Radio Frequency Security System for User-Luggage Recognition

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1 Radio Frequency Security System for User-Luggage Recognition César E. Nuñez Hidalgo and Sabri Tosunoglu Florida International University Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering West Flagler Street Miami, Florida and ABSTRACT In this paper, we describe the concept of building a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) System for luggage security. Automation of security systems plays an important role in airports as the volume of traffic continuously rises globally. In addition, automation has made such inroads that domestic life has become much easier and comfortable as a result. Increasing the role of automation in an airport setting has many advantages such as improving security, faster processing which saves time and improves efficiency, and saving manpower. Moreover, development of automated security systems is not limited to airports but the developed technology can be utilized in domestic settings to make human tasks easier. For example, home security systems and home-based automation systems can benefit from such technological developments. In this project, RFID technology is used for automating the luggage distribution system in airports through a high efficiency and secure process. After the general architecture is introduced, major components of the system are delineated, perceived advantages are listed and the possible economic impact is discussed. Overall, the proposed system is viewed as a safe and secure way of delivering travel accessories for people who travel through airports frequently. 1. INTRODUCTION RFID Systems were developed approximately 30 years ago. They originally were viewed as niche products. They were typically used for Radio Tracking of wild and agricultural animals, and later evolved into a technology which is used in many industrial applications today. For instance, all car keys of major car manufacturers contain a small transponder (RFID tag) which can send a radio signal to the car to lock the steering wheel and the car s electronics, resulting in a very efficient theft control. Also, RFID systems are used for building access control, with smart cards (RFID tag) for identification at doors. Another popular application is Easy-Pass (RFID tag) used on toll highways and bridges. In this research paper, the relevant technical basics of RFID technology will be explained, always pointing out the relevance to luggage distribution at airports. In addition, there is a description of RFID airport systems and their most important components. Such a system developed by the American Airlines company is presented as an example. Also, a listing of technical criteria, which shall provide a guideline for the evaluation of RFID systems in the airports industry, is reviewed. 2. PROJECT TECHNOLOGY This section provides an introduction to RFID technology. It begins with a discussion of the benefits of RFID relative to other automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) technologies. It then reviews the basic components of RFID systems and provides background information needed to later understand material in the paper. RFID represents a technological advancement in AIDC because it offers advantages that are not available to other AIDC systems such as bar codes. RFID offers these advantages because it relies on radio frequencies to transmit information rather than light, which is required for optical AIDC technologies. The use of radio frequencies means that RFID communication can occur: Without optical line of sight, because radio waves can penetrate many materials. At greater speeds, because many tags can be read quickly, whereas optical technology often requires time to manually reposition objects to make their bar codes visible. Over greater distances, because many radio technologies can transmit and receive signals more effectively than optical technology under most operating conditions. Figure 1. A passive RFID tag, an RFID tag with a printed barcode, and dust-sized RFID microchips. The ability of RFID technology to communicate without optical line of sight and over greater distances than other AIDC technology further reduces the need for human involvement in the identification process.

2 RFID products often support other features that bar codes and other AIDC technologies do not have, such as rewritable memory, security features, and environmental sensors that enable the RFID technology to record a history of events. The types of events that can be recorded include temperature changes, sudden shocks, or high humidity which is the variable conditions at airports around the world, designing one RFID system will be enough to satisfy any airport necessity. Today, people typically perceive the label identifying a particular object of interest as static, but RFID technology can make this label dynamic or even smart by enabling the label to acquire data about the object even when people are not present to handle it and when the object is moving. Chips for RFID labels are available from various companies today such as: Philips Semiconductors, Infineon, Texas Instruments, etc. They vary in capabilities like memory capacity, size, read/write versus read only and the way they are affixed onto the antenna. These factors are relevant for the airport needs in terms of performance, usability and of course space where to install the system. For example, the reader platform can have different designs such as two stationary antennas with a reading distance of 3 feet between the sensor gates, which reads all the luggage that passes through the antennas. A papersheet size antenna on the floor and a reader with an approximately one foot reading distance can read the entire luggage group that passes over the antenna. Another design is a handheld unit (wand) with a six-inch reading distance. The readers differ not only in terms of reading distance and size, but also in reading speed and the amount of tags which can be read simultaneously. Basically, the RFID Systems at the airports will have the following capabilities: Signals are sent through non-metal materials (there is no line of sight necessary like with a barcode). Many transponders can be read at the same time (e.g. a group of luggage). Some specific information can be read from the transponder and also be programmed (e.g. the checked in or checked out status of a luggage). 3. PROJECT OBJECTIVES & DESCRIPTION The research goal is to facilitate the distribution of luggage and its recognition during boarding and delivery time. Airports and airlines are experiencing many difficulties in the bagging area; such as losing luggage and sending luggage to the wrong destination. The RFID system for User-Luggage recognition will prevent and facilitate airlines to be more efficient with luggage handling at all times. An airline RFID System can keep track of traveler history, the life cycle of a luggage, and hence, enables all the airlines to keep better inventory and keep better security control of their luggage. The traveler enters the airport through a sensor gate, receives the RFID tag at the counter and places the luggage in a general baggage belt where the groups of luggages from all airlines are dropped and distributed by the system. The traveler will go straight to the luggage shelf after arriving to his/her destination. After the traveler has taken the luggage from the shelf, he/she will go to the self-check station. This station contains an RFID reader that will recognize and compare the signal from the luggage and the user and if they match, the traveler may leave. If this does not happen, then an alarm will be activated. The traveler will need to slide his/her RFID tag on top of the RFID reader, which will identify the traveler and an account will be opened. The luggage is now put onto the platen; the information is read and the chip programmed to a different status; for instance the check out status. When the suitcases and bags are carried through the sensor gate at the exit, there will be no alarms. The luggage numbers are stored on the account and a receipt is printed. For those travelers who do not want to use the self-check station, they will still be able to proceed to the circulation desk as they may have done so before. Figure 2. System architecture. As mentioned above, if the traveler goes through the sensor gates with luggage that are checked out, there will be no alarms going off. In case the item was not checked out, the alarm will sound and then a signal is transmitted to the information counter and/or a turnstile to block the exit. The item is identified by barcode as well as title and author. The way the suitcases are tracked is by employing the RFID system. When the luggage first comes into the airport, it will get an airline number and be entered into the airline data base. The RFID label will also bear the number, which is programmed into the chip. The RFID number is then linked to the data base. The luggage will then be put on the shelf and will now be active in the circulation system. The airline staff can take inventory by means of a hand held reader (inventory wand). The reader is waved alongside the baggage pick up area and picks up all the individual signals from the books. It may also be used to find misplaced books. The basic advantages of a modern RFID System in a airport can be summarized as following: No lines or greatly reduced lines at the checkout counter. Less repetitive work (and repetitive stress injuries) for personnel and an increase in interaction with the travelers. The use of an RFID system increases the security function in an airport. A regular inventory control and update of the data base is possible. Automation of sorting and conveying functions.

3 Easier search and tracking of misplaced or lost luggage. 4. SYSTEM FUNCTIONALITY The implementation of an RFID system requires the connection to the circulation software system (also called the Integrated Airlines System (IAS) because certain data are delivered to the data base of every airline or taken from it. The data exchange is based on a TCPIP protocol (SIP2, SLNP, also NCIP in the future). Most of the software companies offer such an interface. They also offer other options such as statistics (number of travelers, checked out media), etc. This data exchange protocol for the circulation system should be checked when installing our RFID system at any airport. This is another profit for airports; there will be no cost in software development. The RFID airport system consists, as mentioned in the previews section, of several components. The most important ones are the sensor gate(s), the self-check unit(s) and the staff station(s). These components are independent of each other and from the main software system (circulation system). Since the components are smart components, an additional server is not necessary as with first generation RFID airport systems. These components allow for easy addition of components, so the system can be easily improved. High reading speed is possible with this concept, which is the transmission of important data directly from the chip or barcode of the luggage. This availability of data in the luggage/media does not require time-consuming scrolling through the data base server. High reading speed is important for the sensor gate and the inventory wand to keep track of the entire luggage and other items that a traveler can fly with. 5. RFID SYSTEM COMPONENTS 5.1. SENSOR GATE The sensor gate was designed for the detection and reading of information from RFID labels in every luggage. The gate supplies the media required information in order to differentiate each luggage and show the luggage information. The reader consists of two or three antennas which are parallel to each other, plus housing for the reader electronics. The antennas show a similar design like the sensor gates used in stores for theft control SELF-CHECK UNIT After the identification of the traveler, which can be accomplished with an RFID ID card, a typical barcode card, magnetic ID card, or a PIN number, he/she can place the luggage onto the read surface in front of the self-check unit to be registered under his/her name and programmed to check out. The chip will be set on the quiet mode, so as not to alarm at the exit. It is possible to return luggage at the self-check station, but most airports prefer to have only one function to avoid any lines of waiting travelers. So the return function is an optional function as is looking up their account status. Multiple luggage units can be checked out at the same time in a stack. The height of the read range is approximately 150 cm (60 ). The thickness of the luggage determines the number of luggage that can be checked out within the read range STAFF & CONVERSION STATION To check out/in luggage at the staff station is a similar procedure like at the self-check unit. There is additional software windows integrated into the LMS which allows other functions for the staff like conversion, which is the initial programming of the chip, plus some controlling functions. The dimensions of the staff station antenna are 240 x 340 x 9 mm (13 x 9 x0.25 ), which results in a very low profile design. It is connected to a personal computer. The antenna will be set beside the PC or underneath the counter. The Staff Station is modular consisting of the antenna, electronic module and the power supply. Ergonomics were paramount in the design of the Staff Station and Self- Check-out Station. This station can also check out / in a stack of materials (to 150 cm, 60 high) and hence, is a great time saver for the staff INVENTORY WAND This device is basically used for various wireless functions: to take inventory, to locate specific types of luggage and to find misplaced luggage. Another function for this device is to feed data into the main system via a wireless LAN (network). Special airport specific software programs can be written and utilized with the inventory wand. The Personal Data Terminal (PDT) utilizes Windows CE software. Figure 3. Sensor gate simulation. Figure 4. RFID subsystem (Wand=Reader).

4 5.5. RFID LABELS The core of the system is the RFID label, which contains a specially trimmed antenna in order to achieve the highest reading distance. The technology is open and underlies the new Standard ISO This standard guarantees that the chips that are used can be supplied from various sources and are compatible with each other, meaning nonproprietary. Non-Proprietary is an important requirement for modern airports technology today; since they make longterm investments and cannot afford to be dependent on one company for their lifeline. In a worst case scenario, all the labels in an airport of 100,000 luggage pieces would have to be ripped out and replaced by a new version of chips. More advantages of the labels are that they can be applied on all type of luggage materials. The read/write chips are attached to the label using a flip chip technology which allows a low profile (no bump) label; this makes a rugged RFID label that can survive luggage drop and falls. Last but not least, they have a very high reading speed in order to be read at the exit sensor gate(s) or on the baggage area at the airport. The usability for all media material is possible due to two factors: A special design of the antennas makes it possible to put the labels directly onto a hand-bag for Self Check. For security function an additional label is attached. Magnetic stripes labels are no longer necessary that would destroy the luggage materials with the glue or sticky composite. Labels are safe on any type of luggage. 6. IMPROVEMENTS The functions mentioned in previous sections are performed with a high reliability (reading in a sensor gate, self check and staff station). The availability with compatible chips (RFID labels) must be guaranteed. Chip technology is compatible with different generations of RFID systems from different producers (to insure productivity). Additional security strips are not necessary (no electromagnetic strips). The system can also be extended with ID-Cards, access control to Admiral Clubs and restaurants at the airport. The capability of a World-Wide Network for a more efficient system. 7. PRICING FOR RFID SYSTEM It is difficult to provide representative pricing structures as the requirements vary significantly between the airports. But the following estimation is possible: considering that the price for a label is 0.55 US Dollar at 100,000 pieces plus the additional equipment cost, an airport of this size would have to invest about 150,000 US Dollars in total. However, it is possible to start with a small budget (for instance, tagging the luggage only and do the stack reading at the counter) and add the further components at a later stage. Figure 5. System architecture (World-Wide) where each subsystem represents an airport. Figure 6. Economic factor for traditional IT system vs. RFID system. 8. CONCLUSION In this paper, we presented how versatile an RFID system is so that it may be deployed in airports to automate luggage handling systems and improve security. Thanks to the versatility of modern technology, we can easily modify the existing functions and add some of our new functions. The system proposed in the paper is affordable pricewise for a new invention that can easily lead to new applications. In these days, airports have become a driving force in the development of RFID for the mass market. This technology was first used in other sectors of the industry, such as logistics and parcel distribution. The leading role for airports seems to be understandable, since airports share their knowledge in the development of these systems and also the benefits have been greatest in the travelers and airlines community. It is important to know that the software was developed in an earlier stage and is today far more refined. It is also very interesting that in countries with low labor costs, these systems are also becoming popular.

5 Finally, the airport market also benefits from the current development (and expectations) in other markets; the prices have dropped to a level, where the curve is more or less stable because higher production numbers (several 100 Mio Chips) were reached in The production capacities for RFID labels have been calculated accordingly to serve a multi-million unit market and in recent years the prices for RFID labels have dropped more than 1/2. With this background knowledge, it is obviously important to choose a technology which relies on facilitating and making travelers time comfortable in airports. We presented a system to achieve luggage-traveler recognition, airports luggage distribution and security behavior as a first step toward the development of an intelligent RFID system that interacts with travelers and airlines. As future work, we need to explore how robust these methods are and to cope with situations when the RFID system cannot detect a luggage correctly. We are also planning to make experiments using different RFID products from different generations to inform the status of accuracy in this new technology in order to realize more smooth interaction in the system behavior. Furthermore, we are trying to add an accompanying feature so that travelers can easily access future upgrades on the system so that older systems remain functional. 9. REFERENCES [1] Hayashibara, Y., Sonoda, Y., Takubo, T., Arai, H., and Tanie, K. Localization and Obstacle Detection for a Robot for Carrying Food Trays, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 1999, pp [2] Krohn A., Beigl M., Hazas M., Gellersen H., and Schmidt A. Using Fine-Grained Infrared Positioning to Support the Surface-Based Activities of Mobile Users. Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on smart Appliances and Wearable Computing, (IWSAWC),Columbus, Ohio, USA, [3] Bianco R., Caretti M. and Nolfi S. Developing a robot able to follow a human target in a domestic environment. In A. Cesta (Ed.), Proceeding of the First Robocare Workshop. Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR. Roma, Italy, [4] R. Bischoff, Advances in the Development of the Humanoid Service Robot HERMES, Field and Service Robotics Conference, 1999, [5] Finkenzeller, K. (2003): RFID Handbook, "Fundamentals and Applications in Contact less Smart Cards and Identification", Wiley & Sons LTD, 2nd edition, New York. [6] Kern, C., and Geiges, L. Radio Frequency Identification in Security Applications Function and Use in Modern RFID Systems. PISEC-Conference on Security Applications, Lisboa, Portugal, 2006.

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