Internet Part 2. CS/MIS Department

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1 Oman College of Management and Technology Course MDCI Internet Part 2 CS/MIS Department

2 Reasons for Business Presence on the Internet Major reasons why business presence on the Internet is increasing include: Number of existing or potential customers who use the Internet is increasing Number of business partners (vendors, suppliers, customers) connected to the Internet is increasing Maturation of e-commerce server and application software has made it easier to develop e-commerce applications Telecommunication costs can be lowered by conducting business over the Internet Internet has potential to improve company image, expedite access to information, improve direct or personalized marketing, reduce paper-based transactions, and improve worker productivity 3-2

3 Internet Services Used by Businesses Widely used Internet services/applications include: Internet (SMTP) File transfer (FTP) World Wide Web USENET or newsgroups Online commercial services (including ASPs and online information services) Electronic journals Electronic governance services 3-3

4 Commercial Uses of the Internet Examples of commercial uses of the Internet include: Intracompany correspondence (e.g. intranets) Intercompany business transactions (e.g. EDI) Advertising and marketing (see Figure 3-1) Selling goods and services Selling stocks or other financial instruments Providing (or leveraging) online travel services Providing reference materials 3-4

5 Figure 3-1 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. Stamper and Case 3-5

6 Internet Transaction Requirements Like other business transactions, desirable characteristics of Internet-based transactions include: A payment system Security and verification Anonymity Accountability and taxability 3-6

7 Internet Transaction Payment Systems A variety of payment systems are used for e-commerce transactions including: Smart card payment systems Digital cash (e-cash) Credit card or debit card payments Micropayment systems are also becoming increasingly common, especially for mobile commerce (mcommerce) applications using smart phones and PDAs Microcommerce refers to low-value e-commerce transactions for products/services whose prices are too small to be feasibly paid for by credit card Smart cards and digital cash support micropayments and microcommerce 3-7

8 Smart Cards Smart cards look like credit cards but have an embedded computer chip that is capable of storing and updating data The chip is activated by a smart card reader/writer Smart cards are more widely used outside the U.S. (especially in Europe), but are increasingly in use in the U.S. Credit card/smart card hybrids (such as the American Express Blue Card) are also becoming more common Most smart cards are issued by banks, financial services companies Some, designed for particular applications such as for bus and metro systems, are issued by third-party organizations 3-8

9 Digital Cash Another form of payment for Internet transactions is digital cash (d-cash or e-cash) D-cash alternatives include: Electronic check equivalents Electronic money certificates obtained from a bank or another authorized distribution system Electronic scrip that may be exchanged for services/products at particular Web sites or portals Microcommerce scrip whose monetary equivalent is less than one cent Examples of digital cash systems and providers include NetBill, Millicent, CyberCash, and VeriSign Not all merchants accept digital cash for transactions. 3-9

10 Credit Card Payments When credit cards are used to pay for Internet transactions, the credit card number must be transferred from buyer to seller and then to a credit card authorization center Several protocols have been developed to ensure the security of the data that is transferred; all use encryption: Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Secure HTTP (S-HTTP) Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) 3-10

11 Internet Commerce Architectures There are several components of e-commerce systems that must interoperate securely and reliably. These include: A merchant/storefront system that presents buyers with seller s product catalog and marketing materials, mechanisms for ordering or buying the seller s products, and access to customer service Back-office systems that accept, process, and record sales transactions that originate with the merchant/storefront system A payment gateway for processing credit card transactions or other types of electronic payments Merchant/storefront systems are available from multiple vendors (see Table 3-2). 3-11

12 Table

13 Characteristics of Internet Transactions A typical Internet transaction includes: Item selection: items are selected from online catalog and placed in shopping cart Checkout and payment: buyer provides shipping information for physical products and pays for selected items using a credit card, debit card, smart card, digital cash, or electronic check Order confirmation/notification: this may be via an order confirmation Web page, notification, or both 3-13

14 E-commerce vs. E-Business E-commerce involves the use of computer networks to complete business transactions The networks involved include the Internet, intranets, extranets, value-added networks, and private networks Transactions include buying, selling, or exchanging products, services, or information E-business activities on the Internet include, but go beyond e-commerce E-business includes using the Internet to improve customer service, coordinate activities with business partners, facilitate communication and knowledge management within organizations, and create electronic marketplaces that serve the collective needs of entire industries 3-14

15 Drivers of E-Commerce Expansion Among the major drivers of e-commerce and e- business expansion are: Declining prices for computing and communication technologies have led to increased IT investments by businesses Emergence of B2B marketplaces Increases in the number of consumers with Internet access (see Tables 3-5 and 3-6) Continued expansion of size and content of World Wide Web 3-15

16 Table

17 Types of E-Commerce Major e-commerce categories include: Business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce Business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce Intrabusiness/intracompany e-commerce These are illustrated in Figure 3-4 and Table 3-7 Other types of e-commerce include: Consumer-to-business (C2B) e-commerce Non-business e-commerce by non-profit organizations E-governance applications 3-17

18 Figure

19 Table

20 B2B E-Commerce B2B transactions account for the lion s share of commercial activity on the Internet (see Table 3-8) Most B2B e-commerce involves the creation of interorganizational systems (IOS) IOSs encompass a wide-range of B2B activities including EDI, extranets, electronic funds transfers among business partners, integrated messaging, shared databases, electronic procurement systems, and supply chain management Contractual arrangements underlie most B2B e- commerce systems 3-20

21 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) EDI was electronic commerce prior to 1990 EDI involves the electronic transmission of business documents from one company to another using a standard set of forms, data elements and messages EDI documents include purchase orders, invoices, shipping notifications, and remittance notices EDI documents and data can be exchanged over point-to-point connections, proprietary networks, VANs, and the Internet Web-based EDI is increasing X.12 and EDIFACT are the two most widely recognized and used EDI standards XML will have a dramatic influence on EDI s evolution and future 3-21

22 Extranets Extranets leverage TCP/IP protocols and applications, especially the Web, to enable business partners to access a company s computing resources Web-based EDI is an example of an extranet Extranets have numerous potential business benefits including: Reduced costs and enhanced profits for suppliers Reduced inventories in the supply chain Reduced prices for customers Enhanced customer service 3-22

23 Other Important B2B E-Commerce Applications Buy-side B2B e-commerce applications automate and facilitate business procurement and purchasing processes Sell-side B2B e-commerce applications include software systems that make it easier for companies to sell their products to other businesses Electronic marketplaces have emerged in virtually all major industries. These provide an online forum for buyers and sellers, facilitate innovative pricing schemes, and enable complex transactions involving multiple business partners 3-23

24 Business-to-Consumer (B2C) E-Commerce Like B2B e-commerce, B2C e-commerce is expanding B2C e-commerce is helping consumers be more informed and price-sensitive buyers, both online and offline Consumers are also benefiting from health care, employment, and consumer-oriented e-governance Web sites Net-savvy consumers are stimulating businesses to develop new business models 3-24

25 Intrabusiness/Intracompany E-commerce Intrabusiness/intracompany e-commerce includes the online exchange of goods, services, and information within an organization often over an intranet An intranet is a private network that uses Internet technologies to facilitate data and information exchange among employees Intranet building blocks include Web servers, Web publishing tools, browsers, databases, and TCP/IP networks 3-25

26 Intranets Organizations are leveraging intranets to: Facilitate internal exchange of goods and services Enhance customer service Improve product development processes Facilitate knowledge sharing and knowledge management Facilitate work team collaboration Empower workers via access to information Enhance project management Reduce need for paper-based information delivery Create/deliver Web-based training and development programs 3-26

27 Major E-Business Applications Important e-commerce and e-business applications include: Supply chain management (SCM) E-procurement Internet marketing Customer relationship management systems (CRM) 3-27

28 Supply Chain Management SCM involves the coordination of material, information, and financial flows between and among business partners in a supply chain (see Figure 3-5) It supports cooperative arrangements among business partners that enable them to reduce inventories, facilitate order fulfillment, and support JIT and pull manufacturing Trend is toward Internet-coordinated SCM including Web-enabled collaborative planning processes 3-28

29 Example of SCM

30 Internet Marketing and CRM Internet is widely used for advertising and marketing It is sometimes used as a direct marketing channel (Dell does this) Infomediaries and online aggregrators help organizations market products and services via portals and cybermalls Organizations are increasingly using the Web for personalized direct market including personalized marketing Customer relationship management (CRM) systems are being used to increase customer retention rates, improve customer service, and to facilitate up-selling and cross-selling opportunities 3-30

31 Internet Banking and Financial Services Electronic funds transfer (EFT) has been used to transfer money from one bank account to another since the 1970s Internet banking services are supported by most banks and the number of customers using them is increasing Online lending companies (such as DiTech.com) and online brokers such as E*Trade continue to see increasing use of their services 3-31

32 Example of EFT

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