A Systematic Approach for Improving Occupant Protection in Rollover Crashes

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1 SAE 2011 Government / Industry Meeting A Systematic Approach for Improving Occupant Protection in Rollover Crashes Jingwen Hu, PhD University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute King H. Yang, PhD Bioengineering Center, Wayne State University University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute

2 Significance Rollover crashes are the most dangerous vehicular crashes among all the crash types Although only 2.6 percent of passenger vehicle crashes resulted in rollovers, they accounted 21.1 percent of fatal crashes in the US. (Traffic Safety Facts 2005) In 2005, 10,816 people died in rollover crashes. (FARS 2005) University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 2

3 Complex and Random Trip-over Flip-over Turn-over Fall-over Bounce-over Collision University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 3

4 Controversy No causal relationship between roof crush and head/neck injury - Moffatt 1975, Malibu test I&II, Crown Victoria tests Occupants are injured as they "dive" into the roof before it crushes Causal relationship between roof crush and head/neck injury Rechnitzer et al. 1998, Friedman and Nash 2001 A weak roof can collapse and buckle in a rollover, imposing forces on an occupant s head inducing injuries University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 4

5 Countermeasure Lessons from frontal & side impact Minimal intrusion Effective restraint system Friendly interior design Rollover Belted Occupants - Head to roof contact No systematic approach available University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 5

6 FE Models Vehicle Model Dummy Model Neck Model Human Model University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 6

7 University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 7

8 Vertical Head Excursion (mm) Inversion & Rolling Test Validation Test simulation-static Simulation-220deg/s Simulation-360deg/s dummy-static dummy-dynamic human static human dynamic University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 8

9 Vertical Acceleration (g) Lateral Acceleration (g) Dolly Test Validation - Driver Test Simulation Time (s) Test Simulation Time (s) University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 9

10 Axial Neck Force (N) Vertical Acceleration (g) Curb-trip Validation - Passenger 80 Test Simulation Time (s) Test Simulation Time (s) University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 10

11 Head-neck Model Validation University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 11

12 Three Parametric Studies Roof Crush vs. Occupant Injury Risk IJVD (2010) 54(3) pp Neck Injury Mechanism and Roof Interior Design Spine (2008) 33(23) pp Seat Belt Design SAE Journal (2009) 2(1) pp University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 12

13 Roof Crush vs. Occupant Injury 13

14 Roof Crush vs. Occupant Injury Simulated Scenarios Two curb-trips (Impact Mode I and II) One soil-trip (Impact Mode I) Vehicle models Four vehicle models with different roof stiffness Occupants Belted driver and front seat passenger Output Resultant head acceleration Axial neck load University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 14

15 Roof Modification Yellow color indicates rigid material Vehicle Model I (SWR = 1.95) Vehicle Model II (SWR = 2.21) Vehicle Model III (SWR = 3.31) Vehicle Model IV (SWR = 3.64) University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 15

16 Dummy Responses Regular roof Stronger roof Regular roof Stronger roof University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 16

17 Roof Crush (mm) Neck Axial Force (N) Roof Crush and Neck Load vs. Time Roof Crush Neck Axial Force Time (s) University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 17

18 Maximum Neck Force (N) Maximum Neck Force (N) Does roof stiffness matter? Yes! Far-side occupants with two roof-ground impacts in a single roll Soil-trip Curb-trip I II III IV Vehicle Model 0 I II III IV Vehicle Model Increased roof stiffness Increased roof stiffness University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 18

19 Vertical Velocity (m/s) Far-side Occupant in Impact Mode I 2 Dummy head - Vehicle model I Dummy head - Vehicle model III 0-2 Far-side dummy contacts the roof Far-side dummy in vehicle model I contacts the ground -4 Far-side dummy in vehicle model III contacts the ground Near-side roof contacts the ground Time (s) University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 19

20 Injury Mechanism Does diving or roof crush induce injuries? Diving Is roof stiffness related to injuries? Yes, but only for far-side occupant when there are two roof-to-ground impacts during a single roll. Can seat belt prevent head-roof impacts? Currently, not so much. University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 20

21 Head Excursion vs. Head Room Typical head room 10 cm (4 ) Head excursion.. 20 cm (8 ) Moffatt and James 2005 University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 21

22 A Systematic Approach IF we have a rigid roof? Head & neck injury risk will mainly depend on the restraint system IF we have a perfect restraint system? Roof stiffness will play a very significant role. In reality, there is no rigid roof or perfect restraint system During a head-to-roof contact, roof interior will play a major role. A combination of vehicle, restraint system, and roof interior design optimization University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 22

23 Neck Injury Mechanism and Roof Interior Design 23

24 Cadaver Tests Nightingale et al n=6 n=6 n=6 n=4-15º 0º +15º +30º University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 24

25 Neck Injury Mechanism in Near-Vertex Impact Neck injury mechanisms are dependent on the neck orientation and impact direction. Padding will add constraints to the head, in turn, will increase the risk of neck injury. If the neck can escape from the direction of momentum, the risk of neck injury will be greatly reduced. University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 25

26 Human Head- Neck Simulation Impact directions University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 26

27 Average Maximum Principal Strain Human Head- Neck Simulation Level COF Padding thickness Padding stiffness Impact velocity AP surface angle Lateral surface angle cm Soft 1.0 m/s -15º 0º cm Middle 2.0 m/s 0º 15º cm Hard 3.0 m/s 15º 30º cm Rigid 4.0 m/s 30º 45º Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level COF Padding thickness Padding stiffness Velocity AP angle Lateral angle Factors University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 27

28 Friction COF=0.0 COF=0.5 University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 28

29 Foam Effect COF=0.0 COF=0.8 COF=0.8 sliding University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 29

30 Seat Belt Design 30

31 Dummy and Human Model for Seat Belt Design University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 31

32 Seat Belt Effectiveness Two portions of vertical excursions Slack Pretensioner latch plate Lapbelt angle Clearance Portion I Portion II University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 32

33 New Seat Belt Designs Not effective Not effective Effective a) 4-Point Seatbelt (Rouhana et al. 2004) b) 3+2-Point Seatbelt (Bostrom et al. 2005) c) Double-Lapbelt (New design) University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 33

34 Summary Roof crush Roof stiffness Diving is the major injury mechanism, but roof stiffness can affect injury risk in diving Low friction padding reduce injury risk Seatbelt design reduce impact velocity Lapbelt design is crucial for rollover safety A combination of vehicle, restraint system, and roof interior design optimization University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 34

35 SAE 2011 Government / Industry Meeting A Systematic Approach for Improving Occupant Protection in Rollover Crashes Jingwen Hu, PhD University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute King H. Yang, PhD Bioengineering Center, Wayne State University University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute

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