from alternatives for building an EC application. In this case, an outsourcer was selected to build a custom-made application. Then, a team was created to implement the application. The implementation required a study of existing processes and redesign of the processes that needed alteration. Critical to the project was the need to integrate the ordering system with the back office (order fulfillment, inventory, accounting, payment). Finally, we can see that being first mover to EC markets can be advantageous. All these issues and a few related ones are the subject of this chapter THE LANDSCAPE AND FRAMEWORK OF EC APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT The diversity of e-business models and applications, which vary in size from a small store to a global exchange, requires a variety of development methodologies and approaches. Small storefronts with a few key components can be developed with HTML, Java, or another programming language. They can also be quickly implemented with commercial packages, leased from an application service provider (ASP). Larger or special EC applications can be developed in-house or outsourced (see the opening case). Building medium to large applications requires extensive integration with existing information systems such as corporate databases, intranets, enterprise resource planning (ERP), and other application programs. Therefore, the process of building EC systems may vary. However, in many cases, it follows a fairly standard form. The development process of a typical e-commerce application has five major steps, which are shown in Exhibit The steps in development process are outlined and discussed below. STEP 1: IDENTIFYING, JUSTIFYING, AND PLANNING EC SYSTEMS EC applications, like all other information systems, are usually built as enablers of some business process(es). Therefore, their planning must be aligned with that of the organization s overall business plan and the specific processes involved. Such processes may need to be restructured to fully reap the benefits of the supporting IT. Furthermore, each application must be carefully analyzed, using methods (such as the emethodology discussed in the opening case) to ensure that it will have the needed functionality to meet the requirements of the business processes and the users, and that its benefits justify its cost (see Chapter 5). Both of these activities may be complex, but they are necessary, especially for systems that require high investment to acquire, operate, and maintain. The output of this step is a decision to go with a specific application, with a timetable, budget, and assigned responsibility. This step is usually done in-house (with consultants if needed). All other steps can be done in-house or they can be outsourced. STEP 2: CREATING AN EC ARCHITECTURE An EC architecture is a plan for organizing the underlying infrastructure and applications of a site. The plan includes the information and data required to fulfill the business goals and vision; the application modules that will deliver and manage the information and data; the EC architecture A plan for organizing the underlying infrastructure and applications of a site.
4 4 Chapter Eighteen: Building E-Commerce Applications and Infrastructure EXHIBIT 18.1 The Process of EC Applications Development Project Identification, Justification, and Planning (Step 1) IT as enabler From business goals to information needs System-required functionalities Need to solve problems Identify EC projects Justify EC investments Business process restructuring, redesign Information architecture Data architecture Application architecture EC Architecture (Step 2) Technical architecture Organization architecture Feasibility EC Infrastructure Development (Acquisition) Options (Step 3) Management Build Buy How, which methodology What, from whom Vendor management Project management Evaluation Business Partners Lease Partner What, from whom Which partner, how to partner Join an exchange, marketplace Which one (ones) Business Partners Testing, Installation, and Integration (Step 4) Business Partners Testing, installation, integration, training, security, conversation, deployment, etc. Operations, Maintenance, and Updating (Step 5) Operations Maintenance and updating Replacement specific hardware and software on which the application modules will run, as well as the security, scalability, and reliability required by the applications; and the human resources and procedures for implementing the architecture. Various IT tools and methodologies can be used to support the creation of an application architecture (e.g., see Kendall and Kendall 2005). Because the creation of an architecture is an iterative process, collaborative methodologies such as joint application development ( JAD) are especially useful in identifying and modifying system requirements. The results obtained from step 2 are routed to the strategic planning level (e.g., to a steering committee). Based on the results of step 2, the application portfolio may be changed. For example, the steering committee may deter or scale down the specific project because it is too risky. Once the architecture is compiled and the project gets final approval, a decision about how to develop the specific EC application must be made. STEP 3: SELECTING A DEVELOPMENT OPTION EC applications can be developed through several alternative approaches that will be discussed in detail in Section The major options are: Build the system in-house. Have a vendor build a custom-made system for you. Buy an existing application and install it, with or without modifications, by yourself or through a vendor.
5 Chapter Eighteen: Building E-Commerce Applications and Infrastructure 5 Lease standard software from an application service provider (ASP), or lease via utility computing. Enter into a partnership or alliance that will enable the company to use someone else s application. Join a third-party e-marketplace, such as an auction site, a bidding (reverse auction) site, or an exchange, that provides needed capabilities to participants (e.g., you may use Yahoo! Store). Use a combination of these listed approaches. The consideration criteria for selecting among the various options are presented in Section Once an option is chosen, the system is acquired. At the end of this step, an application is ready to be installed and deployed. No matter what option you choose, you most likely will have to select some vendor(s) and/or software, and then you will need to work with and manage the vendors (see Section 18.8). STEP 4: INSTALLING, TESTING, CONNECTING, AND DEPLOYING EC APPLICATIONS Once an option has been selected, the next step involves getting the application up and running on the selected hardware and network environment. As the Sterngold case at the beginning of the chapter demonstrated, one of the steps in installing an application is connecting it to back-end databases, to other applications, and often to other Web sites. For example, if a prospective customer orders a product from a site, it would be helpful if the site could determine if the product is in stock. To do this, the ordering system would need to be connected to the inventory system. Details of the connection process are supplied in Section This step can be done in-house or it can be outsourced. During this step, the modules that have been installed need to be tested. A series of tests are required (Sommerville 2004): unit testing (testing the modules one at a time), integration testing (testing the combination of modules acting in concert), usability testing (testing the quality of the user s experience when interacting with the site), and acceptance testing (determining whether the site meets the original business objectives and vision). Once the applications making up an EC site pass all of the tests, they can be deployed to the end users. Here one may deal with issues such as conversion strategies, training, and resistance to change. The procedures are similar to those conducted for any IT application (see Whitten et al. 2003). STEP 5: OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE, AND UPDATING It usually takes as much time, effort, and money to operate and maintain a site as it does to build and install it in the first place. To enjoy continual usage, a site needs to be continually updated. For example, at a B2C site, new products need to be added to the catalog, prices need to be changed, and new promotions need to be run. These changes and updates need to undergo the same testing procedures used during the installation process. Additionally, usage patterns and performance need to be studied to determine which parts of the underlying applications should be modified or eliminated from the site. See Reynolds (2004) for more about the operation and maintenance of an EC site. MANAGING THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS The development process can be fairly complex and must be managed properly (Xia and Lee 2004). For medium-to-large applications, a project team is usually created to manage the process and the vendors. Collaboration with business partners is also critical. As shown in various chapters in this book, some e-business failures are the result of a lack of cooperation by business partners. For example, you can install a superb e-procurement system, but if your vendors will not use it properly, the system will collapse. Projects can be managed with project management software (see examples of various project management software at office. microsoft.com/project and primavera.com). Appropriate management also includes periodic evaluations of system performance. Standard project management techniques and tools are useful for this task. Finally, implementing an EC project may require restructuring of one or more business processes. See Kanter and Walsh (2004) for further discussion of this topic. unit testing Testing application software modules one at a time. integration testing Testing the combination of application modules acting in concert. usability testing Testing the quality of the user s experience when interacting with a Web site. acceptance testing Determining whether a Web site meets the original business objectives and vision.
6 6 Chapter Eighteen: Building E-Commerce Applications and Infrastructure Section 18.1 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. List the major steps in developing an EC application. 2. Define the various types of testing used during the EC development process THE MAJOR EC APPLICATIONS AND THEIR FUNCTIONALITIES Few guidelines for developing an EC site were available when EC was first getting started. Today, we can see numerous examples of all types of sites, including B2C, B2B, exchanges, and the like. Sites of a particular type generally have the same underlying applications and provide similar sorts of functionality. This simplifies the task of creating the underlying application architecture for a particular type of site. The discussion that follows describes the major characteristics, functionalities, and requirements the EC system must provide, as seen in some of the better-known EC applications. B2C STOREFRONTS An electronic storefront must support the same tasks that a physical store supports. In particular, an electronic storefront (a seller s Web site where purchases can be made) needs to offer certain capabilities to buyers and to the merchant. These are shown in Exhibit In order to provide these capabilities, an electronic storefront should have the following functions (Nickerson 2002): A product presentation function provides the customer with information about the product through the user interface (browser). The information presented can include product advertisements, detailed product specifications, product views, and sample product presentations. This function can include additional features such as language selection, product search, and customization for customer preferences. EXHIBIT 18.2 Capabilities Needed by Users of Electronic Storefronts Buyers need the ability to: Sellers need the ability to: Discover, search for, evaluate, and compare products for purchase using e-catalogs. Select products to purchase and negotiate or determine their total price. Place an order for desired products using a shopping cart. Pay for the ordered products, usually through some form of credit. Confirm an order, ensuring that the desired product is available. Track orders once they are shipped. Provide access to a current catalog of product offerings, allowing prospective buyers to analyze and evaluate the offerings. Provide an electronic shopping cart in which buyers can assemble their purchases. Verify a customer s credit and approve the customer s purchase. Process orders (back-end services). Arrange for product delivery. Track shipments to ensure that they are delivered. Provide the means for buyers and visitors to register at the site, to make comments, or to request additional information. Answer customers questions or pass queries and requests to a Web-based call center. Analyze purchases in order to customize buyers experiences. Provide Web-based post-sale support. Create the capability for cross-sell and up-sell. Provide language translation if needed. Measure and analyze the traffic at the site to modify and maintain the various applications.
7 Chapter Eighteen: Building E-Commerce Applications and Infrastructure 7 An order entry function allows a customer to place an order for selected products. Information about each product ordered is added to the electronic shopping cart, which is a database of orders in process. This function is linked to the enterprise s inventory system in order to check product availability. It also requires access to the enterprise s customer database to update and use customer data. An electronic payment function enables the customer to pay for the order and thus complete the transaction. Payment options may include credit card, debit card, COD, check (before delivery), and invoice (after delivery). Security is very important in the electronic payment function. The function should provide the necessary security through Secure Socket Layer (SSL), Secure Electronic Transactions (SET), or some other protocol, and customers should be apprised of the security provisions. An order fulfillment function provides for the delivery of the product to the customer. The delivery can be digital for products such as music, software, and information. This function is linked to the enterprise s inventory system so that the inventory database can be updated when the order is fulfilled. A customer service function provides assistance to customers who have problems or questions related to the purchasing process. Options for providing customer service include FAQs, toll-free telephone numbers, , and chat rooms. The product support function provides assistance to the customer after the product has been received. This support may include initial setup and installation, regular operation, troubleshooting, ongoing maintenance, and warranty or nonwarranty repair or replacement. For a comparison of various software packages that support the creation of a B2C storefront, see ecommerce-guide.com/solutions. For more on storefront construction, tools, and vendors, see Chapter 16 and Section SUPPLIER SELL-SIDE B2B SITES A sell-side B2B site is similar to a B2C storefront, enabling one business to purchase goods and services from another. However, a B2B site also has additional features (see Chapter 5), including: Personalized catalogs and Web pages for all major buyers A B2B payment gate Electronic contract negotiation features Product configuration by customers (e.g., Cisco or Dell) Affiliate program capabilities Business alerts (e.g., to special sales, to news) E-PROCUREMENT An e-procurement site is an online intermediary that offers businesses access to hundreds of parts and services provided by suppliers. E-procurement systems come in several variations, each with their own specialized capabilities. See more discussion about e-procurement in Chapter 5. Aggregating Catalogs In large organizations, multiple buyers are involved in making purchases from a large number of suppliers. One way to reduce costs and other inefficiencies in the purchase process is to aggregate the items from approved suppliers into a single online catalog (see Chapter 5). Some of the specialized requirements for this type of site include: Search engine for locating items with particular characteristics Comparison engine for alternative vendors Ordering mechanism Budget and authorization feature Usage comparison (among various departments) Payment mechanism (e.g., use of a purchasing card) Aggregated catalogs are used by many large companies and government agencies.
8 8 Chapter Eighteen: Building E-Commerce Applications and Infrastructure Reverse Auctions and Tendering Systems In a reverse auction, buyers list the items they wish to purchase and sellers bid to provide those items at the lowest price (see Chapter 5). Sites of this sort provide the following capabilities: Catalog of items to be tendered and their content management Search engine (if the site has many items) Personalized pages for potential large bidders Reverse auction mechanisms, sometimes in real time Facility to help prepare, issue, manage, and respond to a buyer s request for quotes (RFQs) Ability to bid dynamically Automatic vendor approval and workflow (e.g., SmartMatch s supplier identification technology) Electronic collaboration with trading partners Standardization of RFQ writing Site map Mechanism for selecting suppliers Automatic matching of suppliers with RFQs Automatic business process workflow Ability for bidders to use m-commerce for bidding Automated language translation Forward Auctions Forward auctions enable selling companies to post items they want to sell, and buying companies to compete for the best prices acceptable by the selling companies for those items. In forward auctions, winning bidders (buyers) are obligated to buy items (see Chapters 5 and 10, and A typical forward auction consists of the following steps: 1. Both the seller and the buyer complete the online registration process, including providing shipping points and regulatory and banking information. 2. The seller starts an auction by listing the product, asking price, and quantity on a form. 3. The buyer chooses a bid product and indicates a bid price and quantity. The buyer may also set the maximum price and bid increments. 4. Sophisticated software determines the auction winner, based on price, volume, and timing. 5. A funds transfer from the bidder takes place immediately. 6. Upon successful funds transfer, a freight company is dispatched to the seller s location; the product is loaded and delivered to buyer s location. 7. The buyer inspects and accepts the product. 8. Funds are released to the seller. The capabilities of forward auctions can be best viewed at ebay.com. Exchanges An exchange is an e-marketplace tying many buyers to many suppliers (see Chapter 6). In addition to combining the functionalities of buy-side, e-procurement, and auction sites, they also have a number of other capabilities: Collaboration services (including multichannel ones) Community services Web-automated workflow Integrated business process solutions
9 Chapter Eighteen: Building E-Commerce Applications and Infrastructure 9 Central coordination of global logistics for members, including warehousing and shipping services Integration services (systems/process integration into e-marketplace, trading partners, and service providers) Data mining, customized analysis and reporting, real-time transactions, trend and customer behavior tracking Transaction flow managers Negotiation mechanisms Language translation Comprehensive links to related resources These lists of major characteristics and functionalities can be used by application developers as outlines or checklists from which to develop plans for specific EC applications. For a listing of software packages that support the various capabilities of B2B sites, see Business 2.0 (2005). Portals A portal is a single Web interface that provides personalized access to information, applications, business processes, and much more. With portal technology, an organization can lower development and deployment costs and significantly increase productivity. Using a portal, we can aggregate and integrate information within a particular working environment, application, or service, or use a single interface to target an individual user s needs and interests. Portals help to harmonize content, commerce, and collaboration with business goals. (See Real-World Case: Whirlpool s Trading Portal at the end of this chapter.) A list of different types of portals and their capabilities follow. Line-of-business portals provide easy access to applications that serve a specific area, such as procurement or human resources. A corporate intranet portal often acts as a gateway to other portals and Web sites operated by an organization. Extranet portals act as an interface between companies, customers, and suppliers, revealing subsets of information to specific audiences. Customer service and self-service portals are often seen as subsets of a corporate extranet. Team or divisional portals are used by groups or communities that want to share specific content or business functions. A personal portal is geared to assist individuals who access information and resources. An enterprise portal is the central portal for an entire organization. It comprises all other portals deployed. See Microsoft.com (2005b) for more features and capabilities of portals. Other EC Systems Several EC systems exist, each with its set of required capabilities. For example, e-learning sites may have a student part and an instructor part, each with its own set of requirements. Collaboration (EC) sites require several collaboration capabilities and tools. Section 18.2 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. List the major functions of an electronic storefront. 2. Describe some of the major functions required by an aggregating catalog. 3. Describe some of the major functions needed to build a reverse auction. 4. Describe the basic steps of a forward auction. 5. List some of the functional requirements of an online exchange. 6. Name the different types of portals and describe their basic features.
11 Chapter Eighteen: Building E-Commerce Applications and Infrastructure 11 not only satisfy current needs, it must also be flexible enough to handle future ones; otherwise the package may quickly become obsolete. Additionally, because one package can rarely meet all of an organization s requirements, it is sometimes necessary to acquire multiple packages. In this case, the packages need to be integrated with each other and with other software and data. This option has several major advantages: Many different types of off-the-shelf software packages are available. It saves time and money (compared to in-house development). The company need not hire programmers specifically dedicated to an EC project. The company knows what it is getting before it invests in the product. The company is neither the first nor the only user. The price is usually much lower than for a buy option. The vendor updates the software frequently. This option also has some major disadvantages: Software may not exactly meet the company s needs. Software may be difficult or impossible to modify or it may require huge process changes. The company may experience loss of control over improvements and new versions. Off-the-shelf applications can be difficult to integrate with existing systems. Vendors may drop a product or go out of business. See softwaresearch.us/e-commerce for a directory of vendors for EC turnkey systems. The buy option is especially attractive if the software vendor allows for modifications. However, the option may not be attractive in cases of high obsolescence rates or high software cost. In such cases, one should consider leasing. LEASING Leasing an application package can result in substantial cost and time savings. In those cases where extensive maintenance is required or where the cost of buying is very high, leasing is very advantageous, especially for small to medium enterprises (SMEs). Leasing is also advantageous when a company wants to experiment with a package before making a heavy up-front buy investment, protect its own internal networks, quickly establish a presence in the market, or rely on experts to establish a site over which they can later assume control. Leasing can be done in one of several ways: Lease the application from an outsourcer and then install it on the company s premises. The vendor can help with the installation and frequently will offer to contract the operation and maintenance of the system. Many conventional applications are leased this way. Lease the application from an application service provider (ASP) that hosts the application at its data center. An ASP is an agent or vendor who assembles the software needed by enterprises and packages them usually with outsourced development, operations, maintenance, and other services. Major ASPs for enterprise EC systems are SAP, Oracle, and IBM. The applications are then accessed via the Internet through a standard Web browser interface (see Susarla et al and Kern and Kreijger 2001). A variation of the preceding option is to use utility computing, which is described in detail later on in this chapter. EC Application Case 18.1 describes the hosting services (Chapter 16) provided by a typical ASP. OUTSOURCING AND APPLICATION SERVICE PROVIDERS (ASP) In developing EC applications, outsourcing is a most valuable option, because these systems need to be built quickly and special expertise is needed. EC software delivery from ASPs is another very popular option.
12 12 Chapter Eighteen: Building E-Commerce Applications and Infrastructure CASE 18.1 EC Application HOSTING SERVICES FROM VERIO Verio (verio.com) hosts Web sites at various service levels, each priced higher than the previous level. In each case, Verio offers state-of-the-art servers, a tier-1 network, and a team of experts to assist in the process of choosing appropriate applications or designing a system. It also promises the following features: availability (get started quickly), reliability (99.9 percent uptime), confidentiality (secure files), data integrity (they perform daily backups to protect files from loss or corruption), throughput (pages come up quickly), scalability (upgrade account as the client grows), support (24/7 access), control (easily changed Web design), and information (Web site traffic statistics, etc.). Clients can acquire self-service accounts for simple transactional functionality or they may work closely with Verio to design and build robust systems to be hosted by Verio. For an additional charge, clients may also purchase paymentprocessing functionality to ease some of the security concerns in a transactional Web site. Verio also offers other value-added services related to Web site design and hosting. It offers NetAnnounce Premiere, a professional Web site promotional service to help Web sites make an impact. Besides registering its clients sites with over 250 search engines, it also offers several proprietary techniques to help a site be listed prominently, including optimized word relevancy advice and optimized meta tags. It also offers load balancing, server monitoring, security, and system administration services. Some of their clients share servers with other clients (essentially renting space on a Web server alongside other tenants ), whereas others pay higher fees to have their own dedicated servers. Clients can also utilize additional technology applications such as Active Server Pages (ASP) and ColdFusion. Although most of these services are B2C oriented, Verio hosts B2B sites as well. Source: Compiled from verio.com (May 2005). Verio Inc All rights reserved. Questions 1. What are some of the major features Verio provides? 2. What are the value-added services Verio offers? application service provider (ASP) A company that provides business applications to users for a small monthly fee. Outsourcing Small- or medium-sized companies with small IT staffs and smaller budgets are best served by outside contractors. Outside contractors also have proven to be a good selection for large companies in certain circumstances. Use of outside contractors or external organizations to acquire EC applications is called outsourcing. Large companies may choose outsourcing when they want to experiment with new EC technologies without a great deal of up-front investment, to protect their own internal networks, or to rely on experts. Outsourcers can perform any or all tasks in EC applications development. For example, they can plan, program, build applications, integrate, operate, and maintain. It is useful to develop good relationships with the outsourcers (see Kishore et al. 2003). Several types of vendors offer services for creating and operating EC applications: Software houses. Many software companies, from IBM to Oracle, offer a range of outsourcing services for developing, operating, and maintaining EC applications. Outsourcers and others. IT outsourcers, such as EDS, offer a variety of services. Also, the large CPA companies and management consultants (e.g., Accenture) offer some outsourcing services. Telecommunications companies. Increasingly, the large telecommunications companies are expanding their hosting services to include the full range of IT and EC solutions. MCI, for example, offers Web Commerce services for a monthly fee. While the trend to outsource is rising, so is the trend to do it offshore, mainly in India and China. Offshore outsourcing is certainly less expensive, but it includes risks as well. For more discussion about the drivers, effects, and risks of outsourcing, see Dutta and Roy (2005), Aron et al. (2005), and Overby (2003). One of the most common types of IT outsourcing is the use of application service providers. Application Service Provider (ASP) An application service provider (ASP) manages application servers in a centrally controlled location, rather than on a customer s site. Applications are then accessed via the Internet or VANs through a standard Web browser interface. Such an arrangement pro-
13 Chapter Eighteen: Building E-Commerce Applications and Infrastructure 13 vides a full range of services for the company using the ASP: Applications can be scaled, upgrades and maintenance can be centralized, physical security over the applications and servers can be guaranteed, and the necessary critical mass of human resources can be efficiently utilized. The determinants of ASP adoption as an innovation are discussed by Daylami et al. (2005). The end-user businesses pay monthly fees to the ASP. In general, the fees include payment for the application software, hardware, service and support, maintenance, and upgrades. The fee can be fixed or be based on utilization. According to Scott McNealy, Sun Microsystems s CEO, in the future, If you re a CIO with a head for business, you won t buy software or computers anymore. You ll rent all your resources from a service provider ( Jackson 2000). ASPs are especially active in enterprise computing and EC applications, which may be too complex to build and too cumbersome to modify and maintain. Therefore, the major providers of ERP software, such as SAP and Oracle, are offering ASP options. IBM, Microsoft, and Computer Associates also offer ASP services. Leasing from an ASP is a particularly desirable option for SME businesses, for which in-house development and operation of IT applications can be time-consuming and expensive. Leasing from ASPs saves various expenses (such as labor costs) in the initial development stage. It also helps reduce software maintenance, upgrading, and user training costs in the long run. A company can select other software products from the same ASP to meet its changing needs and does not have to invest further in upgrading the existing one. Thus, overall business competitiveness can be strengthened through reducing the time-to-market and enhancing the ability to adapt to changing market conditions. ASPs are particularly effective for IT applications for which timing, flexibility, and agility are crucial. Leasing from ASPs does have its disadvantages. Many companies are concerned with the adequacy of protection offered by the ASP against hackers, theft of confidential information, and virus attacks. Also, leased software often does not provide the perfect fit for the desired application. It is also important to ensure that the speed of the Internet connection is compatible with that of the application to avoid distortions in its performance. For example, it is not advisable to run heavy-duty applications on a modem link below a T1 line or a highspeed DSL. From the ASP vendor s point of view, the benefits presented by the ASP model are many. For one, in the long-distance carrier and Internet service providers (ISP) markets, revenues are squeezed due to heavy competition. These companies are looking to generate revenues from sources other than connectivity and transport, and ASP services offer a new outlet. An interesting institution is the ASP Industry Consortium, whose founding members include AT&T, Cisco, Citrix Systems, Ernst & Young, Verizon, IBM, Marimba, Sharp Electronic, Sun Microsystems, UUNET, and Verio. A detailed list of the benefits and risks associated with ASPs is provided in Exhibit Information about the general state of the ASP marketspace can be obtained from the Computing Technology Industry Association s (CompTIA) Software Services (comptia.org/ certification/a/default.aspx). An important variation of leasing and ASP is utility computing. UTILITY COMPUTING Tapping into computing resources with a simplicity equal to plugging an electrical lamp into an outlet has been a goal of many companies for years. The approach is known as utility (on-demand) computing. The idea is to provide unlimited computing power and storage capacity that can be used and reallocated for any application and billed on a pay-per-use basis. The business values of utility computing are explored by Coulter (2005). Utility computing consists of a virtualized pool of self-managing EC resources that can be continually reallocated to meet the organization s changing business and service needs. These resources can be located anywhere and managed by an organization s IT staff or a third-party service provider. Equally important, usage of these resources can be tracked and billed down to the level of an individual user or group. As shown in Exhibit 18.4, the utility-computing value proposition consists of three layers of tools and two types of value-added services. Each tool must be seamlessly integrated utility (on-demand) computing Unlimited computing power and storage capacity that can be used and reallocated for any application and billed on a payper-use basis
14 14 Chapter Eighteen: Building E-Commerce Applications and Infrastructure EXHIBIT 18.3 Benefits and Risks of Using an ASP Type Benefits Potential Risks Business Reduces the need to attract and retain skilled IT professionals Loss of control and high level of dependence Enables companies to concentrate on strategic use of IT on ASP Enables small- and medium-sized companies to use tier-1 Inability of ASP to deliver quality of service; applications (e.g., ERP, SCM, and CRM) lack of skills and experience Application scalability enables rapid growth of companies Technical Fast and easy application deployment Level of customization and legacy application Higher degree of application standardization integration offered by ASP is insufficient Access to wide range of applications Low reliability and speed of delivery due Application maintenance simplified and performed by ASP to bandwidth limitations Simplified user support and training Low capability of ASP to deal with security and confidentiality issues Economic Low total cost of ownership Pricing changes by ASP unpredictable for Low up-front investments in hardware and software application updates and services Improved cost control as result of predictable subscription costs Source: Kern, T. and J. Kreijger. An Exploration of the ASP Outsourcing Option. Proceedings, 34th HICSS, Hawaii, January IEEE. to create a comprehensive solution, but will usually be implemented separately. These three tools are: Policy-based service-level-management tools that coordinate, monitor, and report on the ways in which multiple infrastructure components come together to deliver a business service. Policy-based resource-management tools that automate and standardize all types of IT management best practices, from initial configuration to ongoing fault management and asset tracking. Virtualization tools that allow server, storage, and network resources to be deployed and managed as giant pools, and seamlessly changed as needs change. These tools share multisourcing delivery and financing services (left side of Exhibit 18.4) and provide for customer access and management services (right side of Exhibit 18.4). Utility computing still faces daunting obstacles. One obstacle is the immaturity of the tools. Another is the fact that each vendor prefers to push its own unique variation on the utility- EXHIBIT 18.4 The Five Elements of a Successful Utility-Computing Value Proposition Multisourcing Delivery and Financing Services Policy-Based Service-Level-Management Tools Business-based and eventually, ROI-based management Policy-Based Resource-Management Tools Fault, performance, operations management, etc. Virtualized Infrastructures Virtualized servers, storage and networks, and dynamic provisioning Customer Access and Management Services Source: Kucharvy, T. The Five Rules for Jump-Starting the Utility-Computing Market. Boston, MA: Summit Strategies, Inc., January 2003, p. 5.
15 Chapter Eighteen: Building E-Commerce Applications and Infrastructure 15 computing vision, with different (often confusing) names and terminology. However, utility computing will accelerate acceptance of ASPs, which may distribute it as discussed in Insights and Additions For information on utility computing, see utilitycomputing.com. OTHER DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS Besides the three major options for developing EC applications (buy, lease, and develop inhouse), several others are in use and are appropriate under certain circumstances. Join an e-marketplace. In this option, the company plugs itself into an e-marketplace. For example, you can place your catalogs in Yahoo! s marketplace. Visitors to Yahoo! s store will find your products and will be able to buy from you. You will pay Yahoo! monthly space-rental fees. In such a case, Yahoo! is a hosting service for you as well. As far as development, you will use templates to build your store, and you can start to sell after only a few hours of preparation work. Join an auction or reverse auction third-party site. Joining a third-party site is yet another alternative. Again the plug-in can be done quickly. Many companies use this option for certain e-procurement activities. Joint ventures. Several different joint-venture partnerships may facilitate e-business application development. For example, four banks in Hong Kong developed an e-banking system. In some cases, you team up with a company that already has an application in place, so you can use it. Insights and Additions 18.1 Utility Computing: The Next Big Thing Imagine this scene. It s noon on Friday and you just found out that your relatives are coming to spend the weekend. It s time to contact the electric company to let them know that you will need extra electricity for the weekend. You re told you have to fill out a purchase order and it will be five to seven days before you can get extra electricity. Of course, life is not like this, because basic utilities have extra capacity built into their delivery systems. But this would be a likely scenario if you were to find out at noon on Friday that you were expecting a major spike in usage on your servers. You d have to call your provider, do a bunch of paperwork, and maybe in a few days you could get the extra capacity you need. That s the kind of problem that utility computing aims to solve. The Technology. Utility computing vendors are looking toward a future in which computing capacity is as easy to acquire as electricity. Rather than having a fixed amount of computing resources, you would have access to computing resources on an asneeded basis just like with electricity. Many IT market leaders are now starting to catch on to the concept of utility computing as a bulletproof utility service that we can virtually take for granted. IBM has spent more than $10 billion on its on-demand computing initiatives. HP also developed its Utility Data Center architecture, and Sun has its own N1 data center virtualization projects. Sun, HP, and IBM are duking it out over how best to meet utility computing requirements and command a leadership position. Implementation. Already present in a variety of capacity-based pricing models, utility computing is poised to expand throughout the enterprise as various key technologies intersect (e.g., Web Services, grid computing, and provisioning). Growth of utility computing in the enterprise will deliver to the industry not only equal access to supercomputing resources, but also new revenue streams for commercial data centers, new application pricing models based on metered use, and an open computing infrastructure for companies with little or no standing IT maintenance budget. Utility computing is on track to be the next big thing for IT vendors and services companies that sell to large enterprises. Conclusion. Utility computing (also called on-demand computing ) has become one of the hot topics in the IT analyst community and, increasingly, in larger enterprises that are looking for ways to reduce the fixed costs and complexity of IT. Utility computing tools provide total flexibility in information systems development, from in-house and self-managed to fully outsourced, with everything in between including a hybrid deployment model in which in-house capacity can be supplemented by third-party resources to handle peak needs. Utility computing presents an IT paradigm shift (see Stafford 2005). Sources: Compiled from Stafford (2005), Zimmerman (2003), and Noel (2002).
16 16 Chapter Eighteen: Building E-Commerce Applications and Infrastructure Join a consortium. This option is similar to the previous one, except that you will be one of the e-market owners. Thus, you may have more control over the market architecture. Hybrid approach. A hybrid approach combines the best of what the company does internally with an outsourced strategy to develop contracted partnerships. Hybrid models work best when the outsourced partner offers a higher level of security, faster time to market, and service-level agreements. Section 18.3 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Define insourcing. 2. List some of the pros and cons of using packaged EC applications. 3. Describe the major forms of application leasing. 4. List some of the alternative leasing and hosting options. 5. Define utility computing and describe its benefits. 6. List other development options CRITERIA FOR SELECTING A DEVELOPMENT APPROACH If a company decides to buy or lease an EC application, the following representative selection criteria need to be considered. Flexibility. Commercial packages need to be modified or adapted to the specific requirements of an application. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the extent to which a package can be adapted and the willingness of the vendor to perform or support the adaptation. Information requirements. The selected package should satisfy the information requirements of the EC application. Information collection, storage, and retrieval capabilities and the database structure should be carefully examined. User friendliness. User friendliness is especially important for B2C, G2C, and some B2B sites. In these cases, if an application is hard for the average visitor or customer to use, then it will have an immediate impact on the bottom line. Hardware and software resources. The computer type and the operating system required by the package must be compatible with the existing platform. The CPU and storage requirements are also important considerations. Installation. The installation effort required to implement the package should also be taken into account. Some packages are complex, and their installation requires extensive consultation. The installation process may also take a considerable amount of time. Maintenance services. Because EC application requirements are constantly changing, continuous maintenance is required. It is important to consider how often the package needs to be upgraded and whether the vendor provides assistance for its maintenance. Vendor quality and track record. It is less risky to acquire an EC package from a vendor that has a good reputation and track record than from one with a less-than-stellar or unknown reputation. The quality of the vendor can be indicated by their related experience in the particular application and their sales and financial records, as well as their responsiveness to clients requests. Vendor support may include online help and customer relationship management (CRM) programs, as well as partner relationship management (PRM) tools. To minimize risk, minor applications should be leased first. Estimating costs. The costs of EC projects are usually difficult to assess and often underestimated. In addition to the obvious costs associated with EC development, it is also important to factor in the costs of installation, integration, customization, and maintenance. Personnel. Staffing requirements should be planned for in advance to ensure that the organization has the appropriate human resources for systems development (in the case of in-house development), implementation, operation, and maintenance. Currently, it is difficult to recruit and retain IT personnel with appropriate knowledge and experience in EC application development. Special expertise can be acquired from external consultants, but usually at a very high cost.
17 Chapter Eighteen: Building E-Commerce Applications and Infrastructure 17 Technological evolution. Planning ahead for technological evolution facilitates the upgrade of EC applications and enables the organization to adopt innovations more quickly than the competition. It is therefore very important to allow for flexibility in the application design so that the chosen options do not impose major limitations on future choices. Given the rapid pace of IT evolution, it is sometimes preferable to develop EC applications incrementally to take advantage of the latest developments in the technology. Scaling. System scalability refers to how big a system can grow in various dimensions to provide more service. Scalability can be measured in several ways, including the total number of users, the number of simultaneous users, and the transaction volume. These dimensions are not independent, because scaling up the size of the system in one dimension can affect the other dimensions. The growth of scale is facilitated or constrained by the system architecture. Sizing. The required size and performance of an application are also difficult to predict, because the growth of the user population of certain EC applications is hard to anticipate. Overloading the application decreases performance. For regular IT applications, deterioration in performance may affect productivity and user satisfaction; for EC applications, it could result in a major loss of business. Performance. System performance is a critical factor for business success, particularly if the system is used for EC. In addition to convenience, good performance also brings customers and competitive advantages. Performance is measured by two main metrics: latency and throughput. Latency measures the time required to complete an operation such as downloading a Web page. It is an indicator of the users experience with the system. Throughput measures the number of operations completed in a given period of time. It indicates the capacity or number of users that a system can handle. Throughput and latency are interrelated. An increase in either measure will lead to an increase in the other. Reliability. Reliability is an essential requirement for a successful system. System failures and downtime may lead to public embarrassment. When an EC application fails, business is interrupted and the company loses customers. System reliability can be enhanced through redundancy (i.e., backup systems). Security. Security is one of the most important factors for the adoption and diffusion of EC. Data and information flow in EC, as well as stored data, may include private and/or proprietary information. Thus, a selected package must meet strict security requirements. Systems, communication, and data security must be addressed early in the design of EC applications and not after their implementation. In addition to technological solutions such as firewalls and encryption, physical and procedural security measures must also be enforced. scalability How big a system can grow in various dimensions to provide more service; measured by total number of users, number of simultaneous users, or transaction volume. latency The time required to complete an operation such as downloading a Web page. throughput The number of operations completed in a given period of time; indicates the number of users that a system can handle. For additional information on selection criteria see Satzinger et al. (2004) and Whitten et al. (2003). Section 18.4 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. List some of the major criteria to consider when deciding whether to buy or lease an EC application. 2. Define latency. 3. Define throughput THIRD-PARTY PROVIDERS OF EC SOFTWARE PACKAGES AND SUITES If a company opts to purchase its EC applications from a third-party vendor, two basic categories of software are available: functional packages such as electronic catalogs and EC suites. FUNCTIONAL SOFTWARE PACKAGES Standard functional software packages are available from a large number of vendors specifically for storefront construction (see Chapter 16). An example can be found at monstercommerce.com/ shopping_cart_features_new.asp, which offers dozens of software packages in the following
18 18 Chapter Eighteen: Building E-Commerce Applications and Infrastructure electronic catalog The virtual-world equivalent of a traditional product catalog; contains product descriptions and photos, along with information about various promotions, discounts, payment methods, and methods of delivery. merchant server software Software for selling over the Internet that enables companies to establish selling sites relatively easily and inexpensively. areas: setting up your site, merchandizing, inventory, payment options, hosting, shopping, tax, sales analysis, database and systems, customer service, site design and layout, repeat customer accommodation, and security. Each of these include up to 15 different features. MonsterCommerce offers software both for small businesses and for large corporations (see demo at the site). The site also offers integrated solutions that are offered by several other vendors (e.g., storefront.com). A list of vendors and their software packages for e-commerce is available at wsindex.org/companies/e-business/e-commerce/. Electronic catalogs are the virtual version of traditional product catalogs (see Chapter 2). Like its paper counterpart, an electronic catalog contains written descriptions and photos of products, along with information about various promotions, discounts, payment methods, and methods of delivery. Electronic catalogs are included in merchant server software, which includes features that make it simple and relatively inexpensive to develop (usually less than $10,000). A catalog operation includes a straightforward pricing and product configuration. Merchant Server Software Merchant server software commonly includes the following features: Templates or wizards for creating a storefront and catalog pages with pictures describing products for sale Electronic shopping carts that enable consumers to gather items of interest until they are ready for checkout Web-based order forms for making secure purchases (either through SSL encryption or the SET protocol) A database for maintaining product descriptions, pricing, and customer orders Integration with third-party software for calculating taxes and shipping costs and for handling distribution and fulfillment Exhibit 18.5 outlines the major components of merchant server software. As shown in the figure, a single server is used to handle product presentation, order processing, and payment processing (Treese and Stewart 2002). Likewise, in such systems, a single database is used to store the catalog (i.e., product descriptions) and handle the details of customer orders. The pages of the electronic catalog are created dynamically from the product descriptions contained in the catalog database. For those merchants with only a few products for sale, there is no need to store the product descriptions in a database. Instead, the pages of the Web catalog can be created ahead of time. EXHIBIT 18.5 Merchant Server Architecture Store HTML Pages Web Browser Internet Web Server Merchant Server Database Catalog Order Third-Party Applications Financial Network
19 Chapter Eighteen: Building E-Commerce Applications and Infrastructure 19 EC SUITES An EC suite is an integrated collection of a large number of EC tools and components that work together for EC applications development. EC suites offer builders and users greater flexibility, specialization, customization, and integration in supporting complete front- and back-office functionality. In an EC suite, the functionality is distributed across a number of servers and databases instead of relying on a single server and database as is done in merchant server systems. The elements displayed in Exhibit 18.6 are indicative of the components contained in a typical EC suite, the processes supported by an EC suite, and the back-end databases and operational systems utilized by the processes. Over the past few years, the EC suite marketspace has experienced a substantial amount of consolidation. Among the major products that remain on the market are Microsoft s Commerce Server (microsoft.com), IBM s WebSphere Commerce suite (ibm.com), and Oracle s EC applications (oracle.com). Microsoft s Commerce Server Microsoft s Commerce Server 2005 (microsoft.com/commerceserver) offers a comprehensive framework for building tailored EC solutions. The framework consists of six main systems: Product Catalog System. Enables the creation, management, and syndication of customer-specific and location-specific catalogs with specialized pricing and sophisticated search capabilities. Targeting System. Creates and deploys multilingual merchandising and advertising campaigns that support advanced discounting, cross-selling, and customer profiling. Profiling System. Enables catalog personalization, pricing, business processing, merchandising, and advertising to specific needs of customers, suppliers, and partners. Business Processing Pipelines System. Allows a business to tailor its order and merchandising processes to handle currency conversion, multiple shipments, and complex discounting. EXHIBIT 18.6 Major Components of an EC Suite Catalog Application Catalog Database Customer Management, Registration, Profiles, Service Customer Database Internet Order Capture, Completion Order Database Web Browser Web Server Payment Processing (SET & Purchase Order) Fulfillment Systems Payment Database Financial Network Source: Interworld Corporation, interworld.com.
20 20 Chapter Eighteen: Building E-Commerce Applications and Infrastructure Business Analytics System. Offers businesses the ability to analyze, forecast, and mine the business data resulting from EC activities and processes, including clickstream usage, purchase histories, browsing behaviors, campaign effectiveness, and currency preferences, so that they can make informed decisions about the success of their online business. User Management Console: Business Desk. Enables business managers to respond quickly to changing customer and business needs through a centralized intuitive console for managing customer and partner profiles, personalization rules, product catalogs and pricing, merchandising and advertising campaigns, and business analysis. Microsoft s Commerce Server comes in three editions Standard, Developer, and Enterprise which are designed to handle medium, large, and extremely high-traffic sites, respectively. All three editions are built on top of Microsoft s Windows operating system, SQL Server database, and Visual Studio.NET development environment. All three editions also operate seamlessly with Microsoft s other.net servers (e.g., Microsoft BizTalk Server and Microsoft s Content Management Server). The next version of Commerce Server, scheduled for release in early 2006 (Microsoft.com 2005a), is being developed for enterprises to accelerate and automate the delivery of online services and products to drive their revenue growth and reduce operational costs. An example of a business portal built using Microsoft s Commerce Server and BizTalk Server is described in EC Application Case CASE 18.2 EC Application FLORICULTURE PARTNERSHIP STREAMLINES REAL-TIME ORDERING The floriculture market consists of brokers who take orders from growers for plants and rootstock produced by plantmaterial suppliers. Until recently, the market relied on mobile salespeople to take handwritten orders from growers. The order would later be keyed into the broker s computer system and rekeyed into the suppliers systems. From start to finish, the process required an average of 12 manual touch-points, including tasks such as entering orders, determining inventory availability, establishing prices, and reentering data because of lost, duplicate, or inaccurate orders. In 2002, Syngenta/S&G Flowers, a major broker, partnered with the Flower Fields Alliance (FFA), whose combined market share represents about 40 percent of the plant materials sold. FFA representatives from Goldsmith Seeds, Fischer USA, and Yoder Brothers decided to build a portal that would make it easier for growers to buy plants from suppliers in the alliance. The portal was built by the Advantage Factory, a Microsoft Certified (Development) Partner, using Microsoft s Commerce Server 2002, Microsoft BizTalk Server 2002, the SQL Server 2000 relational database, and the.net development framework. It took six months to develop the portal. Using Microsoft EC suite to develop the Syngenta/FFA portal offers several benefits. It has accelerated the development by reducing the amount of code to write and debug, thus also reducing QA testing cycles. The connection to legacy systems has been made easier. The ordering process of FFA and Syngenta has become more efficient as the EC suite provides a platform for the supply chain integration. The portal provides growers with a single, real-time interface to the suppliers inventory databases and the broker s order entry system. In this way, a grower can search for products across multiple suppliers and can place an order without manual assistance. The portal not only reduces entry errors and makes the various processes more efficient but, more important, it reduces by approximately 80 percent the risk that the plant materials will perish before they reach the grower. Two years later, Advantage Factory upgraded the portal with Microsoft BizTalk Server 2004 for faster order processing, more extensible trading partner management, and enhanced monitoring capabilities. With the upgraded portal, the alliance is able to respond more quickly to partner-specific processing needs, providing a faster time-to-value. The group anticipates a 66 percent reduction in order processing time. Source: Microsoft.com. Case Study: The Flower Fields Alliance. Microsoft.com, July 14, microsoft.com/resources/casestudies/ casestudy.asp?casestudyid=14262 (accessed June 2005). Questions 1. What business problems were addressed by the FFA/ Syngenta portal? 2. What are the business benefits provided by the FFA/ Syngenta portal? 3. What were the benefits of using Microsoft EC suite?
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