Christobel Deliwe Chakwana

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1 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE 5 5. INTRODUCTION Christobel Deliwe Chakwana The 2004 survey represents the first time the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (MDHS) collected information on domestic. The inclusion the domestic module in the 2004 MDHS is in recognition the presence gender-based as an economic, human right, and health issue in Malawi. Gender-based is defined as any act that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to, including threats such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations liberty, where occurring in public or private life (United Nations, 993 and 995). Domestic includes physical, sexual, emotional, psychological or economic abuse committed by a person against a spouse, child, and any other person who is a member the household, dependent or parent a child that household. Domestic has negative health consequences on the victims and more especially on the reproductive health. It contributes to the maternal mortality rates as it results in health-related problems like gynaecological problems. In traditional Malawian culture, wife battering is regarded as normal. In Malawi, domestic occurs across all socio-economic and cultural backgrounds. This type has been treated as a private issue until recently when the government and its stakeholders, in response to the international and regional instruments on s rights, started to implement various initiatives aimed at creating awareness the dangers gender-based and changing the social order in which a woman is assumed to be lesser status and her husband leads in all family aspects. Having ratified a number international and regional documents on s rights and gender equality, Malawi has developed a National Strategy to Combat Gender-Based Violence ( ). Furthermore, a draft Prevention Domestic Violence Bill is in place awaiting Cabinet approval. This bill emphasises Section 24 in the 994 Constitution Malawi which guarantees equality between and men as well as s right to property, and invalidates any law that discriminates against, in particular, practices such as sexual abuse, harassment and. The collection data on domestic is challenging because may not disclose issues domestic as it is regarded as bringing shame to their family. The society discourages from talking about their experiences domestic to maintain respect from the community. In a household survey such as the 2004 MDHS, the collection sensitive information such as in the house, requires the establishment rapport between the interviewer and the respondent. This is the main reason this module is placed toward the end the woman s questionnaire. If there is more than one eligible for individual interview woman in a household, the interviewer selected one woman randomly to be interviewed with the domestic module using the Kish-grid technique. Informed consent the respondents was obtained for the survey at the onset individual interview. A statement was read to the 2004 MDHS respondents informing them the survey Domestic Violence 265

2 objectives and that they were going to be asked questions that may be personal in nature. The statement highlights the importance the information to be obtained in understanding the situation in Malawi. To prepare the 2004 MDHS field staff in collecting data on domestic, they received a special presentation on gender-based, focusing on domestic. Interviewers were instructed that interviews can only proceed when maximum privacy had been ensured. If privacy was not assured, the domestic module was not to be asked. 5.2 PHYSICAL VIOLENCE SINCE AGE 5 Table 5. shows the percent distribution all who report experiencing physical since age 5 and in the 2 months prior to the survey. In the survey, respondents to the domestic module have multiple opportunities to disclose their experiences. Women are considered as having experienced if they report ever experiencing one or more types. All who experienced any form were also asked how ten this happened in the 2-month period before the survey. Women who reported during pregnancy only were not asked the frequency over the past 2 months. The data show that one in three (28 percent) experienced physical since age 5 and 5 percent experienced it in the 2 months preceding the survey. Women age are more likely to have experienced since they were 5 than younger and older (28-30 percent compared with 26 percent or less). The 2004 MDHS data show that a woman s marital status is associated with her experience domestic ; while 42 who are divorced or separated from their spouse report having experienced physical since the age 5, the proportions for currently married and widowed are 28 percent and 5 percent, respectively. Physical is also experienced by a high proportion who have never been married (23 percent). There are no significant differentials in the experience physical since age 5 by residence. However, rural are more likely than urban to have experienced physical in the 2 months prior to the survey (5 percent compared with percent). The social and economic background a woman has a bearing on her chances experiencing physical. This experience does not vary consistently with their education; with no education are less likely than with some primary education to experience. Among educated, education is negatively associated with the likelihood experiencing. Women who have at least some secondary education are slightly less likely to have experienced domestic physical than less educated. Small variations are found in the experience physical by s employment. Women s experience with physical since age 5 does not vary much by wealth index. However, s recent experience in is negatively associated with their wealth status; in the lowest wealth quintile are slightly more likely to experience physical than the in higher wealth categories. 266 Domestic Violence

3 Table 5. Experience physical since age 5 Percentage who have ever experienced since age 5 and percentage who experienced during the 2 months preceding the survey, by background characteristics, Malawi 2004 Background characteristic Percent who have experienced physical since the age 5 In past 2 Ever months Age , , , ,409 Marital status Currently married ,856 Divorced/separated Widowed Never married ,647 Residence Urban ,740 Rural ,96 Region Northern ,70 Central ,99 Southern ,500 Education No education ,266 Primary ,53 Primary ,386 Secondary ,534 Employment status Employed for cash ,723 Employed, but not for cash ,635 Not employed ,34 Wealth quintile Lowest ,705 Second ,880 Middle ,966 Fourth ,943 Highest ,206 Total ,70 Excludes who have been beaten only during pregnancy 5.3 PERPETRATORS OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE Table 5.2 shows the percent distribution reporting any physical by the person or persons who subject them to physical according to their marital status. Overall, the data show that husbands are the main perpetrators. Among currently married who have experienced physical, 77 percent reported either a current or previous husband as Domestic Violence 267

4 being the perpetrator. The 2004 MDHS also indicates that 85 percent divorced and separated who ever reported experiencing physical say a husband was involved. Table 5.2 Perpetrators physical Percent distribution reporting any physical by perpetrator the, according to current marital status, Malawi 2004 Current marital status Current husband Last/ previous husband only Perpetrator Any husband and other persons Persons other than husband Total Currently married ,940 Divorced/separated na Widowed na Never married na na na Total ,724 Includes who were also beaten by a previous husband na = Not applicable 5.4 VIOLENCE DURING PREGNANCY Women experience in all stages their life cycle. In the 2004 MDHS, who had a pregnancy (whether it resulted in a live birth or not) and those who are currently pregnant at the time the survey were asked whether they experienced any type physical during any their pregnancies and who administered that. Table 5.3 shows the findings. The data show that 5 percent experienced when they were pregnant. Violence during pregnancy takes place at all ages the woman. There are small variations in the prevalence by age. The prevalence physical during pregnancy varies by the woman s marital status. Divorced or separated are the most likely to report they experienced physical during pregnancy, suggesting that the may have contributed to the marriage breakdown ( percent compared with 5 percent or less for currently married, widowed, and never married. Pregnant in the rural areas are at a slightly higher risk facing physical than their counterparts in the urban areas (6 percent compared with 4 percent). There is little regional variation in the experience during pregnancy. Women s experience with domestic also does not vary much according to their employment status. Most who experience physical during pregnancy do so at the hands a husband (70 percent). Almost one in three who experienced during pregnancy did so at the hand someone other than a husband (data not shown). 268 Domestic Violence

5 Table 5.3 Violence during pregnancy Percentage ever-pregnant who were physically violated during pregnancy, according to background characteristics, Malawi 2004 Background characteristic Percent experiencing during pregnancy ever pregnant Age , , ,389 Marital status Currently married 4.7 6,642 Divorced/separated Widowed Never married Residence Urban 3.8,286 Rural 5.5 6,722 Region Northern 5.5,039 Central 5.7 3,0 Southern 4.9 3,859 Employment status Employed for cash 6.0,522 Employed not for cash 5.8 3,249 Not employed 4.4 3,235 Total 5.3 8, MARITAL CONTROL BY HUSBAND Marital refers to perpetuated by partners in a marital union. A series questions were included in the 2004 MDHS to elicit the degree marital control exercised by the spouse or partner over the respondent. Attempts by male spouses/partners to closely control and monitor their female counterparts have been found to be among the most important early warning signs, as well as correlates in a relationship. Controlling behaviours most ten manifest themselves in terms extreme possessiveness, jealousy, and attempts to isolate the woman from her family and friends. Since the accumulation such behaviours is more significant than the display any single behaviour, the proportion whose husbands display at least three the specified behaviours is highlighted. In order to determine the degree marital control by husbands on their wives, were asked whether they experienced any a list specific acts controlling behaviours by their husbands, such as the husband is jealous or gets angry if she talks to other men, accuses her being unfaithful, does not permit meetings with girl friends, tries to limit contact with family, insists on knowing where she is at all times, and does not trust her with any money. Table 5.4 shows the Domestic Violence 269

6 percentage ever-married whose husbands or partners display each the listed behaviours by the background characteristics the respondent. Table 5.4 Degree marital control by husband Percentage ever-married by whether the current/last husband demonstrates(d) different types controlling behaviour, according to background characteristics, Malawi 2004 Background characteristic Is jealous/ angry if she talks to other men Frequently accuses her being unfaithful Does not permit meetings with girl friends Percentage whose husband: Tries to Insists on limit knowing Doesn't contact where trust her with she is at with any family all times money Does at least 3 these acts Does none these acts Age , , ,402 Marital status Married ,856 Married once ,403 Married more than once ,453 Previously married ,97 living children , ,262 5 or more ,840 Education No education ,27 Primary ,26 Primary ,695 Secondary Employment status Employed For cash ,520 Not for cash ,300 Not employed ,232 Husband s education No education ,99 Primary ,493 Primary ,294 Secondary ,95 Continued 270 Domestic Violence

7 Table 5.4 Degree marital control by husband (continued) Percentage ever-married by whether the current/last husband demonstrates(d) different types controlling behaviour, according to background characteristics, Malawi 2004 Background characteristic Is jealous/ angry if she talks to other men Frequently accuses her being unfaithful Does not permit meetings with girl friends Percentage whose husband: Tries to Insists on limit knowing Doesn't contact where trust her with she is at with family all times money Does at least 3 these acts Does none these acts Difference in age between husband and wife Wife 3+ years older than husband Same age or -2 years different ,299 Wife 3-4 years younger ,700 Wife 5-9 years younger ,489 Wife 0+ years younger ,24 Formerly married ,97 Wealth quintile Lowest ,473 Second ,698 Middle ,706 Fourth ,605 Highest ,572 Total ,054 Note: Total includes some for whom husband s education and age difference is missing. The 2004 MDHS results show that insistence on knowing where they are at all times and being jealous or angry if they talk to other men are the main controlling behaviours that experience from their husbands (57 percent and 50 percent, respectively). Just under 20 percent ever-married say that their husbands try to limit their contact with their families (20 percent), do not permit them to meet with their female friends (9 percent), do not trust them with any money (8 percent), or frequently accuse them being unfaithful (7 percent). Overall, there are few significant differences in the experience marital control by the woman s other background characteristics; domestic cuts across socioeconomic status. Women experience domestic irrespective their education levels, employment status, economic status, number children and their husbands educational levels. Women age are more likely than in other age groups to face their husband s jealousy or anger if they talk to other men (5-53 percent compared with 46 percent). Women in younger age groups are more likely than older to report that their husbands insist on knowing where they are at all times. Considering the summary measures, 30 percent indicate that they experience their husbands controlling behaviours through three the listed behaviours and 20 percent indicate that their husbands do not exercise marital control any kind. The controlling behaviours lessen somewhat as the woman s education and the wealth status increases. Husbands with secondary Domestic Violence 27

8 or higher education and those in the highest wealth quintile are the least likely to show control over their wives. 5.6 FORMS OF MARITAL VIOLENCE Table 5.5 shows the percentage ever-married by their experience emotional, physical or sexual spousal by selected background characteristics. It should be noted that different types are not mutually exclusive and may report multiple forms. Research suggests that physical in intimate relationships is ten accompanied by psychological abuse and in one-third to over one half cases, by sexual abuse (Krug et al., 2002). Table 5.5 Marital Percentage ever-married who have ever suffered emotional, physical or sexual at the hands their current/last husbands, according to background characteristics, Malawi 2004 Background characteristic Emotional Physical Less severe Severe Total 2 Type Sexual Physical or sexual Emotional, physical, or sexual Emotional, physical, and sexual Age , , ,402 Marital status Married ,856 Married once ,403 Married more than once ,453 Formerly married ,97 Residence Urban ,278 Rural ,776 Region Northern ,054 Central ,36 Southern ,895 living children , , ,840 Education No education ,27 Primary ,26 Primary ,695 Secondary Employment status Employed for cash ,520 Employed, but not for cash ,300 Not employed ,232 Total ,054 Note: Total includes two with missing information on employment Less severe includes pushing, shaking, slapping, punching and kicking, while severe includes trying to strangle or burn, threats with a weapon, and attacks with a weapon. 2 Excludes who experienced physical only during pregnancy due to lack information on degree severity. The data show that 3 percent ever-married reported to having ever experienced emotional, 20 percent experienced physical, and 3 percent experienced sexual 272 Domestic Violence

9 . About one-third ever-married (30 percent) experience at least one the three forms, while 4 percent experience all three forms. Among who have experienced physical, most report forms considered less severe. Women age 20-39, who are previously married, with 3-4 living children, who have incomplete primary education, and who are employed for cash are more likely than other to report emotional, physical, or sexual by their husbands. Nonetheless, the survey results show that all irrespective age, marital status, number children, educational levels and employment status are at risk all forms by their husbands. Figure 5. shows the proportion ever-married (those currently married, divorced or separated) who have ever experienced different forms by their current or last husbands and experienced during the 2 months preceding the survey. Figure 5. Percentage Ever-married Women Who have Experienced Violence by Their Current or Last Husband (ever, and in past 2 months) Pushed, shaken, or thrown 5 7 Slapped, twist arm 9 6 Punched 5 8 Kicked or dragged 4 5 Strangled or burned Threatened with weapon Attacked with weapon 2 Forced intercourse 0 3 Forced sexual acts Percent Ever 2 months MDHS 2004 The most common forms spousal are slapping and arm twisting (6 percent) and forced intercourse or marital rape (3 percent). Other forms frequently reported include punching (8 percent), pushing, shaking or having something thrown (7 percent), being kicked or dragged (5 percent), and being forced into sexual acts (4 percent). Marital rape appears to be common, with 0 percent reporting forced sexual intercourse in the 2 months preceding the survey. It should be noted that due to cultural norms in Malawi, which discourage the discussion sexual or conjugal issues, marital in the survey may have been underreported. Domestic Violence 273

10 Figure 5.2 summarises the information on various types marital. Sixty-eight percent have never experienced marital. Of those who did, one in five experienced physical abuse and 4 percent are abused sexually, emotionally, and physically. Figure 5.2 Percentage Women Who Ever Experienced Sexual, Physical, and/or Emotional Violence Never abused 68% Sexually abused 5% 3% Emotionally abused 2% 4% 4% 3% % Physically abused Note: Includes non-marital MDHS FREQUENCY OF SPOUSAL VIOLENCE The frequency spousal is an indicator the prevalence domestic. Table 5.6 shows the percent distribution ever-married reporting any kind physical or sexual spousal by how ten it occurred in the 2 months prior to the survey according to their background characteristics. The 2004 MDHS results show that only 30 percent who have ever experienced physical or sexual by their husband did not experience such in the past 2 months, 39 percent experienced physical or sexual once or twice, 2 percent experienced the same forms three to five times, and 0 percent experienced the more than five times in the last 2 months. The data also show that marital varies by the woman s background characteristics. Frequency decreases with age; while 0 percent ever-abused age 5-9 did not experience from their spouse in the last 2 months, almost half (45 percent) did not experience spousal during this time. Formerly married are the least likely while currently married are the most likely to report physical or sexual in the last 2 months. The frequency physical or sexual decreases with increasing number children. Ever-abused who are not employed are the most likely to have experienced physical or sexual in the last 2 months. 274 Domestic Violence

11 One would expect that with no education would be more likely to experience physical or sexual in the past 2 months than educated. The survey results, however, show that among who experienced by their current or last husband, the frequency does not vary much by the woman s education. Table 5.6 Frequency spousal Percent distribution ever-married reporting physical or sexual by current or last husband by frequency any form such in the 2 months preceding the survey, according to selected background characteristics, Malawi 2004 Frequency any type physical or sexual in the past 2 months Background characteristic Don t know Total Woman's age , Marital status Married once ,442 Married more than once Formerly married living children Education No education Primary Primary Secondary Employment status Employed for cash Employed not for cash Not employed Total ,40 Excludes who experienced physical during pregnancy only. 5.8 ONSET OF SPOUSAL VIOLENCE To study the timing the onset marital, the 2004 MDHS asked ever-married who experienced physical or sexual spousal when the first episode took place after marriage. Table 5.7 shows the interval between marriage and the first episode spousal physical or sexual. Domestic Violence 275

12 Table 5.7 Onset spousal Percent distribution ever-married who have experienced physical or sexual by current or last husband by time between marriage and first experience, according to marital status and duration since first marriage, Malawi 2004 Years between union and first experience Less 0 or Don t than more After know/ year years years years years divorce missing Total Marital status/duration since first marriage Before marriage Currently married Married once na ,442 < 6 years na na na years na na or more years na Married more than once Divorced/separated Total ,40 Excludes who experienced physical during pregnancy only. na = Not applicable Table 5.7 shows that spousal can be initiated throughout a woman s married life. It may begin before marriage, although it is more likely to start during the first five years marriage. One in five who have experienced physical or sexual spousal report that began during the first year marriage. Initiation is most prevalent -2 years after marriage (35 percent)and drops below 0 percent after the first five years. A small percentage who experienced say it began before marriage or after being divorced from their spouse (2 percent and percent, respectively). 5.9 PHYSICAL CONSEQUENCES OF SPOUSAL VIOLENCE The severity can be judged from the severity the act itself or from its consequences. Table 5.8 provides insight into the physical consequences, including the type and severity the. The consequences spousal range from bruises and aches to injury or broken bones, which may require medical attention. Table 5.8 shows that 7 percent all ever-married report ever having been beaten to the point sustaining bruises and aches, while 2 percent had an injury or broken bone, and 2 percent had to get medical help. Most these sustained such injuries in the year before the survey. All three consequences (bruises and aches, injuries and medical treatment) are most ten reported by who ever experienced severe physical. Ever-married who report having experienced emotional, less severe physical, or sexual from a husband are about equally likely to report ever having bruisies and aches (23-29 percent), injuries or broken bones (5-7 percent), or medical treatment (5-8 percent). 276 Domestic Violence

13 Table 5.8 Physical consequences spousal Percentage ever-married reporting different types physical consequences resulting from something the husband/partner did to them, by type reported, Malawi 2004 Had bruises and aches Had injury or broken bone Went to a doctor or health centre Type Ever year Ever year Ever year Total Emotional Ever ,05 At least once in past year Less severe physical, 2 Ever ,386 At least once in past year Severe physical, 2 Ever At least once in past year Sexual Ever ,076 At least once in past year Physical or sexual Ever ,40 At least once in past year ,40 No reported ,94 Total ,054 Excludes who experienced physical during pregnancy only, due to lack information on degree severity and/or timing. 2 Less severe includes pushing, shaking, slapping, punching and kicking, while severe includes trying to strangle or burn, threats with a weapon, and attacks with a weapon. 5.0 VIOLENCE BY SPOUSAL CHARACTERISTICS AND WOMEN S INDICATORS Since the most frequent perpetrator spousal is the woman s husband, it is important to observe the characteristics the husbands to help understand their relationship with the. Table 5.9 shows that who are married to men with secondary or higher education are the least likely to experience any kind. Seventy-two percent with husbands who have secondary or higher education have never experienced compared to only 66 to 68 percent whose husbands have a lower level education. It is interesting to note that who have more education than their husbands are the most likely to experience all forms spousal. Domestic Violence 277

14 Table 5.9 Spousal by spousal characteristics Percentage ever-married who experienced different types by the current or most recent husband ever and in the past year, and percentage who have been violent to their husbands, by spousal characteristics and selected 's status variables, Malawi 2004 Spousal characteristic Emotional Ever year Physical Ever year Sexual Ever year Physical or sexual Ever year Never experienced Violence against husband by respondent Ever year Husband s education No education ,99 Primary ,493 Primary ,294 Secondary ,95 Husband's age minus wife's age Wife older than husband 3+years Same age or,2 years different , years , years , years ,24 Not currently married ,97 Educational differences Husband has more education ,948 Wife has more education ,54 Both have equal education Neither educated Husband s alcohol consumption Does not drink ,843 Drinks/never gets drunk Gets drunk sometimes ,764 Gets drunk very ten Total ,054 Note: Total includes for whom husband s education, spousal age difference, spousal education difference and husband s alcohol consumption are missing. Excludes who experienced physical during pregnancy only The age difference between husband and wife also has some bearing on the likelihood that a woman experiences. Women who are three or more years older than their husbands are the least likely to have experienced all types. Women who are about the same age as their husbands are slightly more likely than who are three to nine years younger than their spouses to experience physical or sexual. Women who are ten or more years younger than their husbands are most likely to experience emotional and physical. Women s experience with is strongly associated with the extent their husbands or partners alcohol consumption. Women whose husbands do not drink are the least likely to report, while whose husbands frequently get drunk are the most likely to report. It is useful to examine whether spousal varies with indicators s status. Women s empowerment status is measured by their attitudes towards a wife s ability to refuse sex with their husband and the number household decisions in which the participate. Table 5.0 shows that there is no strong relationship between s empowerment status and their 278 Domestic Violence

15 experience in spousal, nor is there any clear pattern in the relationship between marital harmony and spousal. While in the least harmonious relationships are expected to report more than with more harmonious marriages, it is with a score one or two on the marital harmony index who are the most likely to report any kind spousal. Table 5.0 Spousal by 's status Percentage ever-married by the type spousal by the current or most recent husband, by time, by selected indicators 's status, Malawi 2004 Women s status indicator Emotional Ever year Physical Ever year 2 Sexual Ever year 2 Physical or sexual Ever year 2 Never experienced Woman can refuse sex to husband Yes to all reasons ,27 No to one or more reasons ,783 decisions in which woman has final say , , ,885 Index marital harmony 3 Least harmonious ,69-2 positive , positive ,625 Family structure 4 Nuclear ,357 Non-nuclear ,697 Total ,054 Excludes who have been married more than once and say they have been beaten only by a previous husband only during pregnancy. 2 Excludes currently married who have experienced physical only during pregnancy by their current husband and formerly married who have been beaten only during pregnancy by their last husband from experienced physical. 3 The index marital harmony is the sum responses to questions about spending his free time with the respondent, consulting her on various household matters, being affectionate to the respondent, and respecting the respondent s wishes, for which the respondent says that her husband acted frequently. 4 A woman is considered to be in a nuclear family if the woman lives alone, lives with her husband, or lives with her husband and children. 5. HELP SEEKING FOR WOMEN WHO EXPERIENCE VIOLENCE Data in previous tables show that experience mainly from husbands. Table 5. shows that some who experience from their partners seek help from relatives such as their own families, in-laws, and other relatives or friends. Less than half who experienced sought help (42 percent). Forty-four percent sought help from other relatives or friends, one in three went to their own family, and percent went to their in-laws. Domestic Violence 279

16 While who are abused by their husbands tend to go to other relatives or friends for help, whose perpetrator is not her husband tend to seek help from their own family. The likelihood that a woman seeks help in domestic depends on the perpetrator. Women who were abused by their previous husbands are the most likely to have sought help (52 percent). These data suggest that domestic may be a contributing cause for divorce or separation. Women whose perpetrators are not their spouse are the least likely to seek help. The probability seeking help increases with the frequency. While 49 percent who experienced physical or sexual four or more times in the past year sought help, the corresponding proportion for with one experience in the last year is 40 percent. Table 5. Help seeking for who experience Among who reported ever experiencing physical or sexual, percentage who tried to get any help, and among those who sought help, persons from whom help was sought, by person who perpetrated the, Malawi 2004 Aspects Percentage who sought help who experienced Own family Persons from whom help was sought In-laws Other relatives/ friends Medical personnel Other ficials Other who sought help Persons perpetrating Husband only 4.3, Earlier husband only Husband and others Others only Frequency beatings in past year 0 times 39.9, time times times DK frequency Total 4.9 3, ,327 Includes four for whom data on frequency beatings is missing. The remaining cases are beaten only during pregnancy for which data on frequency beating in the past year was not collected. 280 Domestic Violence

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