1 1 of 14 TEST BANK > CONTROL PANEL > POOL MANAGER > POOL CANVAS Pool Canvas Add, modify, and remove questions. Select a question type from the Add Question drop-down list and click Go to add questions. Use Creation Settings to establish which default options, such as feedback and images, are available for question creation. Add Creation Settings Name Description Instructions Chapter 1: Thinking About Social Problems Modify Question The existence of a social condition is the element of a social problem. objective symbolic subjective human Question Which of the following best illustrates the subjective element of a social problem? U. S. Census statistics that show the percentage of the United States population who live in poverty reports that show the percentage of people who have lost their jobs due to the closing of factories in the United States the percentage of Americans who believe availability of child pornography on the Internet is harmful to society World Health Organization estimates of the number of people in the world who have died of the AIDS virus in the last five years news footage that shows injuries, deaths, and property damage from a terrorist bomb Question A social problem is a social condition that interferes with the functioning of society. results in conflict among various population segments of a society. a segment of society views as harmful to members of society and in need of remedy. everyone in a society agrees is problematic for the society. Question Definitions of social problems are objectively defined. vary across societies and over time. are determined only by social structure. are determined only by culture. Question Society s structure is made up of beliefs, values, statuses, and roles. institutions, social groups, norms, and symbols. beliefs, values, norms, and symbols. institutions, social groups, statuses, and roles. Question Which of the following illustrates part of the social structure of a society? the public educational system the belief in God the value of education the belief that abortion should be illegal Question Sociologists define an institution as a general idea about what is important or desirable. a building where people with special needs live and are cared for. a collection of people who have something in common. an established and enduring social pattern of social relationships. Question Modern society includes the of science and technology, mass media, medicine, sports and the military.
2 2 of 14 social groups institutions statuses roles Question Which of the following is a group, according to the definition in your text? all of the people in your favorite shopping mall at noon Saturday people who usually watch NBC nightly news your college sociology class fans of the Yankee baseball team Question Which of the following is more likely to be found in primary rather than secondary groups? task-oriented actions impersonal interaction intimate relationships formal statuses and roles Question Which of the following illustrates a primary group? a husband, wife, and child your sociology class the college or university you are attending your hometown Question Sociologists refer to the position a person holds in a group as his or her status. folkway. institution. role. Question Which of the following is an ascribed status? female single parent high school graduate college professor Question Edward is an African American male, age 26, who married his high school sweetheart after he graduated from college. He is now the father of two children and employed as a chemical engineer. Which of the following is one of Edward s achieved statuses? African American male chemical engineer adult Question The master status of most adult males in the United States is their level of educational achievement. religion. marital status. occupation. race. Question Roles guide our behavior. tell us what is true or false. are general ideas about what is important are symbols of communication
3 3 of 14 Question Having to attend classes, read assignments, take exams, and write papers illustrates the of a college student. status role institution sanctions Question Which of the following is an aspect of the culture, in contrast to the social structure, of a society? institutions social groups values statuses Question are social agreements about what is considered good and bad, right and wrong, desirable and undesirable. Norms Values Roles Beliefs Question The idea that the death penalty should be abolished is a belief. value. folkway. more. Question Which of the following is the best example of a value? equality prison shaking hands a birthday cake Question Socially defined rules of behavior are beliefs. values. norms. sanctions. Question Folkways, laws, and mores are three types of sanctions. norms. values. master statuses. Question Jeff frequently picks his nose in class. He is violating a value. folkway. more. law. Question To give presents to family and friends on their birthdays is a folkway. more. law. sanction.
4 4 of 14 Question Which of the following is a violation of a more in American society? refusing to shake hands with a new acquaintance sexual abuse of a child eating peas with your fingers littering Question are norms that are formalized and backed by political authority. Folkways Mores Laws Values Question Social consequences for conforming to or violating norms are values. folkways. mores. sanctions. Question A monetary fine for a traffic violation is an example of a(n) value. folkway. informal sanction. formal sanction. Question Janet receives disapproving looks from strangers for singing obnoxiously while walking down the street. The disapproving looks Janet receives are examples of values. folkways. informal sanctions. formal sanctions. Question Being praised by one s neighbors for organizing a neighborhood community surveillance project would be a(n) formal positive sanction. informal positive sanction. formal negative sanction. informal negative sanction. Question Which of the following are necessary for human communication? sanctions mores folkways symbols Question The figure of a fish shown on the cars of some Christians is a value. belief. symbol. sanction. Question Which of the following conclusions BEST illustrates use of the sociological imagination? Jody s parents are getting a divorce because they do not love each other anymore. Helen is not attending college because her parents do not have enough money to pay her expenses. Tony s college failure illustrates problems of inner-city children whose schools inadequately prepare them for the rigor of college courses. Megan has to request welfare payments because she lost her job.
5 5 of 14 Question An inner-city youth was caught burglarizing houses. Which of the following explanations views the youth s crime as a public issue? The youth was unable to find a job because most of the factories had moved out of the inner city. The youth dropped out of school because he did not like his teachers The youth s mother did not provide adequate supervision because she was more interested in her boyfriend. The youth thought burglarizing homes would be an easier way to make money than to work in a job. Question is the ability to understand the relationship between our personal lives and the sociohistorical context in which we live. The social construction of reality Symbolic interactionism Alienation The sociological imagination Question A social theory is a prediction or educated guess about how one variable is related to another. the ability to distinguish between private troubles and public issues and see the connections between the two. a set of interrelated ideas designed to answer a question or explain a phenomenon. a set of procedures for collecting data about a particular topic. Question Structural-functionalists emphasize the feelings of powerlessness of workers in industrialized societies. focus on how groups with different interests compete for scarce resources. view society as a system of interconnected parts that work together to maintain balance. focus on how a person s self-concept is formed by his or her interaction with others. Question Manifest functions are consequences that are negative for most members of a group. most members of a group do not recognize. are intended and commonly recognized. are irrelevant to the good of the group or its members. Question Which of the following illustrates a latent function of a public school? the transmission of knowledge development of reading and writing skills a source of friends and potential mates teaching mathematics Question According to the perspective, social problems result from rapid social changes in society. social disorganization social constructionist social pathology labeling Question According to the, social problems result from breakdown of the family, religious, economic, educational, or political institutions of a society. symbolic interactionist perspective social pathology model Marxist conflict theory non-marxist conflict theory Question A society is in a state of anomie when norms are weak or in conflict with each other. the major social institutions reinforce the same cultural values. there are more secondary groups than primary groups. some segments of society have more wealth than others.
6 6 of 14 Question Anomie is most likely to occur in highly traditional societies. in times of rapid social change. when there are more negative sanctions than positive sanctions. when there is a strict hierarchy of power. Question The origins of the perspective can be traced to the works of Karl Marx. social disorganization social pathology structural-functionalist conflict symbolic interactionist Question Contemporary Marxist theories believe the main source of social problems is the weak social norms of capitalist societies. class inequality that is inherent in a capitalistic system. social disorganization that exists in both capitalist and communist societies. lack of social communication among individuals in society. Question Which of the following illustrates corporate violence? contract killings ordered by organized crime decisions by corporate executives to sell potentially dangerous goods to consumers a fired employee who seeks revenge by murdering his employer and fellow workers the terrorist bombing of a U.S. corporation s factory in a foreign country Question Which of the following perspectives is most likely to emphasize how the profit motive causes individuals to sell defective medical devices, toxic pesticides, and contaminated food to developing countries? structural-functionalism Marxist conflict theory Non-Marxist conflict theory symbolic interactionism Question Alienation refers to feelings of powerlessness and meaningless. dislike of others who have more than you. the intended consequences of social organization. contradictory social norms. illegitimate statuses. Question Which of the following is a major source of alienation in industrial societies, according to Marxist conflict theorists? lack of socially shared symbols of communication primary groups to which individuals belong limited and repetitive tasks of specialized workers lack of effective sanctions in society Question Non-Marxist conflict theories focus on social conflict that results from weak norms. social disorganization. competing values and interests among groups. lack of communication among groups. Question are most likely to associate high levels of high school dropouts with the breakdown of the American family, a decline in religiosity, and inadequacies in the government and economy. Social constructionists Conflict theorists Symbolic interactionists Structural functionalists
7 7 of 14 Question Which of the following theoretical perspectives reflects microsociology? symbolic interactionism structural-functionalism Marxist conflict non-marxist conflict Question Symbolic interactionism emphasizes that societal institutions meet the needs of people in society. institutional inequalities cause some people s needs to be met more than other people needs. human behavior is influenced by meanings that are created through social interaction. the important symbols of society are distributed unequally. Question Microsociologists, such as W. I. Thomas, believe that human action is influenced mostly by the social organization of a social situation. an individual s definition of a situation. objective inequalities that exist in a situation. feelings of alienation that occur from lack of power. Question Which perspective claims our identity or sense of self is shaped by social interaction? social disorganization social pathology Marxist conflict theory Non-Marxist conflict theory symbolic interactionism Question Susan s parents and teachers often bragged about what a smart girl she was, so Susan grew up believing she could learn any subject if she tried hard enough. This phenomenon illustrates looking-glass self. alienation. a macro perspective. anomie. Question Max Weber s concept of implies that, in conducting research, social scientists must try to understand others view of reality and the subjective aspects of their experiences, such as symbols, values, and beliefs. anomie looking-glass self verstehen alienation Question Symbolic interactionist Herbert Blumer said that social problems develop in stages. In the social stage, a condition is recognized as a social problem by the larger community, such as media, schools, and churches. objectification legitimation mobilization implementation Question To reduce the social problem of underage drinking, would recommend a campaign to encourage teenagers to define alcohol consumption as un-cool. labeling theory social pathology social disorganization social constructionism Question The perspective often questions the origin and evolution of social problems, questioning why certain phenomena are considered problems and other, similar phenomena are not.
8 8 of 14 labeling social pathology social disorganization social constructionism Question Which of the following topics is most likely to be the topic of study of a social constructionist? why marijuana use, but not alcohol and nicotine use, are illegal how rapid social change weakens traditional rules for behavior how the economic structure of society determines power differences how unequal social classes create conflicts of interest in society Question Which theoretical perspective emphasizes that a condition must be defined or recognized as a social problem in order to be a social problem? structural-functionalism Marxist conflict theory Non-Marxist conflict theory Symbolic-Interactionism Question Which of the following social policies is most likely to be advocated by a structural-functionalist? cultivate a strong collective sense of right and wrong minimize competition reduce the impact of labeling alter the definition of what is defined as a social problem Question Which of the following social policies is most likely to be advocated by a conflict theorist? repair weak institutions assure proper socialization create an equitable system for the distribution of resources reduce the pace of social change Question Conflict theory is more likely than structural-functionalism or symbolic interactionism to view the cause of social problems as rapid social change. different interpretations of social roles. inequality. inadequate socialization. Question Critics of structural-functionalism call it sunshine sociology because it is too psychological in its approach. suggests social problems can be solved by defining them differently. supports maintenance of the status quo. views rapid social change as desirable. Question A criticism of symbolic interactionism is that it fails to link micro issues to macro level concerns. is a utopian model. supports maintenance of the status quo. denies the existence of cooperation and equitable exchange. Question The first stage in conducting a research study is reviewing the literature. formulating a research question. formulating a hypothesis. defining variables.
9 9 of 14 Question Gender, self-esteem, crime rates, and religiosity are examples of variables. hypotheses. operational definitions. samples. Question An event or characteristic that is measurable and varies or is subject to change is a(n) hypothesis. sample. variable. operational definition. Question In research, an operational definition specifies how a variable is to be measured. explains the relationship between two variables. defines the researcher s hypothesis. refers to any variable that cannot be measured. Question A(n) of religiosity could be the number of times respondents report going to church or synagogue in a month or year. variable operational definition hypothesis sample Question The researcher s hypothesis states the findings of the research. explains how to measure the variables. summarizes the review of literature. predicts a relationships between the variables. Question Anna is studying whether drug use contributes to lower academic achievement of high school youth. Anna s independent variable is youth. drug use. high school. academic achievement. Question Jose hypothesized that lack of parental supervision of adolescent youth contributes to their dropping out of high school. Jose s dependent variable is lack of parental supervision. adolescent youth. parents of adolescents. dropping out of high school. Question Which research method involves manipulating a variable in order to determine how it affects another variable? experiment field research survey secondary data Question Triangulation is the process of looking at a social problem from three sociological perspectives. simultaneous testing of three hypotheses in a research study. study of effects of three independent variables on one dependent variable. use of multiple methods to study a social phenomenon.
10 10 of 14 Question Alice wanted to study the effects of a new teaching technique on learning. She randomly divided her student subjects into two groups and used the new teaching technique with just one of the groups. Then she administered an exam to the two groups and compared their grades. Her experimental group was the group who got the highest grades. was exposed to the new teaching technique. was not exposed to the new teaching technique. got the lowest grades. Question The major strength of the experimental method is that experimental research findings are easily generalized to larger groups in society. it provides evidence for causal relationships. it is more likely than other methods of data collection to show an association between the variables of interest. it is an easy way to collect information on almost all sociological variables. Question Of the following methods of data collection, is most likely to involve selection of a representative sample so that the research findings can be generalized to a larger population. an experiment a survey participant observation a case study Question A method of data collection in which a researcher asks respondents a series of questions is called questionnaire. talking computers. secondary data analysis. interview. Question Lack of response is most likely to be a problem with which of the following methods of data collection? experimental questionnaires interviews field research Question Which of the following research methods has the advantage of privacy, according to reports of respondents? the experiment computer interviews non-participant observation participant observation Question The research method that involves observing and studying social behavior in settings where it naturally occurs is called an experiment. a questionnaire. field research. secondary data analysis. Question To study interaction between prison guards and inmates, a sociologist lived at a prison for several months. Only the warden and a few other administrators knew he had not been convicted of a crime. This is an example of secondary data research. non-participant observation. participant observation. an experiment. Question Which method of research is most likely to provide detailed information about the values, rituals, norms, behaviors, symbols, beliefs, and emotions of those being studied? secondary data experimental survey field research
11 11 of 14 Question Researchers doing research avoid the time and expense of collecting their own data. survey experimental non-participant observation secondary data Question One of the biggest disadvantages of secondary-data research is that the sample seldom represents the population of interest to the researcher. researcher is limited to data already collected. researcher may become too involved with the group to remain unbiased. participants may act differently in a laboratory setting. Question In The Human Side, your text described student activists who toured college campuses to protest discrimination against gay and lesbian students. This illustrates secondary data collection. a social movement. field research. an experiment. Question A social problem is defined as any condition that is harmful to society. Question An ascribed status is based on factors over which an individual has no control. Question A single status, such as mother, can involve more than one role. Question The American values of freedom and individualism can contribute to poverty. Question Being granted a citizen s award for organizing a crime watch is an informal sanction. Question Symbols are necessary for communication Question Some aspects of society can be both functional and dysfunctional. Question Some people argue that the public schools serve as babysitters for employed parents. This is a manifest function of a public school.
12 12 of 14 Question According to structural functionalists, social problems occur when some part of the structure or culture of a society fails to work properly. Question The social pathology model advocates proper socialization and moral education as a solution to social problems. Question Karl Marx believed that religion helped to maintain the power of the Bourgeoisie in the capitalist system. Question Non-Marxist conflict theorists focus on order and stability in a society. Question According to symbolic interactionists, a condition must be defined or recognized as a social problem for it to be a social problem. Question According to Herbert Blumer, social legitimation of a social problem takes place when the problem achieves recognition by the larger community, such as the media. Question The first stage of conducting a research study is developing a hypothesis. Question A researcher can draw on his or her life experience when formulating a research question for scientific study. Question A dependent variable is the variable that the researcher believes contributes to change in the variable of interest. Question Computer interviews appear to be more reliable than face-to-face interviews when conducting research on personal issues, such as sexual behavior. Question A researcher who analyzes information collected by the United States Bureau of Census is using secondary data analysis. Question An advantage of experiments is that they typically take place in natural settings.
13 13 of 14 Question Select a social problem and explain the objective and subjective elements of that social problem. s will vary. The objective element of a social problem is the existence of the social condition. The subjective element is the belief that the social condition is harmful to society or a segment of society. Question State a social phenomenon that some groups or societies view as a social problem and others do not. What differences in values or beliefs might account for this variability in definition of a social problem? s will vary. An example is abortion, which many Catholics view as immoral because of their religious beliefs and many feminists believe is the natural right a female should have over her own body. Question How does an achieved status differ from an ascribed status? Give an example of how an ascribed status can affect an achieved status. An ascribed status is one that society assigns to an individual on the basis of factors over which the individual has no control. An achieved status is assigned on the basis of some characteristic or behavior over which the individual has some control. A possible example of an ascribed status that might affect achieved status is a person who suffers discrimination in the job market because of his or her gender or race. Question What are three major ways in which values influence social problems? Provide an example of an American value that has helped develop a social problem. (1) Social conditions are viewed as social problems when the conditions are incompatible with or contradict closely held values; (2) some values can lead to the development of a social problem; (3) weak values may contribute to social problems.; (4) examples will vary. Question List and explain the three types of social norms and provide an example of each. The three types of social norms are folkways, laws and mores. Folkways are customs and manners in society, such as shaking hands when meeting someone for the first time. Laws are norms that are formalized and backed by political authority, such as speed limits. Mores are norms with a moral basis that may produce shock if violated, such as child sexual abuse. Question Choose a private trouble you have experienced. Use your sociological imagination to explain how this problem can also be viewed as a public issue. s will vary. Public issues are explained by elements of social structure and culture in the larger society. Question How do the concepts of anomie and alienation differ? Give an example of each. Anomie refers to lack of agreement about norms. An example is whether premarital sex is okay. Alienation refers to feelings of powerlessness and meaningless experienced by people in modern society. An example is a worker on a factory assembly line. Question Explain the concept of verstehen and its relationship to social science research. Verstehen is a concept used by Max Weber that means empathy in German. Verstehen suggests that in conducting research, social scientists must try to understand others view of reality and the subjective aspects of their experiences, including their symbols, values, attitudes, and beliefs. Question List the first five steps in conducting a research study. The steps are: (1) formulating a research question, (2) reviewing the literature, (3) operationalizing the variables, (4) formulating a hypothesis, and (5) collecting the data. Question If you wanted to study the extent to which youth engage in behavior that puts them at high risk for transmitting or contracting HIV, what method of data collection would you use? Explain the advantage of the method you select for studying this topic. The answer to this question may vary. This topic was given in the text as appropriate for an interview because the population is not easy to access. Another possibility is field research, non-participant observation. Question List five major social institutions in society and, for each, give an example of possible breakdown in the institution and a social problem that might have resulted from that breakdown. Question List and define the five elements of culture. For each element, explain how it contributes to social problems and give examples to illustrate your explanations.
14 14 of 14 Question Summarize the sociological imagination and explain how it can be used to understand social problems using two specific examples. Question Many colleges are beginning to offer Internet classes. What is the manifest function of an Internet college class? What would be some latent functions of taking an internet college class? What might be some dysfunctions of taking an Internet college class instead of a class in a regular classroom? Question Choose an institution in American society and identify two social problems associated with this institution. For one of the social problems, describe a possible cause of and solution to the problem from the social pathology model. For the other social problem, describe a possible cause of and solution to the problem from the social disorganization model. Question Explain the similarities and differences between contemporary Marxist conflict theory and non-marxist conflict theory. Then choose a social problem and discuss possible explanations of the problem from each conflict perspective (Marxist and non-marxist). Conclude by explaining which perspective you think is most useful for understanding the social problem you selected and justify your response. Question Explain the differences among the three major theoretical perspectives in sociology (structural-functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism) in their view of (a) society, (b) individuals, (c) the causes of social problems, and (d) social policies or solutions for social problems. Question From each of the three major theoretical perspectives (structural-functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism) explain how mass media might contribute to social problems. Question Describe each of the following research methods and explain the main strengths and weaknesses of each: experiments, survey research, field research, secondary data research. Question Design a research study on a particular social problem that interests you. Include your research question, variables of interest, hypothesis, sample, and method of data collection, and provide a rationale for each.
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