Higher Education Research Institute (HERI) Faculty Survey. Analysis of Results for. North Dakota University System

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1 Higher Education Research Institute (HERI) Faculty Survey Analysis of Results for North Dakota University System September 1999 Prepared for the North Dakota University System by Dr. Justin J. Wageman Assistant Professor in Teacher Education North Dakota State University

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Summary... 1 Introduction... 3 Sample... 3 Demographics... 4 Faculty Interests... 7 How Faculty Spend Their Time... 8 Professional Activities of Faculty Computer Use Among College Faculty Personal Goals of Faculty Faculty Job Satisfaction Faculty Stress and its Sources Faculty Goals for Undergraduate Students Conclusion Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G Appendix H Appendix I i

3 HERI Faculty Survey Analysis of Results for the North Dakota University System Summary Purpose: To provide data on the faculty members from the doctorate-granting, four-year, and two-year institutions within the state of North Dakota. Broad Research Questions: What are the general characteristics of faculty in North Dakota s eleven public institutions of higher education? Do faculty differ by type of institution? How do North Dakota faculty compare to faculty in similar institutions across the United States? Methodology: Faculty from North Dakota s eleven public institutions participated in the national survey of college and university faculty conducted by the Higher Education Research Institute (HERI) in the fall and winter of Of 1,563 questionnaires mailed out to NDUS faculty, usable returns were eventually received from 930 for a total response rate of 59.5 percent. Findings: North Dakota s doctorate-granting institutions had the highest percentages of male faculty and the lowest percentages of female faculty than four-year, twoyear and national institutions. The majority of North Dakota faculty held the rank of associate professor. Two-year institutions reported higher percentages of tenured status than doctorate, four-year, and national institutions. NDUS doctorate institutions recorded the lowest percentages for tenured status. North Dakota faculty at two-year institutions were generally younger than their peers at four-year and doctorate institutions, ranging from 35 to 44 years of age. The primary interest and principal activity of faculty in North Dakota s eleven public institutions was teaching, and their highest goal was to be good teachers. North Dakota faculty spent significantly more time in the classroom and on teaching-related activities than did their peer nationally. Faculty in the five twoyear institutions expended the most time. North Dakota faculty spent significantly less time on research than do their peers nationwide, particularly in the doctorate-granting institutions. Thus, North Dakota faculty published less than faculty nationally. The average North Dakota faculty member spent over 50 hours per week on jobrelated activities (cf hours per week for doctorate institutions, 53.2 hours for four-year, and 54.0 hours for two-year). North Dakota were generally using information technology more than their peers nationally, specifically for communicating by . North Dakota faculty were, overall, less satisfied with their jobs than faculty nationally, particularly in the area of salary and benefits. 1

4 Time pressures created the greatest stress for faculty, followed by lack of personal time, and institutional procedures and red tape. NDUS faculty at doctorategranting institutions also indicated the review and promotion process and the research and publishing demands as being highly stressful. The number one goal North Dakota faculty had for their undergraduate students was to develop their ability to think clearly. Conclusions: North Dakota faculty were interested in and spent the majority of their time on teaching. They were teachers. Yet, while two-year faculty enjoyed being tenured and spending more time than their peers on teaching, faculty at doctorate institutions had to balance the additional pressure to publish. Moreover, they continued to devote the majority of their time to teaching. This took away from their research activity which, in turn, affected their ability to attain tenure. The high stress of this situation, coupled with the low salary and fringe benefits received, produced an overall lower job satisfaction for these faculty than for any of their peers at the state or national levels. 2

5 Introduction During the academic year, North Dakota s eleven public campuses participated in the Higher Education Research Institute s (HERI) Faculty Survey. This survey was the fourth in a series of faculty surveys conducted on a triennial basis by the HERI. In addition to demographic and biographic information, the questionnaire for the Faculty Survey focused on how faculty members demographics, how they spent their time, their publications and creative productions, goals, their preferred methods of teaching and examining students, their perceptions of the institutional climate, and their primary sources of stress and satisfaction. The instrument also included eight new items relating to faculty s experiences with information technology. The North Dakota University System (NDUS) was particularly interested in separately identifying characteristics of NDUS faculty for three categories: faculty at doctorategranting institutions, faculty at other four-year institutions, and faculty at two-year institutions. This report summarizes the results of the HERI Faculty Survey related to demographics, faculty time, publications and creative productions, instructional technology, goals, perceptions, and job-related stressors and satisfaction. Questions included: 1. What are the general characteristics of faculty in North Dakota s eleven public higher education institutions? 2. Do faculty differ by institutional type? 3. How do North Dakota faculty compare to faculty in similar institutions across the United States 1? Sample The overall survey response rate for the eleven institutions was 59.5 percent (see Table 1). Of 1,563 questionnaires mailed out to NDUS faculty, usable returns were eventually received from 930 (Personal communication, Bill Korn, October 4, 1999). This response rate was high, especially when considering that the response rate for all institutions nationally was 43 percent. Only those full-time faculty who were engaged in teaching undergraduates were included in the normative data for the Faculty Survey and in this report for the NDUS. Thus, full- 1 In this report, the doctorate-granting institutions (University of North Dakota, North Dakota State University) will be compared to the national norms for public universities. The institutions which are primarily four-year institutions (Dickinson State University, Mayville State University, Minot State University, Valley City State University) will be compared to the national norms for public four-year colleges. The two-year institutions (Bismarck State College, Minot State University-Bottineau Campus, North Dakota State College of Science, Williston State College, Lake Region State College) will compared to the national norms for public two-year colleges. 3

6 time administrators, full-time researchers, or faculty members who teach only at the postgraduate level have been excluded 2. Table 1 Responses to Survey by Institution Number Returned Full-time Undergrad* Institution Doctorate-granting University of North Dakota (UND) North Dakota State University (NDSU) Total Four-year Dickinson State University (DSU) Mayville State University (MaSU) Minot State University (MiSU) Valley City State University (VCSU) Total Two-year Bismarck State College (BSC) Minot State University-Bottineau Campus (MiSU-BC) North Dakota State College of Science (NDSCS) Williston State College (WSC) Lake Region State College (LRSC) Total All 11 institutions *Respondents used for this report. Demographics Appendix A contains information about the percentages of respondents when compared by gender, academic rank, tenure status, age, racial background, and principal activity across the eleven public institutions of the NDUS. Table 2 below shows the comparison of the percentage of respondents by gender between the three types of North Dakota institutions and the national norms. In comparing the three types of North Dakota institutions, the two doctoral institutions reported a higher percentage of male faculty and a lower percentage of female faculty than either the four-year or two year schools. In comparison to the national norms, North Dakota two-year institutions reported a higher percentage of male faculty (cf percent to 53.2 percent, respectively) and the fouryear institutions cited a higher percentage of female faculty than the national percentage (cf percent to 35.5 percent, respectively). 2 A respondent was included in the normative data if the respondent indicated full-time employment and if one of the following conditions was met: 1) if he or she noted teaching as principal activity and either a) taught at least one undergraduate-level course or b) taught no classes at all in the most recent term (for faculty on sabbatical or currently engaged in research full-time); 2) if he or she taught at least two courses in the last term, at least one of which was at the undergraduate level; 3) if he or she indicated spending at least 9 hours per week in scheduled teaching, but did not indicate any specific types of courses taught. 4

7 Table 2 Comparison of the Percentage of Respondents by Gender Four-year Two-year Gender NDUS National NDUS National NDUS National Males Females Table 3 shows that, in the distribution of academic rank by category of institution, the majority of respondents from the doctorate-granting institutions were at the associate professor level. For the four-year institutions, the majority of respondents reported holding the rank of assistant professor. For the two-year institutions, the majority of respondents indicated holding the associate professor rank. Table 3 Comparison of the Percentage of Respondents by Academic Rank Four-year Two-year Rank NDUS National NDUS National NDUS National Professor-% Associate Professor-% Assistant Professor-% Lecturer-% Instructor-% Other-% NDUS doctoral institutions reported higher percentages of associate and assistant professors and a lower percentage of full professors than other public universities nationwide. A higher percentage of instructors were also indicated. At the NDUS four-year institutions percentages of full professors and associate professors were lower, while the percentage of assistant professors was much higher than at other public four-year institutions. A greater percentage of instructors was also cited. For NDUS two-year schools, lower percentages were indicated for rank of full professor, lecturer, and instructor. Much higher percentages were denoted for rank of associate and assistant professor. North Dakota faculty, according to the findings, did not consistently follow the national norms in terms of rank. It is noted, however, that what a particular rank signified at one institution may not have meant the same at another, even within the same type of institution. As shown in table 4, the highest percentages of tenured faculty in the North Dakota University System were at the two-year institutions. In fact, two-year faculty and women at four-year institutions in North Dakota reported much higher percentages of tenured status than their peers nationally. More men and women at doctorate institutions and men at four-year institutions within North Dakota indicated non-tenured status than the national norms. 5

8 Table 4 Comparison of the Percentage of Respondents by Tenure Status Four-year Two-year Status NDUS National NDUS National NDUS National Non-tenured-% Men-% Women-% Tenured-% Men-% Women-% Generally, North Dakota faculty reflected their peers nationally with regard to age. Table 5 displays that, given the ranges of ages in each category, NDUS doctorate and four-year faculty noted highest percentages in the 45 to 54 years of age. Two-year faculty, by comparison, cited the highest percentage in the 35 to 44 years of age range. Table 5 Comparison of the Percentage of Respondents by Age Four-year Two-year Age NDUS National NDUS National NDUS National Under 35--% % % % and over--% Table 6 records that a significant majority of the respondents from all eleven campuses were White/Caucasian. Except for the racial background of American Indian at North Dakota s doctorate institutions, faculty members from all three types of institutions generally reported lower percentages for all racial backgrounds when compared to the national norms. Table 6 Comparison of the Percentage of Respondents by Racial Background Four-year Two-year Race NDUS National NDUS National NDUS National White/Caucasian African Amer./Black American Indian Asian Amer./Asian Mexican Amer./Chicano Puerto Rican American Other Latino Other

9 Inasmuch as the HERI Faculty Survey was designed to profile the full-time teaching faculty at American colleges and universities, it was to be expected that the majority of respondents from the eleven NDUS public campuses would indicate that their principal activity was teaching. Table 7 shows that, from a high of 99.4 percent reported at two-year institutions to a low of 84.8 percent at doctorate-granting institutions, a significant majority of faculty were engaged in teaching as their primary responsibility. Faculty at the four-year and two-year institutions not active in teaching reported administration as their principal activity. Only at the two doctorategranting institutions did some faculty report research or service as principal activities. It is further shown that faculty in doctoral institutions nationally cited a significantly greater percentage of research as their principal activity than North Dakota faculty at similar institutions. The emphasis for doctorate institutions in North Dakota was on teaching as seen in the significantly higher percentage in this category than the national percentage. Table 7 Comparison of the Percentage of Respondents by Principal Activity Four-year Two-year Activity NDUS National NDUS National NDUS National Administration Teaching Research Services to clients/patients Other Faculty Interests Appendix B shows the percentages for faculty across North Dakota. Table 8 displays the collective results of faculty responses when asked to indicate whether their primary job interest was in teaching or research. A strong majority of North Dakota faculty members in all three categories of institutions reported that their primary interest was in teaching. Table 8 Percent Distribution for the Primary Interest of Faculty Four-year Two-year Primary Interest NDUS National NDUS National NDUS National Very heavily in teaching Leaning toward teaching Leaning toward research Very heavily in research In comparison to their peers at four-year and doctorate institutions, faculty from the two-year institutions were most likely to state that their primary interest was in teaching. Percentages for primary interest in teaching ranged from a high of 96.7 percent for two-year colleges to 84.8 percent for four-year institutions and 70.7 percent for doctorate institutions. Overall, NDUS faculty in each category of institution stated greater interest in teaching than the national average. The two doctorate institutions expressed considerably more interest in 7

10 teaching than their peers at public universities nationally (70.7 percent to 50.5 percent). In the four-year college category, the four North Dakota institutions were also notably more interested in teaching than the national average (84.8 percent to 75.7 percent). Meanwhile, North Dakota faculty at two-year colleges were comparable to the national average (96.7 percent to 94.5 percent respectively). Since faculty were forced to choose either teaching or research, expressions of interest in one area should not be interpreted to mean a lack of interest in the other. It should also be noted that administration, while not an option on this question, may have been a primary interest for some faculty. How Faculty Spend Their Time Appendix C and table 9 represent the findings of faculty who were next asked by the HERI survey to indicate the amount of time spent on a variety of activities ranging from the number of hours spent each week on teaching to the number of hours they spent on household/childcare duties. Faculty were asked to indicate the actual hours spent on each activity. Means were calculated for each type of activity using the midpoint for each hourly range on the survey. These midpoint means were used to compare North Dakota institutions by type to each other and to their peers nationally. Table 9 Faculty Activities: Average Hours* Per Week Spent in Each Activity Four-year Two-year Faculty Activity NDUS National NDUS National NDUS National Scheduled teaching Preparing for teaching Advising/counseling students Committee work and meetings Other administration Research and scholarly writing Creative products/performances Consultation with clients and patients Community or public service Outside consulting or freelance work Total *Hours indicated are the midpoints of the hourly ranges on the survey. The NDUS column represents the average of the midpoints for each category excluding those respondents who did not participate in a given activity. In considering the total number of hours faculty devoted to job-related activities, a profile can be drawn of the typical faculty member in North Dakota and nationally. By comparison, North Dakota faculty dedicated more total hours per week than their peers nationwide in all job-related activities. North Dakota faculty at two-year institutions spent the most time: a total average of 54.0 hours per week, while their peers nationally reported only 47.6 total hours per week. North Dakota four-year institution faculty indicated 53.2 total hours to the national average of 50.1 hours. institution faculty in North Dakota also put in more total hours per week than their national peers: 51.6 to 49.5 hours, respectively. 8

11 The three activities that deal primarily with teaching include scheduled teaching (actual, not credit hours), preparing for teaching (including reading student papers and grading), and advising and counseling students. Faculty at all three types of NDUS institutions reported, on average, more hours spent per week in both classroom teaching and preparation than the national averages. Time spent on advising and counseling students was consistent with the national data across the three types of institutions. North Dakota faculty spent more time teaching than their peers nationwide irrespective of the type of institution. Overall, North Dakota two-year college faculty indicated they spent an average of 38.5 hours each week on teaching-related activities compared to 31.2 hours per week by their peers nationally. North Dakota four-year institution faculty indicated they spent 33.2 hours weekly in teaching-related activities while their peers nationally spent only 28.6 hours. And North Dakota doctoral institution faculty reported spending 27.5 hours each week on teaching-related activities while faculty nationwide spent 24.1 hours. When considering differences among the three types of institutions in North Dakota relating to how NDUS faculty spend their time each week, there was a balance that occurred between teaching and research. NDUS faculty who may have taught fewer hours per week reported more hours in research, scholarly writing, and creative products/performances. And the opposite was true as faculty who designated fewer hours to research devoted more time to teaching. For example, faculty members at NDUS doctoral institutions reported fewer hours of teaching (27.5 hours per week) than faculty members at NDUS two-year institutions (38.5 hours per week). However, those faculty at NDUS doctoral institutions also reported more hours in research and creative activities (10.9 hours per week) than NDUS two-year faculty (3.0 hours per week). Faculty at NDUS four-year institutions reported spending an average of 6.8 hours per week. Overall, North Dakota faculty spent less time in research and creative activity than did their peers at comparable institutions. Faculty at North Dakota s doctoral institutions spent two hours less per week on research than did their peers nationally. At the four-year and two-year institutions, NDUS faculty members spent one and one-half hours less than their colleagues nationwide. Further investigation would need to be conducted to account for the additional time spent in teaching rather than in research and creative activity. Factors such as the mission of the institution, what activites are emphasized, job descriptions of faculty, teaching loads, and types of classes (lecture versus lab) must be considered. Other faculty responsibilities of committee work, meetings, administration, consultation, service, and outside consulting also made up the total number of hours given to job-related activities. An average of about four hours per week were reported for committee work and meetings by NDUS faculty at all three institutions. Administrative tasks occupied approximately three and one-half hours per week for NDUS faculty members. Service, in addition to teaching and research, composed the three major job-related activities of college faculty. Nearly 83 percent of NDUS faculty spent about three hours per week in providing community or public service. About 37 percent of NDUS faculty spent time in outside consulting or freelance work. Of those, about one hour per week was spent on the activity. It should be noted that how faculty reported spending their time on job-related activities may not have been completely accurate. The limitation was due to the HERI categories listed on the survey. There may have been other areas on which NDUS faculty spent their time each week 9

12 that were not included on the survey. Other areas may have included workshops, seminars, conferences, reading, and other assigned duties. Professional Activities of Faculty Appendix D and table 10 provide more specifics related to how faculty spend their time. Shown are the average numbers and types of scholarly writings or professional performances faculty produced. Clearly, differences existed by institutional type. North Dakota faculty in doctoral institutions produced more articles for academic and professional journals, wrote more book chapters, and wrote more books, manuals, and monographs than their peers at the four-year and two-year institutions. This difference was consistent with the national sample, although North Dakota faculty did publish less than the national average. For those who reported publication activity, faculty at North Dakota doctoral institutions had published 13 articles in academic or professional journals compared to 19.8 articles published by faculty at public universities nationwide. Faculty at NDUS four-year institutions had published an average of 4.3 articles compared to the national average of 9.4, and North Dakota faculty at two-year institutions reported an average of 0.8 articles compared to 1.9 by faculty in all public two-year institutions. Except for those at four-year institutions, North Dakota faculty were near to the national average for performance activities in the fine and applied arts. Notable was the above average exhibitions or performances by North Dakota faculty from the four-year institutions. They reported an average of 6.1 exhibitions or performances compared to the national average of 4.6. While the level of professional activity as it relates to publications among North Dakota faculty was less than their peers nationally, there was a greater emphasis on teaching. Nevertheless, an increasing emphasis on research and scholarly production may becoming evident. A final category asked faculty to indicate the number of professional writings published or accepted for publication in the last two years. The NDUS averages were closer to the national average and may suggest an increased focus by North Dakota faculty on this area while still maintaining a strong dedication to teaching. 10

13 Table 10 Publication Activities: Average Number* of Publications and Performances Four-year Two-year Publication Activity NDUS National NDUS National NDUS National Articles published in academic or professional journals Chapters published in edited volumes Books, manuals, or monographs published Exhibitions or performances presented in the fine/applied arts Professional writings published or accepted for publication in the last two years *Numbers indicated are the midpoints of the numerical ranges on the survey. The NDUS column represents the average of the midpoints for each category excluding those respondents who did not participate in a given activity. Computer Use Among College Faculty New to the HERI Faculty Survey was a question regarding computer usage. Faculty responded to eight categories of using technology that are shown in table 11 and in appendix E. With few exceptions, North Dakota faculty indicated higher percentages of time invested than their national peers. Faculty in the North Dakota University System, irrespective of type of institution, spent more time than the national average in using computers at least once a month to communicate via , write memos and letters, conduct research using Internet resources, and participate in on-line discussion groups. All NDUS faculty reported lower percentages than the national averages for using computers to work from home. Faculty from NDUS two-year institutions used computers more than their state and national peers to conduct scholarly writing and data analysis. Finally, North Dakota faculty reported about the same as or greater percentages of computer use to create presentations. Overall, the highest percentages indicated were those in the use of computers to communicate via and write memos and letters. The lowest percentages reported were for using computer technology to participate in on-line discussion groups. The NDUS percentages were consistent with the national percentages. 11

14 Table 11 Computer Use: Percent Using Computers At Least Once a Month For Each Activity Four-year Two-year Computer Activities NDUS National NDUS National NDUS National Communicate via Never Write memos/letters Never Conduct scholarly writing Never Work from home Never Conduct research using Internet resources Never Create presentations Never Conduct data analysis Never Participate in on-line discussion groups Never Personal Goals of Faculty As table 12 and appendix F depict, without exception, the number one personal goal for all NDUS faculty was to be a good teacher. Of the three categories of North Dakota institutions, faculty from two-year schools unanimously concurred (100 percent) that to be a good teacher was essential or very important. North Dakota faculty at doctorate institutions indicated 97.8 percent, while faculty at four-year institutions reported 98.4 percent. In addition to being higher than the national findings, they also replicated the national norms; faculty members consistently indicated that their most important goal was to be a good teacher. Second in order of importance for North Dakota faculty was to be a good colleague. Also higher percentages were noted, regardless of type of institution, for the three personal goals of developing a meaningful philosophy of life, raising a family, and helping others who are in difficulty. Less important to North Dakota faculty were obtaining recognition from one s colleagues for contributions to one s special field, becoming involved in programs to clean up the environment, being very well-off financially, influencing social values, and influencing the political structure. Of all the goals and corresponding percentages noted by North Dakota faculty, the goal of influencing the political structure was the least important. The percentages here also mirrored the national norms. Five goals for which all NDUS faculty indicated higher percentages than the national averages were to raise a family, help others who are in difficulty, integrate spirituality into one s life, be a good colleague, and be a good teacher. 12

15 Table 12 Percent of Faculty Noting Personal Goals as Essential or Very Important Four-year Two-year Goals NDUS National NDUS National NDUS National Become authority in own field Influence political structure Influence social values Raise a family Be very well-off financially Help others in difficulty Be involved in environ clean-up Develop philosophy of life Promote racial understanding Obtain recognition from colleagues Integrate spirituality into life Be a good colleague Be a good teacher Faculty Job Satisfaction Faculty members job satisfaction was a result of many factors. The HERI Faculty Survey asked NDUS faculty to indicate the reasons they believed were very important for pursuing an academic career; then, to indicate what aspects of their job were very satisfactory or satisfactory; and finally, to report if they still wanted to be a college professor. The findings are shown in the next three tables that follow. Appendix G and table 13 present the reasons faculty members noted as being very important in their decision to choose a career in higher education. While NDUS faculty at doctorate and fouryear institutions reported intellectual challenge as being the most important reason, faculty at two-year institutions indicated opportunities for teaching. In considering the highest percentages, faculty at doctorate institutions reported intellectual challenge (86.2 percent), intellectual freedom (77.5 percent), and freedom to pursue interests (76.8 percent). Opportunities for teaching was reported at 69.4 percent. For four-year faculty, intellectual challenge (65.8 percent), opportunities for teaching (63.0 percent), and intellectual freedom (61.4 percent) were the top reasons. Two-year faculty indicated opportunities for teaching (70.6 percent), intellectual challenge (63.9 percent), and intellectual freedom (55.5 percent) were top reasons for deciding to pursue an academic career. Clearly, the attractive aspects of a position in higher education were the academic challenges, freedoms, and teaching prospects. Ranking at the bottom for faculty at doctorate and four-year institutions was the aspect of occupational prestige and status. For two-year faculty, opportunities for research was the lowest in importance. These findings reflected the national norms. 13

16 Table 13 Reasons Noted as Very Important for Pursuing an Academic Career: Percent Responding to Each Category Four-year Two-year Reasons NDUS National NDUS National NDUS National Autonomy Flexible schedule Intellectual challenge Intellectual freedom Freedom to pursue interests Opportunities for teaching Opportunities for research Occupational prestige/status Faculty next responded to what aspects of a position in higher education were very satisfactory or satisfactory. The percentages are displayed in table 14. For North Dakota faculty members in doctorate and four-year institutions, autonomy and independence they have in their jobs was most satisfactory. However, for North Dakota faculty in two-year institutions, professional relationships with other faculty was most satisfactory. A fairly high proportion of North Dakota faculty at doctoral institutions also reported being satisfied with their working conditions, professional relationships with other faculty, competency of colleagues, and the opportunity to develop new ideas. Four-year faculty noted professional relationships with other faculty and the competency of colleagues. Two-year faculty reported autonomy and independence, competency of colleagues, and the opportunity to develop new ideas. When comparisons were made between types of institutions within North Dakota, faculty at the doctoral institutions indicated that they were more satisfied with their teaching load, quality of students, working conditions, job security, and relationships with administration than their peers in four-year and two-year institutions. Four-year and two-year faculty, however, expressed greater satisfaction in professional and social relationships with other faculty. North Dakota faculty were generally less satisfied with aspects of their job than were their peers nationally. Faculty across the state were less satisfied than faculty nationally with respect to their salary and fringe benefits, autonomy and independence, visibility for jobs, job security, and opportunity to develop new ideas. Differences were more pronounced for faculty within North Dakota s four-year and two-year institutions. Four-year faculty rated every aspect of their job satisfaction lower than their peers nationally except for teaching load, and professional and social relationships with other faculty. Two-year faculty also rated all aspects of their job satisfaction lower than the national norms with exception of opportunity for scholarly pursuits (for which there are lower expectations than at the other two types of institutions), professional and social relationships with other faculty, and competency of colleagues. Faculty at doctoral institutions were particularly less satisfied than their peers at other public universities with aspects of their job such as salary and fringe benefits, opportunity for scholarly pursuits, teaching load, visibility for jobs at other institutions and organizations, and job security. Still, they were much more satisfied than their peers nationally with their quality of students and professional relationships with other faculty. 14

17 Table 14 Percent Noting that Aspects of Job were Very Satisfactory or Satisfactory Four-year Two-year Aspect of job* NDUS National NDUS National NDUS National Salary and fringe benefits Opportunity for scholarly pursuits Teaching load Quality of students Working conditions (hours and location) Autonomy and independence Professional relations with other faculty Social relations with other faculty Competency of colleagues Visibility for jobs at other institutions/organizations Job security Relationships with administration Overall job satisfaction Opportunity to develop new ideas *Respondents marking Not applicable are not included in these results. Of particular significance was the fact that while faculty satisfaction with salary and fringe benefits was not very high for all faculty nationally, the satisfaction of faculty within North Dakota institutions was considerably below the national comparison groups. Only 21.3 percent of the faculty within North Dakota doctorate institutions, 25.9 percent of faculty in North Dakota four-year institutions, and 31.6 percent of faculty in North Dakota two-year institutions were satisfied with their salaries compared to the national figures of 50.1 percent, 42.9 percent, and 54.4 percent, respectively. Overall job satisfaction was found to be relatively high, but still below the national averages. NDUS faculty in doctoral institutions reported 64.1 percent to 73.2 percent nationally; four-year faculty indicated 66.3 percent to 71.9 percent nationally; and two-year faculty stated a 66.4 percent overall job satisfaction to the 77.9 percent noted by their national peers. Table 15 shows that, for the most part, faculty reported continued satisfaction with the decision to become a college professor. Sixty-nine percent of the respondents at all three institutions indicated that they definitely or probably want to continue to be a professor. North Dakota faculty members at doctoral institutions had a higher proportion who said they probably or definitely did not want to be a professor. When compared to the national norms, faculty from all three types of institutions were found to be less satisfied with their decision to be a college professor than were their peers at other public institutions. 15

18 Table 15 Career Choice: Percent Responding to Each Category Four-year Two-year Still want to be a professor? NDUS National NDUS National NDUS National Definitely yes Probably yes Not sure Probably no Definitely no Faculty Stress and its Sources Table 16 and appendix H record that, while proportions varied between the three types of NDUS institutions, respondents at doctorate institutions in North Dakota cited all sources of stress higher in percentage than their colleagues at four-year institutions in North Dakota. Generally speaking, time pressures and lack of personal time were the most common causes of stress for faculty members from all three types of institutions during the last two years. The next major source for North Dakota doctorate and four-year respondents was institutional procedures and red tape. For North Dakota two-year faculty, though, committee work was a greater source of stress. NDUS faculty at doctoral institutions rated all sources of stress higher than the national norms except child care, care of elderly parent, one s physical health, marital friction, and illness or death of spouse. In contrast to their peers at doctoral institutions, North Dakota four-year faculty cited all sources of stress lower than their peers nationally. And NDUS two-year faculty rated all sources of stress lower than their peers nationwide with the exception of nine sources: child care, committee work, faculty meetings, colleagues, students, institutional procedures and red tape, teaching load, marital friction, and keeping up with information technology. As might be expected, NDUS doctoral faculty reported higher percentages than their state and national peers in the review/promotion process and research and publishing demands. Of further note is that North Dakota doctoral faculty, in contrast to their peers statewide, indicated a higher percentage than the national norm in keeping up with information technology. 16

19 Table 16 Sources of Stress During the Last Two Years: Percent of Respondents to Each Source Four-year Two-year Sources* NDUS National NDUS National NDUS National Managing household responsibilities Child care Care of elderly parent My physical health Review/promotion process Subtle discrimination (e.g., prejudice, racism, sexism) Personal finances Committee work Faculty meetings Colleagues Students Research or publishing demands Institutional procedures and 'red tape' Teaching load Children's problems Marital friction Time pressures Lack of personal time Illness or death of spouse Keeping up with information technology *Percentage of respondents marking Somewhat or Extensive. Faculty Goals for Undergraduate Students The survey asked faculty the importance of a number of educational goals for undergraduate students. Table 17 and appendix I display that almost all faculty believed that it was very important or essential for students to develop the ability to think clearly. The other relatively high percentage across the three types of institutions was faculty members belief that undergraduate students should be prepared for employment. These findings were consistent across types of institutions both in North Dakota and nationally. Other educational goals which the majority of faculty at the North Dakota University System institutions found important were to enhance students self-understanding, prepare students for responsible citizenship, enhance students knowledge of and appreciation for other racial/ethnic groups, help students develop personal values, and develop moral character. institution faculty within North Dakota rated almost all goals for undergraduates higher than their peers at other public universities, the faculty at the four-year institutions consistently rated all of the goals lower than their peers at other public four-year institutions. Two-year institution faculty in North Dakota were more balanced when compared to the national percentages: some goals were rated higher; others, lower. 17

20 Table 17 Faculty Goals for Undergraduates Noted as Very Important or Essential: Percent Responding to Each Goal Four-year Two-year Educational goals NDUS National NDUS National NDUS National Develop ability to think clearly Prepare for employment Prepare for graduate education Develop moral character Provide for emotional development Prepare for family living Teach classics of western civilization Help develop personal values Enhance out-of-class experience Enhance self-understanding Instill commitment to community service Prepare for responsible citizenship Enhance knowledge of and appreciation of race/ethnic groups Conclusion The HERI Faculty Survey provides tremendous insight into the demographics, faculty time, publications and creative productions, instructional technology, goals, perceptions, and job-related stressors and satisfaction of North Dakota faculty. North Dakota doctorate institutions had the highest percentages of male faculty and the lowest percentages of female faculty members than at either the four-year or two-year institutions. Overall, percentages were lower than national averages at all three types of NDUS institutions except for the percentage of females at North Dakota s four-year institutions and the percentage of males at North Dakota s two-year institutions. Most NDUS doctoral faculty and two-year faculty indicated holding the rank of associate professor, while most four-year faculty held the rank of assistant professor. Percentages of North Dakota faculty in terms of rank did not follow a consistent pattern when compared to national percentages. This may indicate that there were differences among the eleven institutions as to the definition of each rank. That is, what the level of a particular rank means at a doctoral institution may not be the same for a four-year or two-year institution. Faculty members from two-year institutions in North Dakota reported the highest percentages for tenured status. These percentages, along with those from North Dakota s four-year institutions were higher than national percentages. Men and women from doctorate institutions in North Dakota, however, indicated higher percentages of non-tenured status than the national norms. 18

21 The ages of North Dakota faculty adhered to the national percentages consistently. The majority of two-year faculty members in the North Dakota University System were younger than their counterparts in four-year and doctorate-granting institutions. A significant majority of all respondents from all eleven campuses were White/Caucasian. Generally, NDUS institutions recorded lower percentages than their peers nationally in reporting diverse racial backgrounds. With a high of 99.4 percent to a low of 84.8 percent, North Dakota faculty overwhelmingly denoted teaching as their principal activity. These North Dakota percentages were higher than the national percentages for similar institutions. As a result, doctorate institutions in North Dakota also reported lower percentages for research than their peers nationally. Not only was teaching the principal activity for the majority of all North Dakota faculty, but it was also their primary job interest. Percentages ranged from a high of 96.7 percent to a low of 70.7 percent. NDUS two-year institutions recorded the highest percentages, while doctorategranting institutions reported the lower. Still, the North Dakota percentages were higher than the national percentages. A typical faculty member in a North Dakota doctoral institution spent 51.6 hours a week on jobrelated activities. For four-year institutions, the average number of hours was 53.2, and faculty at two-year institutions reported 54.0 hours per week. North Dakota faculty dedicated more hours per week to their positions than their peers nationally, and they spent the majority of their time on teaching, including preparation and advising. Again, these figures were greater than the national ones. For those NDUS faculty who spent less time teaching, more time was devoted to research and creative activities. The professional activities of North Dakota faculty patterned national trends and most of the publications occurred at the doctorate-granting institutions. However, exhibitions and performances were most often presented by faculty from four-year institutions. Overall, as stated earlier, North Dakota faculty generally published and performed less than their peers nationally as the time required for those activities was dedicated to teaching. Eight questions about faculty members use of technology were new to this survey. The percentages indicated that communicating by and writing memos or letters were the activities North Dakota faculty did most often in using the computer. NDUS faculty from all three types of institutions recorded lower percentages than the national norms in using computers to work from home. Low percentages were also reported for using the computer to participate in on-line discussions. Consistent with the amount of time North Dakota faculty spent on teaching, the personal goal noted by all respondents as most important or essential was to be a good teacher. Second in importance for all faculty was to be a good colleague. Of least importance to all respondents was the goal of influencing the political structure. These percentages reflected the national percentages. While the reason most North Dakota faculty chose a career in higher education was for the intellectual challenge, opportunities to teach was included among the top three reasons. This reinforces North Dakota s faculty who viewed themselves foremost as teachers. Choosing to be a college professor for reasons of prestige and status was least indicated. 19

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