Organising, legal, financial and technology solutions in SDI construction in Europe

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1 Organising, legal, financial and technology solutions in SDI construction in Europe Henri J.G.L. Aalders Faculteit Toegepaste Wetenschappen Katholieke Universiteit Leuven OTB, GIS-technologie Technische Universiteit Delft 1/ 115 Infrastruktura Danych Przestrzennych w Polsce i Europie Seminarium, AR

2 Content SDI Standards INSPIRE Legal aspects Financial aspects systems, standards, policy principles, organisation DG-JRC, plan, status freedom, commerce, protection, privacy costs, benefit, payment Summary 2/ 115

3 Introduction Data transfer portability interoperability 3/ 115

4 Interoperability Principle Tools Languages Reference models Frameworks Concepts Specifications Encoding Interfaces Conformance testing 4/ 115

5 Interoperability Principle Two main areas of interoperability Content Services Service A with interface 5/ 115

6 Spatial Data Infrastructures data sources databases, metadata policy & institutional agreements standards network & technology services education users 6/ 115

7 The underlying theme of SDI Within an SDI framework store once and use many times manage professionally 7/ 115

8 SDI organisational aspects keep data at source to ensure quality create collaboration between users and providers low level barriers provide templates for query solve copyrights, licenses, costs, privacy, introduce standards and data formats access off-line/online ( FTP), brokered or interoperable 8/ 115

9 SDI types (after Masser) formally mandated by national government (e.g.: USA, Portugal) grown from national GI co-ordination (e.g.: Netherlands, Australia/New Zealand) 9/ 115

10 SDI hierarchy Global SDI less detail (after Williamson) Regional SDIs National SDIs State SDIs Local SDIs Corporate SDIs more detail 10 / 115

11 SDI developments factors Political Development Cultural Technology Economic Partnerships Human factors Polices Protection & Security Conceptual External factors Environmental factors Internal factors Capacity factors SDI Organisation (after Williamson) Participation 11 / 115

12 SDI functions data discovery data transfer data evaluation data application exploration is partly - front room - back room application required : - standard semantics - agreed syntax 12 / 115

13 Catalog services Catalog services roles documenting and locating data documenting contents and structure of data model providing information for applications 13 / 115

14 Open Geospatial Consortium OGC uses user needing user data interface posting query gateway catalogue search server(s) catalogue deliver entries deliver data metadata spatial data Metadata transport Data transport Metadata service Metadata discovery Data inventory Data exploration 14 / 115

15 OGC OGC Internet model Provider Client side Device charracteristics Image constraints Style Display Render Display element generator Image Display elements Features Display service Render service DEG service Thin client (only in raster with JPEG) Medium client (using render service with WebCGM, SVG) Thick client (using Display Element Generator with simple feature XML and GML at client side) Query constraints Filter Data source Filter service 15 / 115

16 OGC Independent scope encode spatial information for storage and transport allow extensibility separate content from representation (i.e. GML is DLM and not DCM) allow integration of non-spatial data allow easy linking to other data 16 / 115

17 OGC Internet based SDI requires consensus on OGC standards in the following areas: geometric model both raster and vector description of geo-datasets and processes access and query of metadata (applying OGC catalog services) selection of the geo-data itself (applying OGC web-mapping server specifications) formatting (and transferring) the resulting geo-dataset (using GML) XML: HTML: GML: UML: extendable Modelling Language Hyper Text Mark-up Language Geography Mark-up Language for Internet applications Unified Mark-up Language 17 / 115

18 Catalog services Other framework functions conceptual generalisation feature extraction for scale independent display obtaining objects form images co-ordinate transformations annotation services to ease interpretation image manipulation to alter size, colour, contrast and mathematical and statistical analyses spatial object manipulations topological, geometrical 18 / 115

19 Future of SDI WAP technology GPS mobile updating virtual and WAP technology augmented reality GPS mobile telephones, palm computers, etc for actual positioning in route planning for database up-to-dateness to visualise (in-)visible objects in 3D mobile telephones, palm computers, etc for actual positioning in route planning 19 / 115

20 Standards standardisation development of agreements and rules amongst users to create unity and clarity, where diversity is unwanted standard documented agreements by potential users 20 / 115

21 Standards General aspects fully consensus free acceptance And more... standard versus norm transfer versus exchange object-based versus object-oriented 21 / 115

22 Standards Standards hierarchy international standard International body national standard State Committee on Standardisation Standardisation Law Governmental (Executive) Order domain standard ministries (departments) group of organisations application standard within - private sector - enterprise(s) 22 / 115

23 Standards Types formal standards (through national/regional standardisation body, using consensus) e.g.: NEN, BSI, ANSI - national CEN - European ISO - International IEEE - Institute of Electric and Electronic Engineers ITU - International Telecommunication Union industry consortia standards e.g.: Open Group (formerly X/Open) OMG (Object Management Group UML / XML) OGC (OpenGeospatial Consortium GML) professional organisations standards e.g.: ACM - Association for Computing Machinery 23 / 115

24 Standards Types low level hardware and physical connections e.g. cables and couplers, electrical interfaces, computer hardware and storage media network communications and management standards e.g. protocols operating system software standards e.g. object management architecture, distributed network management high level next slide 24 / 115

25 Standards Types low level high level user interface standards data format /data transfer standards programming and application development standards user design standards 25 / 115

26 Spatial data standards Aims efficiency / costs moving away from walled garden, single vendor solutions, limited application partners and difficult integration avoid information loss knowledge transfer quality improvement 26 / 115

27 Spatial data standards ISO 8211 / 9375 (Edifact) query session description Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Trade record descriptive record end; end; end; data descriptive records data records --- end; 27 / 115

28 Spatial data standards Data transfer principle n(n-1) user A system P if P = Q Conversion from/to A GUTS Geo- Uniform Transfer Standard 2n user B system Q Conversion from/to B Geo application standards national, CEN/TC 278, ISO/TC / 115

29 Organisation of standardisation Formal institutions OGC ISO IEC world CEN Cenelec Europe Afnor BSI DIN NEN NEC national 29 / 115

30 ISO International Organization for Standardization ISO is a word... from Greek ' isos ', = ' same appears in isometric isonomy isobar isoline (the same measures ordimensions) (the same legal rules for people) (the same pressure) (the same height) 30 / 115.

31 European co-operation actual relation formal relation EuroGeographics EuroSDR CERCO Megrin AM/FM UDMS Surveying ISO TC211 Vienna agreement TC278 CEN TC287 Photo y OEEPE Carto EUROGI DG VIII EU DG XIII 31 / 115

32 CEN/TC 287 GI standards Geographic Information (phase one - till 1999) ENv 12009: 1997, Reference Model ENv 12160: 1997, Data description - Spatial schema ENv 12656: 1998, Data description - Quality ENv 12657: 1998, Data description - Metadata ENv 12658: 1998, Data description - Transfer ENv 12661: 1998, Referencing - Geographic identifiers ENv 12762: 1998, Referencing - Position ENv 13376: 1999, Data description - Rules for application schema CR 12660:1998, Processing - Query and update: spatial aspects CR 13425: 1998, Fundamentals - Overview CR 13435: 1998, Vocabulary CR 13568: 1999, Conceptual schema language Abandoned in November 2003! 32 / 115

33 ISO/TC 211 Geo-standards Geographic Information / Geomatics (at ) ISO Reference model ISO Overview (page 1 of 3) ISO Conceptual schema language ISO Terminology ISO Conformance and testing (published) ISO Profiles ISO Spatial schema ISO Temporal schema ISO Rules for application schema ISO Feature cataloguing methodology ISO Spatial referencing by co-ordinates ISO Spatial referencing by geographic identifiers ISO Quality principles ISO Quality evaluation procedures ISO Metadata... and / 115

34 ISO/TC 211 Geo-standards Geographic Information / Geomatics (at ) ISO Positioning services ISO Portrayal (page 2 of 3) ISO Encoding ISO Services ISO/TR Functional standards (new revision started) ISO/TR Imagery and gridded data ISO/TR Qualifications and certification of personnel ISO Schema for coverage geometry and functions ISO Imagery and gridded data components ISO Simple feature access Common architecture ISO SFA Geographic information - SQL option ISO SFA COM/OLE ISO Profile Gi - FACC Data Dictionary ISO Geodetic codes and parameters... and / 115

35 ISO/TC 211 Geo-standards Geographic Information / Geomatics (at ) ISO Web map server interface ISO Imagery and gridded data framework ISO Sensor and data model for imagery and gridded data ISO Data product specification ISO Location based services possible standard ISO Location based services tracking and navigation ISO Multimodel location based services for routing and navigation ISO Procedures for geographical information items ISO Geography Markup Language ISO Generally used profiles of the spatial schema ISO Data quality measures ISO Metadata XML implementation specification ISO Technical amendment to the ISO 191** ISO Schema for moving features 35 / 115

36 General approach ISO/TC 211 OSE Open Systems Environment RM ODP Reference Model Open Distributed Processing MDA Model Driven Architecture from UML to platform specific implementation 36 / 115

37 ISO/TC 211 Content standards SDI Toegang, technologie Content (data) Organisatie Opleiding ISO Conceptual schema language ISO Spatial schema ISO Temporal schema ISO Rules for application schema ISO Feature cataloguing methodology ISO Spatial referencing by coordinates ISO Spatial referencing by geographic identifiers ISO Quality principles ISO Quality evaluation procedures ISO Metadata ISO Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data ISO/TR Imagery and gridded data ISO Schema for coverage geometry and functions ISO Imagery and gridded data components ISO Profile - FACC Data Dictionary ISO Geodetic codes and parameters ISO Imagery, gridded and coverage data framework ISO Sensor and data model for imagery and gridded data ISO Data product specification ISO Generally used profiles of the spatial schema and of similar important other schemas ISO Data quality measures 37 / 115

38 Classification ISO standards ISO Conceptual schema language ISO Spatial schema ISO Temporal schema ISO Rules for application schema ISO Feature cataloguing methodology ISO Spatial referencing by coordinates ISO Spatial referencing by geographic identifiers ISO Quality principles ISO Quality evaluation procedures ISO Metadata ISO Metadata extensions for imagery and gridded data ISO/TR Imagery and gridded data ISO Schema for coverage geometry and functions ISO Imagery and gridded data components ISO Profile - FACC Data Dictionary ISO Geodetic codes and parameters ISO Imagery, gridded and coverage data framework ISO Sensor and data model for imagery and gridded data ISO Data product specification ISO Generally used profiles of the spatial schema and of similar important other schemas ISO Data quality measures 38 / 115

39 Standards stages ISO CEN Pre-standard WD Working Group Draft WD Working Group Draft CD Committee Draft CD Committee Draft DIS Draft International Standard pren during Enquiry FDIS Final DIS pren during formal vote ENV temporary EN IS International Standard EN European Norm Now UAP! 39 / 115

40 Basics of Geo-standards Generic data model Data associates S[0:?] SEMANTIC ASPECTS element is_identified by S[0:?] has_property S[0:?] identifier property associates_ topology_by_s[0:?] spatial view 1 has_position S[0:?] position topology geometry SPATIAL SPECTS has_shape S[0:?] shape 40 / 115.

41 Metadata introduction Greek: 'data about data' meta data [McIntosh 1968] meta-data [Homer 1978], [Ziegler 1978], [Weber 1978], [Schelling 1978] metadata [DLC 1979] first use in Computer / Information sciences literature in 1968 firstly, in the European community (sixties) later, in USA literature (as metadata, eighties) 41 / 115

42 Metadata definition ISO/TC 211 data about the content, quality, condition and other characteristics of data 42 / 115

43 Metadata functions Requirement analysis for metadata locate evaluate extract apply catalog within historical textual database record report 43 / 115.

44 Metadata fundamentals Application of set theory dataset Z dataset X subset j metadata j subset i metadata i subset k metadata k dataset Y metadata i,j,k,x,y,z metadata Z metadata X metadata Y metadata Introduction Wrocław, SDI December 2, 2004 OpenGIS Maps Standards Example 44 / 115

45 Metadata fundamentals Sets hierarchy and integration Super SET SET Sub SET V = ( V, ) Meta SET V is an ordered set x y x = x y x y = y or describing the ordered relation of the sets (x, y) between X = t T x t = infimum (greatest lower bound) X = t T x t = supremum (least upper bound) 45 / 115

46 Metadata abstraction levels Type collections products data units object groups instance example (i.e. characteristics of) series of topographic maps photographs or images data organisation attributes and classes specific occurrence of object type 46 / 115

47 Metadata fundamentals Metadata modularity to assembly metadata schemas combining elements of different schemas / vocabularies in syntactically and semantically interoperable way e.g.: snap them together into larges structures to accommodate needs in specific applications e.g.: id always appears, while degree of cloud cover only appears in remote sensing or aerial photography data refinement for specific application.... next slide 47 / 115

48 Metadata fundamentals Metadata modularity assembly metadata schemas... previous slide sufficient refinement for specific application e.g.: 'illustrator', 'author', 'composer' or 'sculptor' are all particular types of the general term 'creator' 'date of creation', '- modification', - 'acceptance' have narrower meaning as 'date' 48 / 115

49 Metadata fundamentals Metadata domain internationalisation global resource discovery by using common global conventions of practice languages and character sets localisation local community service by supporting local conventions Globalisation versus functionality 49 / 115

50 Metadata fundamentals Metadata contents conceptual models defining the UoD (objects attributes and relationships) structure (do not use lists) context vocabularies (formal languages) application profiles... next slide 50 / 115

51 Metadata fundamentals Metadata contents conceptual models..... previous slide application profiles metadata schemas (with modularity and extensibility) tailoring functional needs of a particular application by: cardinality (i.e. the constraints of any element: M, O, C) value space restriction (domain) declaration of namespaces 51 / 115

52 Metadata applications Metadata systems Dublin Core Metadata Initiative ( DCMI ) Dublin Ohio, U.S.A, DC set is to navigate subjects, languages, cultures) Adopted by governments, libraries, museums, archives, publishers, environmental science repositories, prints and e-print archives Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Learning Object Metadata Working Group ISO Geographic Information / Geomatics Metadata 211.org/ 52 / 115

53 Geo sub-standards Metadata overview identification defining the set directory metadata for finding the set dictionary metadata defining the content metadata of metadata defining the metadataset metadataset identification Ontology directory dictionary metadata 53 / 115

54 ISO Based on metadata standards and... ANZLIC Core Metadata Elements, November 1995 ANZLIC Working Group on Metadata Australia and New Zealand Land Information Council, Sydney CAN/CGSB , July 1994 Canadian Directory Information Digital Geo-referenced Data Sets, Canadian General Standards Board, Ottawa CEN ENv 12657, Geographic Information Metadata, Comité européen de Normalisation, Brussels, September 1996, FGDC Content Standard for Geo-spatial Metadata US Federal Geographic Data Committee, Washington DC June 8, / 115

55 ISO on transfer standards DIGEST, January 1994 DIgital Geographic information Exchange Standard Digital Geographic Information Working Group, NATO S57- OC, October 1995, Monaco International Hydrographic Organisation / Bureau SDTS, August 1992, Gaithersburg, MD, U.S.A. Spatial Data Transfer Standard, US Department of Commerce 55 / 115

56 ISO ISO development cycles Working drafts version 1.0 March 1996 version 2.1 June 1997 version 1.1 October 1996 version 3.0 September 1997 version 1.2 December 1996 version 3.1 December 1997 version 2.0 January 1997 version 4.0 February 1998 Committee drafts version 1.0 July 1998 ( 962 comments ) version 2.0 November 1999 ( 1422 comments ) version 3.0 June 2000 ( 655 comments ) Draft International Standard version 1.0, Sept Final Draft International Standard version 1.0, Sept International Standard version 1.0, Sept / 115

57 ISO Object model is based on Object Management Group s (OMG) Unified Modelling Language (UML) Data dictionary is based on ISO Information Technology Specification and standardisation of data elements (all parts) Together: complete conceptual model 57 / 115

58 ISO Content Metadata application information metadata required for every geo-dataset optional for aggregates Metadata packages defining the geographic metadata element set Core metadata defining the minimal metadata element set 58 / 115

59 ISO Dataset title reference date responsible party geographic location language character set topic category scale abstract format name format version additional info reference system lineage statement spatial representation type on-line resource Metadataset point of contact date stamp character set language file identifier standard name standard version Legend: mandatory conditional optional Minimal set 59 / 115

60 ISO Profiles ISO allows specific applications to develop own profiles, accredited by ISO Extensions ISO allows extensions ( localisation of standard ) defined in 'informative Annex' 60 / 115

61 ISO Future developments ISO Services developing detailed service metadata Imagery, gridded and coverage data Sensor and data model Results will change ISO Metadata into Part 2 ISO Implementation profiles of Metadata Standard ISO / 115

62 Metadata in the world Implementations Europe CEN ENv ( ISO 19115? ) North America ( MoU ISO profile ) U.S.A. FGDC Content metadata standard Canada CAN/CGSB South America mostly: Caribbean FGDC Content metadata standard Pacific ANZLIC Core Metadata Elements ( ISO profile ) Asia no standard ( ISO ) 62 / 115

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