High Performance or Cycle Accuracy?

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1 CHIP DESIGN High Performance or Cycle Accuracy? You can have both! Bill Neifert, Carbon Design Systems Rob Kaye, ARM ATC-100

2 AGENDA Modelling 101 & Programmer s View (PV) Models Cycle Accurate Models Bringing the two worlds together Results Summary

3 CHALLENGES IN MOBILE SOC DESIGN A typical verification challenge for today... big.little processing heterogeneous multicore Increasing complexity APPS APPS Increasing SW content OS Hypervisor OS Multiple OSs Secure services Diversified development Interrupt Control Cortex -A15 MPCore Cortex-A7 MPCore CPU 1 CPU 2 CPU 1 CPU 1 Mali GPU Base Periph. System Control On-chip Mem community L2 Cache L2 Cache DDR Cntrl Higher performance and lower power Cache Coherent Interconnect I/O & Peripheral Interfaces Security Are we building the thing right? Are we building the right thing?

4 ONE SIZE DOES NOT FIT ALL DIFFERENT TASKS DIFFERENT TOOLS

5 SOFTWARE CHALLENGES AND MODELING High level modeling and virtual prototypes exploited to improve development productivity and reduce time to market. Models required early in product development lifecycles Models are utilized for: Architecture & device modeling Early software development Early HW / SW co-validation Device implementation compliance Device validation support Models are used Within ARM Supplied to silicon partners Supplied to Ecosystem partners Accelerating SoC Time to Market... High performance models suitable for SW community Available early for SW development Accurate to HW for consistency Easy to debug enabling improved productivity Easy to deploy to facilitate the developer community

6 LOOSELY TIMED MODELING (A.K.A. PROGRAMMER S VIEW) ` Architecture Envelope Model (AEM) Core Fast Models Architecture Envelope Model (AEM) Architecture Envelope Model (AEM): Executable version of the ARM Architecture Reference Manual ( ARMARM ) Catch architectural defects early Core LT Model e.g. ARM Cortex -A15, Cortex-A7 processors Early software development platform Device implementation compliance: execute same validation suites as RTL

7 Code Translation Optimized translation of ARM instructions to X86 equivalents Direct Memory Access Translated code is cached for fast memory access LOOSELY TIMED MODEL HOW PERFORMANCE IS ACHIEVED

8 Hardware Android Port Software Stack Virtual Platform AN EXAMPLE: BIG.LITTLE SYSTEM BRING-UP TIMELINE 1st VP to ARM SW Dev Lead Partner Delivery Bi-monthly incremental deliveries General Release Lead Partner Delivery APM Demo Task Migration S/W Development on Virtual Platform Linaro Delivery big.little Android Gingerbread Ice Cream Sandwich Delivered Software Stack Running Performance Tuning

9 LT MODELS PERFORMANCE LINARO ANDROID BOOT 2.2GHz Laptop Cortex-A15x1 75 seconds (90 mips) Cortex-A15x4 + Cortex-A7x4 140 seconds 14 days continuous, >100T instructions Recommendation: High end workstation, 64-bit OS, large physical memory

10 SOC VERIFICATION LANDSCAPE Complex designs need multiple verification and validation platforms Virtual platforms allow early HW / SW co-development and analysis Requirements Analysis Virtual Platforms RTL (Sim / Accel) Emulation FPGA Evaluation Board System Validation System Design System Verification Architecture Design Integration Verification IP/Module Design IP / Module Verification Implementation

11 ARM FAST MODELS Fast, accurate Programmer s View (LT) Models aligned with the ARM IP and tools roadmaps Enables development at all levels of the software stack prior to silicon availability Models for newly available ARM processors Cortex-A15, Cortex-A7, Cortex-R5, Cortex-R7, big.little reference platforms Models of ARMv8 cores available to lead partners ARMv7 and ARMv8 architecture models for validation of processor IP Export to SystemC and TLM-2.0 Comprehensive debug, trace and simulation control Debug with DS-5 toolchain

12 SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND ARCHITECTURE DESIGN MODELLING NEEDS Highly accurate interconnect (& System IP) models > 95% accuracy Use with traffic generators for interconnect-centric exploration Accurate CPU models > 80% accurate: deliver representative traffic to interconnect > 95% accurate: Architecture validation & SW performance optimization Execution speed ~ 100 s KIPS Execute significant workloads

13 Modelling 101 & Programmer s View (PV) Models Cycle Accurate Models Bringing the two worlds together Results Summary

14 CYCLE ACCURATE MODELS WHAT ARE THEY REALLY? Not defined in SystemC TLM-2.0 Requires protocol knowledge Source: Google.com Can be impossible to fully validate if handcreated

15 CYCLE ACCURATE MODELS WHY ARE THEY IMPORTANT? Ideally, all models are implementationaccurate 100% confidence in developed system Accurate hardware and software design decisions Multiple reasons why they re not always used RTL not available yet Execution speed Model creation/validation time

16 CARBONIZED ARM MODELS 100% accurate model of ARM IP compiled from ARM RTL Instrumented for interactive debug, memory, pipeline and cache analysis Mappings included to enable automatic interchange with ARM Fast Models Models for nearly all available ARM processors Cortex-A15, Cortex-A7, big.little, Cortex-A9, Cortex-A8 Cortex-R5, Cortex-R4, Cortex-M4, Cortex-M3, Cortex-M0 ARM11 MPCore, ARM1176, ARM1136, ARM926, ARM946, ARM968, ARM7TDMI-S Early availability programs on new processors Reference platforms and software packages included Comprehensive debug, trace and simulation control Debug with DS-5 toolchain

17 Modelling 101 & Programmer s View (PV) Models Cycle Accurate Models Bringing the two worlds together Results Summary

18 WHY NOT APPROXIMATELY TIMED? THE DANGER OF THE MIDDLE AT models are great as part of HLS process Not as well-suited for other design tasks Can t achieve the speeds needed for software Doesn t have the accuracy needed for architecture Require large design/validation effort

19 SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND ARCHITECTURE DESIGN MODELLING NEEDS PV Models alone: insufficient detail for accurate analysis CA Models alone: unable to run large software workloads Option 1: dedicated models Option 2: re-use existing models PV for performance CA for detailed timing information

20 BRINGING THE WORLDS TOGETHER PT 1 GOOD FENCES MAKE GOOD NEIGHBORS Interrupt Control Base Periph. Cortex-A15 MPCore CPU 1 CPU 2 Cortex-A7 MPCore CPU 1 CPU 1 Mali GPU System Control On-chip Mem L2 Cache L2 Cache DDR Cntrl Cache Coherent Interconnect I/O & Peripheral Interfaces Security Best models for CA Mixing PV and CA models can be very effective Maintain core in PV Use CA for model(s) under investigation CA when needed, dormant when not Any model can be CA but avoid processor/memory datapath if maximum performance is desired Good for firmware, not for architecture

21 BRINGING WORLDS TOGETHER PT 2 THE BEST OF BOTH WORLDS Utilize existing LT and CA models Use LT models to quickly execute to point of interest Software breakpoint Arbitrary point in time (requires sync step) Swap to CA models to continue execution Debug hardware/software interaction Gather performance analysis data

22 MAPPING FROM LT TO CA 5 POUNDS OF DATA INTO A 10 POUND BAG LT Virtual Prototype Interrupt Control Cortex-A15 MPCore Cortex-A7 MPCore CPU 1 CPU 2 CPU 1 CPU 1 L2 Cache L2 Cache Cache Coherent Interconnect Base Periph. System Control On-chip Mem DDR Cntrl Security Checkpoints are used to create swap points ALL models need to support checkpointing Additional Initialization Data I/O & Peripheral Interfaces CA Virtual Prototype Interrupt Control Base Periph. Cortex-A15 MPCore Cortex-A7 MPCore System Control Checkpoint Data via CADI including side-effects CPU 1 CPU 2 CPU 1 CPU 1 L2 Cache L2 Cache Cache Coherent Interconnect I/O & Peripheral Interfaces On-chip Mem DDR Cntrl Security

23 CUSTOM MODEL SWAP Fast Model Fast Models C++ Models SystemC/TLM-2.0 Models ARM ESL APIs Accurate Model Carbonized Models C++ Models SystemC/TLM 2.0 Models Models presenting a compliant ARM ESL API interface may participate in swap Target model needs to support writing to necessary registers via ARM ESL API (including side-effects!) Only state elements are supported, not thread context Need system management of sockets, debug connections, etc

24 Compare Results IF IT S NOT TESTED, IT S BROKEN LT Virtual Prototype Program Flow CP1 CP2 CA Virtual Prototype Extract checkpoints from LT run Compare end results to validate execution Intermediate comparisons may be inconsistent due to different execution model in actual processor CPn

25 Modelling 101 & Programmer s View (PV) Models Cycle Accurate Models Bringing the two worlds together Results Summary

26 CUSTOMER EXAMPLE: PARTITIONED SPEED AND ACCURACY Interrupt Control Cortex-A9 MPCore CPU 1 CPU 2 Base Periph. System Control On-chip Mem Mali GPU Hardware Prototype Linux Boot Virtual Prototype F L2 Cache DDR Cntrl Frame Frame Frame Frame Frame Frame Frame Frame Frame Frame LT Model CA Model 5 Min 10 Min 15 Min Majority of system executes in LT domain, GPU in CA GPU only active when being initialized or processing frames Boots Linux in <20 seconds, processes frames in <90 seconds Display 9 frames of graphics in virtual prototype while hardware prototype is still booting Linux

27 LEVERAGING SPEED AND ACCURACY DRIVER DEVELOPMENT LT Virtual Prototype Boot Loader OS Boot UART Driver LCD Driver Mali Driver CP 1 CP 2 CP 3 CA Virtual Prototype Create checkpoint at each point of interest, each engineer debugs at correct time with 100% accuracy Able to boot OS and run to relevant checkpoint OS in seconds leveraging speed of ARM Fast Models Each checkpoint is debugged independently with 100% accuracy

28 LEVERAGING SPEED AND ACCURACY PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS LT Virtual Prototype Boot Loader OS Boot Browser Startup CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CA Virtual Prototype Break long run into multiple run to execute in parallel and gather accurate data for cycle count, power analysis, etc. Results can be aggregated to deliver accurate results for much longer runs than normally possible with accurate models

29 DEPLOYMENT RESULTS Ability to swap Fast Model->Carbonized model is in active use Execution time is unchanged No effect on Fast Model runtime speed CA models execute at regular speed after restore Checkpoint creation/restore is <10 seconds Currently supported cores Cortex-A15, Cortex-A7, Cortex-A9

30 AGENDA Modelling 101 & Programmer s View (PV) Models Cycle Accurate Models Bringing the two worlds together Results Summary

31 SUMMARY Swapping LT and CA models enables a single virtual prototype to be used by all design groups MIPS performance for software development 100% accuracy for firmware, architecture and debug

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