IDENTIFYING RISK FACTORS AND PROGRAMMING FOR INJURY PREVENTION

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1 ACL INJURY / RE-INJURY PREVENTION IDENTIFYING RISK FACTORS AND PROGRAMMING FOR INJURY PREVENTION JAMIE MCCARTNEY, B.Sc., CSCS MATT JORDAN, M.Sc., CSCS Strength and Conditioning, Canadian Sport Institute-Calgary Head of Strength and Conditioning Men's Alpine, Canadian Alpine Ski Team

2 PRESENTATION OVERVIEW Identify modifiable (trainable) risk factors for ACL injury Consequences of ACL injury Programming for ACL injury / re-injury prevention Matt Jordan 2014

3 CANADIAN WOMEN S SKI TEAM

4 CANADIAN WOMEN S SKI TEAM Matt Jordan 2014

5 CANADIAN WOMEN S SKI TEAM A database of ski racers with French Alpine Ski Team was analyzed Of 379 athletes registered, 28% suffered at least one ACL injury 50% of top ranked skiers suffered ACL injury (Pujol et al., 2007) Matt Jordan 2014

6 CANADIAN WOMEN S SKI TEAM More than 30% of top ranked skiers suffered ACL re-injury (Pujol et al., 2007) Matt Jordan 2014

7 CANADIAN WOMEN S SKI TEAM TIBIAL FRACTURE ACL ACL ACL TIBIAL FRACTURE RE-INJURY TIBIAL FRACTURE

8 NON-CONTACT ACL INJURY Anterior Cruciate Ligament Female athletes at greater risk (4-6x male counterpart) (Arendt et al., 1995; Myer et al., 2009; Prodromos et al., 2008) Non-contact injury occurs in transitional zones (i.e. deceleration of the BCM) (Beynnon et al., 1998) Increased risk for non-contact ACL injury attributable to risky biomechanics and altered intermuscular coordination (Hewett et al., 2005; Zebis et al., 2009) Matt Jordan 2014

9 FORCES THAT LOAD THE ACL Matt Jordan 2014 Prodromos, (2008). The Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Reconstruction and Basic

10 FORCES THAT LOAD THE ACL Anterior shear load on the tibia *** Valgus loading Tibial internal rotation 0-30 and 90 + knee flexion Aggressive quadriceps contraction / hamstring inactivation Matt Jordan 2014 Prodromos, (2008). The Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Reconstruction and Basic

11 ACL RISK FACTORS: LANDING MECHANICS Rapid eccentric deceleration (landing jumps / changing direction) high risk sport movement Hard landing (Hewett et al., 2005) Greater posterior vgrf Small angles of knee flexion / quad strength dominant (Demorat et al., 2004 ; Colby et al., 2000; Myer et al., 2006) Time frame of injury < 50 ms (Krosshaug et al., 2007) Highlights importance of preactivation strategies and rapid muscular force development Prodromos, (2008). The Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Reconstruction and Basic Science Matt Jordan, 2013

12 ACL RISK FACTORS: HAMS / QUADS Female athletes may have altered H/Q activation and reduced hamstrings strength (Huston & Wojstys, 1996; Prodromos et al., 2008; Zebis et al., 2009; Zebis et al., 2011) ACL injured females increased VL-ST activity difference (Zebis et al., 2009) ACL injured females had lower hamstrings strength but no difference in quadriceps strength compared to matched male controls (Myer et al., 2009) Quadriceps dominant landings linked to increased ACL loading (Bessier et al., 2003; Demorat et al., 2004; Markolf et al., 2004)

13 HAMSTRINGS AN ACL AGONIST Hamstrings important ACL agonist (decreases ACL loading) (Mac Williams et al., 1999; Markolf et al., 2004) Biceps femoris Semitendinosus Assists by preventing anterior translation of tibia b/w flexion but not in extension (Mac Williams et al., 1999; Markolf et al., 2004) Medial hamstrings / medial quadriceps (VM) important for ACL unloading and medial joint compression (anti-valgus) (Zebis et al., 2009) H/Q co-contraction increases valgus/varus stiffness (Mac Williams et al., 1999) Matt Jordan 2014

14 MECHANISMS OF INJURY (Gio Auletta, Pentaphoto) Matt Jordan 2014

15 LANDING BACK WEIGHTED Skier out of balance and backward in flight Lands on ski tails Boot and knee extensor torque cause anterior translation of tibia (Bere et al., 2011) Matt Jordan, 2013

16 IMPORTANCE OF THE HAMSTRINGS Matt Jordan 2014

17 IMPORTANCE OF THE HAMSTRINGS FACL FHAMSTRINGS FANTERIOR SHEAR (Barrata et al., 1988; Herzog & Read, 1993; Mac Williams et al., 1999; Markolf et al., 2004; Prodromos et al., 2008)

18 IMPORTANCE OF THE HAMSTRINGS FQUADRICEPS FPT FACL FHAMSTRINGS FANTERIOR SHEAR (Barrata et al., 1988; Herzog & Read, 1993; Mac Williams et al., 1999; Markolf et al., 2004; Prodromos et al., 2008)

19 SUMMARY OF MECHANISMS Range of knee flexion Skier out of balance Lateral to medial knee joint loading (valgus loading) Twisting load (internal rotation of tibia) Back to front load on tibia (anterior displacement of tibia) Time frame of injury (< 60 ms) Matt Jordan 2014

20 RISKS FACTORS FOR ACL INJURY Equipment Speed Changing snow conditions Course setting Physical factors (e.g. fitness, strength) (Spörri et al., 2012) Matt Jordan 2014

21 SUMMARY OF MECHANISMS Range of knee flexion Skier out of balance Lateral to medial knee joint loading (valgus loading) Twisting load (internal rotation of tibia) Back to front load on tibia (anterior displacement of tibia) Time frame of injury (< 60 ms) Matt Jordan 2014

22 RISKS FACTORS FOR ACL INJURY Equipment Speed Changing snow conditions Course setting Physical factors (e.g. fitness, strength) (Spörri et al., 2012) Matt Jordan 2014

23 FUNCTIONAL ASYMMETRY 1000 ACL-R Limb Unaffected Limb FORCE (N) TIME (s) Matt Jordan 2014 (Jordan et al., 2014)

24 FUNCTIONAL ASYMMETRY ACL-RECONSTRUCTED SKIER 1000 ACL-R Limb Unaffected Limb UNINJURED SKIER 1000 Left Right FORCE (N) FORCE (N) TIME (s) TIME (s) (Jordan et al., 2014)

25 Fz R Fz L Fz R Fz L AI = 22.5% AI = 17.5% INCREASE KNEE ABDUCTION MOMENT (Kristianslund et al., 2014) Matt Jordan 2014

26 REPEATED JUMP FUNCTIONAL ASYMMETRY JUMP PHASE 40 SQUAT JUMP KIAI (%) 0 BA1 BA2-40 BA3 1 2 JUMP NUMBER 0

27 REPEATED JUMP FUNCTIONAL ASYMMETRY TWENTY JUMP MEAN (±SD) KIAI FOR 4 UNINJURED SKIERS

28 UNINJURED vs. ACLR 6 MONTHS POST ACLR 5 YEARS POST ACLR

29 FUNCTIONAL ASYMMETRY IN ELITE SKI RACERS Uninjured elite alpine ski racers display low functional asymmetry Despite return to sport, ACLR display elevated functional asymmetry Athletes who re-injured had the highest functional asymmetry Functional asymmetry in deceleration phase of a jump related to risk of lower body injury

30 Bilateral Lean Mass Asymmetry Jamie McCartney, 2014

31 STRATEGIES FOR ACL INJURY/RE-INJURY PREVENTION TRAINING CONSIDERATIONS

32 CHRONOLOGICAL AGE VS. PHYSICAL Same age=same training? Structural tolerance Motor Patterning vs Loading Baseball Pitch Count Always assess group variance & Plan Appropriate AGE?

33 WHERE IS THE BREAKDOWN? Can the system find the right solution? Can the motor system generate the right solution? (Aagaard, 2003; Sale, 2003) Matt Jordan 2014

34 TRAINING FOR INJURY PREVENTION MOTOR CONTROL Unilateral Deceleration Motor Control Bilateral Deceleration Motor Control Core Control Muscle Pre-Activation / Anticipation Expected / Unexpected Events Rested and Fatigued NEUROMUSCULAR FACTORS Deceleration Strength Positional Strength Bilateral Force Symmetry Rate of Force Development (Explosive Strength) Thigh Muscle Strength Curve Inter-Muscular Synergy and Muscle Balance Matt Jordan 2014

35 WARM UP ACTIVATION MOTOR CONTROL PRIMARY LIFTS SECONDARY LIFTS ASSISTANT CIRCUIT

36 MOTOR CONTROL file://localhost/users/jamiemccartney/documents/w ORK/CSI Curriculum/Multi-Directional Movement Assessment.xlsx Use a variety of loads and velocities but ensure some specificity Identify compensation strategies - we are designed to compensate Groove motor patterns under expected conditions Challenge system with fatigue conditions or unexpected conditions Performed daily as a part of warm up and in combination with activation exercises Matt Jordan 2014

37 LOWER BODY STRENGTH

38 LOADING PARAMETERS

39 BLOCK PERIODIZATION Given the timeline of on snow training and competition a 5 stage block periodization model was implemented to isolate available time periods where specific training goals could be clearly defined and executed. i.e. Training generally began mid may after a 3-4 week break from the official end of the previous season and would be planned out as such: General Prep Phase: 2-3 weeks Extensification Prep 2-3 weeks Realization: Generally on snow somewhere in July for about 2 weeks Regeneration: 1 week active recovery Extensification : 2-3 weeks Intensification: 2-3 weeks Realization: 3-5 weeks on snow southern hemisphere Regeneration: 1 week active recovery Intensification: 2-3 weeks Specialization: 1-3 weeks depending on how close to season Realization: Final Prep Camp then race season begins Jamie McCartney, 2014

40 STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT Don t train on top of poor technique Develop range of motion appropriately Use a combination of uni-lateral and bilateral lifts Develop positional strength AND positional rapid force production Matt Jordan, 2013

41 NEUROMUSCULAR FACTORS Lower body symmetry Train to be ambidextrous Strengthen ACL agonists Identify periods of strength development and strength maintenance Performed 1-2x / week as a part of microcycle Matt Jordan 2014

42 ESSENTIAL MOVEMENTS Full range of motion unilateral / bilateral exercises Hamstring (closed chain / open chain) Hip abductor strength Quadriceps strength balance (VM vs. VL) Matt Jordan 2014

43 FATIGUE Ski related injuries occur in a fatigued state (Bere et al., 2013) Fatigue leads to risky biomechanics in landing (Kernozek et al., 2008) Alterations in hamstrings/quadriceps co-contraction observed in an acutely fatigued state (Zebis et al., 2011) Evaluating neuromuscular function in the ACLR athlete under fatigue (Myer et al., 2006) Matt Jordan 2014

44 BALANCE AND LOWER BODY MOTOR CONTROL Does an exercise require balance or train balance New and unpredictable movements train balance The best movement = the new movement Matt Jordan 2014

45 SUMMARY ACL injury affects many athletes (ski racers, recreational skiers, female athletes in field sports) We can identify modifiable (trainable) risk factors Programming for injury prevention is multi-faceted Daily motor control component Strengthening component Strategies can be very effective for injury prevention Matt Jordan 2014

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