Comprehensive Handbook of Drug and Alcohol Addiction

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1 Comprehensive Handbook of Drug and Alcohol Addiction edited by Cornell University Medical College The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center White Plains, New York Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York Basel Hong Kong

2 Contents Foreword Mark S. Gold v Preface ix Contributors xvii Introduction 1 I. Prevalence and Patterns of Use 1. Epidemiology of Alcohol Addiction: United States 9 John E. Helzer and Audrey Burnam 2. Epidemiology of Alcohol Addiction: International 39 John E. Helzer 3. The Epidemiology of Drug Addiction 55 James C. Anthony 4. Multiple Drug Use in Drug and Alcohol Addiction 87 Arthur W. K. Chan 5. History of Benzodiazepine Dependence 115 Malcolm Lader 6. Cocaine: Epidemiology 125 Joseph M. Palumbo, Mark S. Gold, and A. Carter Pottash XI

3 xii Contents II. Special Populations 7. Drug and Alcohol Effects on Pregnancy and the Newborn 131 Ira J. Chasnojf 8. Women, Alcohol, and Drugs 147 Sheila B. Blume 9. Alcohol and Drug Addiction in the Elderly 179 Giovanni Caracci and 10. Eating Disorders and Drug and Alcohol Addiction 193 James E. Mitchell, Richard L. Pyle, Elke D. Eckert, and Sheila Specker III. Adolescents 11. Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Addiction and Its Consequences: An Overview 205 Dorynne Czechowicz 12. Adolescent Drug and Alcohol Addiction: Diagnosis and Assessment 211 /. Calvin Chatlos 13. Adolescent Drug and Alcohol Addiction: Intervention and Treatment 235 J. Calvin Chatlos IV. Diagnosis 14. Nosology of Drug and Alcohol Addiction Criteria for Diagnosis 263 Therese A. Kosten and Thomas R. Kosten 16. Alcoholism as a Medical Disorder 285 Samuel B. Guze, C. Robert Cloninger, Ronald Martin, and Paula J. Clayton 17. Drug and Alcohol Addiction as a Disease Biochemical Markers for Alcoholism 311 Arthur W. K. Chan V. Pharmacology of Drugs/Alcohol 19. Cocaine 341 James Cocores, A. Carter Pottash, and Mark S. Gold

4 Contents xiii 20. Marijuana 353 Mark S. Gold 21. Phencyclidine 383 A. James Giannini 22. The Volatile Agents 395 A. James Giannini 23. Benzodiazepines 405 David E. Smith and Richard B. Seymour 24. Amphetamines Nicotine 437 James Cocores 26. Hallucinogens 455 Richard B. Seymour and David E. Smith 27. Sedatives-Hypnotics (Not Including Benzodiazepines) 477 Hiten Kisnad 28. Alcohol 503 Donna Yi 29. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids 521 Kirk J. Brower 30. Opioids 537 Beth M. Belkin and Mark S. Gold VI. Medical Implications 31. Medical Consequences of Alcohol Addiction 551 David G. Benzer 32. Medical Complications of Drug Addiction 573 Charles J. Engel and David G. Benzer 33. Neurological Effects of Drug and Alcohol Addiction 599 Anne Geller VII. Behavior 34. Drug Self-Administration Research in Drug and Alcohol Addiction 625 John D. Roache and Richard A. Meisch

5 xiv Contents VIII. Psychiatric Implications 35. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Drug and Alcohol Addiction 641 Steven M. Mirin and Roger D. Weiss 36. Suicide in Drug and Alcohol Addiction 663 David E. Sternberg 37. The Psychotherapy of Dually Diagnosed Patients 681 Edward Kaufman IX. Genetics 38. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism 697 Marc A. Schuckit 39. Genetic and Clinical Implications of Alcoholism and Affective Disorder 713 Marc A. Schuckit X. Neurochemistry 40. A Neuroanatomical and Neurochemical Approach to Drug and Alcohol Addiction: Clinical and Research Considerations 729 and Mark S. Gold XI. XII. XIII. 41. The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Alcohol and Drugs of Addiction 745 Lawrence E. Hoeschen Education 42. Alcohol and Drug Addiction in the Psychiatric Curriculum 771 Joseph Westermeyer 43. Education of Primary Care Physicians 785 David C. Lewis Laboratory Testing for Drugs 44. Laboratory Methodology for Drug and Alcohol Addiction 809 Karl Verebey 45. Clinical Implications of Federal Regulations on Laboratory Testing for Alcohol and Drugs of Abuse /Addiction 825 David M. Martin, Matthew E. Weinstein, and Ronald I. Dozoretz Family 46. The Family in Drug and Alcohol Addiction 851 Edward Kaufman 47. Coaddiction: Treatment of the Family Member 877 David J. Nyman and James Cocores

6 Contents xv XIV. Special Topics 48. Drug and Alcohol Addiction and AIDS 891 Nathan M. Kravis, Carol J. Weiss, and Samuel W. Perry 49. Protracted Abstinence 905 Anne Geller 50. Protracted Withdrawal Syndromes from Benzodiazepines 915 Heather Ashton 51. Countertransference Issues in the Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Addiction 931 John E. Imhof 52. Drug and Alcohol Use and Addiction Among Physicians 947 Gregory B. Collins 53. Gambling Problems in Alcoholics and Drug Addicts 967 Sheila B. Blume 54. A Multidisciplinary Team Approach to the Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Addiction 981 Gregory B. Collins, Kathleen Weiss, Dennis Cozzens, Jan Thrope, Margaret Kotz, and Joseph W. Janesz XV. Emergencies 55. Drug and Alcohol Emergencies 1003 Andrew E. Slaby and Steven D. Martin XVI. XVII. Prevention 56. Children and Adolescents and Drug and Alcohol Abuse and Addiction: Review of Prevention Strategies 1033 Karol L. Kumpfer Interventions 57. Interventions for Recovery in Drug and Alcohol Addiction 1063 David J. Mersy 58. The Use of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous by die Physician in Treating Drug and Alcohol Addiction 1079 John N. Chappel XVIII. Pharmacological Treatments 59. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Clinical Features, Pathophysiology, and Treatment 1091 Terry K. Schultz

7 xvi Contents 60. Update on Methadone Maintenance 1113 George E. Woody and Charles P. O'Brien 61. Opioid Detoxification and Maintenance with Blocking Agents 1127 Arthur Margolin and Thomas R. Kosten 62. Pharmacotherapeutic Interventions for Cocaine Addiction 1143 Thomas R. Kosten XIX. Treatment Outcome 63. Drug and Alcohol Addiction Treatment Outcome 1163 Patricia Ann Harrison, Norman G. Hoffmann, and Susan G. Streed XX. Outpatient Treatment 64. History and Theory of a Treatment for Drug and Alcohol Addiction 1201 George A. Mann 65. Outpatient Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Addiction 1213 James Cocores 66. Office Practice in Drug and Alcohol Addiction 1223 Marc Galanter XXI. Inpatient Treatment 67. Inpatient Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Addiction 1233 Charles A. Dackis and Mark S. Gold 68. Hospital Treatment of Eating Disorders with Drug and Alcohol Addiction 1245 Lynne Hoffman and Katherine Halmi XXII. XXIII. Long-Term Treatment Step Programs in Recovery from Drug and Alcohol Addiction 1255 Jerome E. Schulz Interactions Between Drugs/Alcohol and Brain/Behavior 70. A Review of the Interactions in Psychiatric Syndromes and Drug and Alcohol Addiction 1275 Index 1291

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