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1 1. Question : The degree to which members of society feel united by shared values and other social bonds is known as: sociology. sociological imagination. social integration. social cohesion. c and d. Question 2. Question : Max Weber's study of the relationship between religion and the development of capitalism found that capitalist economies were most likely to develop in countries where the dominant religion was: Catholicism. Protestantism. Judaism. Islam. Atheism. Question 3. Question : The use of sociology to solve social problems is called: basic sociology applied sociology. sociological imagination. conflict theory. functional analysis. Question 4. Question : The theoretical perspective that suggests society is composed of groups or classes that are competing for scarce resources is called:

2 basic sociology. applied sociology. symbolic interaction. functionalism. conflict theory. Question 5. Question : According to Eitzen, barriers to the adoption of more generous welfare policies in the United States include: American belief in competitive individualism and the two-party system. a unionized workforce. the strength of the Tea Party. none of the above. Question 6. Question : Which of the following are shaped by our culture? our language, our gestures and our belief in the importance of efficiency and practicality. our religious beliefs and our understanding of democracy. the manner in which we dress and our value of individualism. our understanding of family and incest. all the above Question 7. Question : Which of the following are examples of material culture? religion and a bible. language and a dictionary.

3 language and religion. a dictionary and a bible. language, beliefs, values norms and behaviors. Question 8. Question : Judging other cultures by the standards of one's own culture is called: culture shock. cultural relativism. cultural superiority. ethnocentrism. ethnicity. Question 9. Question : According to the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis, language: names objects and events that come into our consciousness. determines our consciousness. influences how we perceive the world. b and c. Question 10. Question : The form of norms taken least seriously and that are least strictly enforced are called: folkways. mores. taboos. laws. This is a trick question. All norms are strictly enforced by sanctions

4 Question 11. Question : Social structure: refers to the framework or typical patterns of social experience within society. provides a context within which behavior is limited. shapes behavior and attitudes within society. a and b. Question 12. Question : Which of the following are achieved statuses? lawyer and mother. felon and ex-con. honor student and President of the United States. a and c. Question 13. Question : The standard ways in which societies meet their basic needs - the patterned behaviors that enable societies to survive - are referred to as: families. individuals. organizations. institutions. laws. Question 14. Question : The institution that allocates power and determines authority in

5 society is: military. law. religion. education. politics. Question 15. Question : According to Durkheim, social integration in large societies is : referred to as organic solidarity. maintained through interdependence. characterized by shared consciousness and common experience. a and b. Question 16. Question : Deviance: is a social act that causes harm to another person. is the commitment of an immoral act. is the violation of a cultural norm. is a crime. Question 17. Question : A degradation ceremony is most likely to occur in which of the following circumstances? military boot camp. prison.

6 college. a and b. Question 18. Question : The insights of labeling theory can help us understand why: two groups of teenage boys that both participate in the same behavior, for example drinking, petty theft and vandalism, may be treated quite differently when caught doing so by authorities. an unemployed woman is not likely to commit a white collar crime. there has been a decline in violent crime in the U.S. in recent years. corporate crime is most often committed by welfare recipients and claimants of unemployment benefits. Question 19. Question : Which of the following are identified by criminologists as major contributors to violent crime in the U.S.? ineffective prosecution and lenient sentencing of criminals. the wide gap between rich and poor, the proportion of population living in poverty, and weak safety nets that murderers can avoid the death penalty with long appeal processes, thereby showing potential murders that they can get away with such crimes. short sentences in "country club like" prisons, even for serious offenses. a, c and d above.

7 Question 20. Question : According to Strain Theory, deviance is a consequence of: weak family structure and poor socialization within families. the diminished importance of religion in contemporary society. corrupt police who are influenced by labeling in their use of discretion in arrest decisions. effective socialization to cultural goals, and the choice of innovative means to achieve those goals. Question 21. Question : In contrast to income, wealth includes consideration of: debt. property ownership. occupation. a and b. Question 22. Question : The distribution of wealth in the U.S.: is more unequal than other industrialized nations. is becoming more unequal at a faster rate than other industrialized nations. is proportionally equal across racial and ethnic categories. a and b. Question 23. Question : Sociologically, the concept of status refers to: ranking along the dimensions of social class.

8 prestige. power. social position. Question 24. Question : Among the aspects of life influenced by one's social class is/are: medical care and educational opportunity. stress and mental health. choice of spouse, child rearing practices and the likelihood of divorce. religious affiliation and practice. Question 25. Question : Which of the following have the greatest likelihood of living in poverty? children. adults. the elderly. lazy people. there is no pattern to the experience of poverty, any individual is as likely as any other to experience poverty. Question 26. Question : Private ownership of the means of production, market competition and the pursuit of profit: are a consequence of human nature and necessary aspects of all economies. are essential features of capitalism.

9 minimize economic inequality and maximize mobility. are essential aspects of socialism. a, b and c. Question 27. Question : The increase in the percentage of the American workforce that is white collar is a consequence of: increasing economic equality in the U.S. economy. conspicuous consumption. structural mobility. exchange mobility. the underground economy. Question 28. Question : Examples of social locations that sociologists suggest influence our lives include education, gender, race and income. Question 29. Question : More U.S. students are killed in school shootings now than ten or fifteen years ago. Question 30: Herbert Spencer's theory of Social Darwinism suggests that the fittest members of each society will produce a more advanced society and that it is a mistake therefore to get in the way of progress and and help the less fit (lower classes) survive.

10 Question 31. Question : Marx, unlike Spencer, suggested that social change occurred not through a process of Social Darwinism, but through the process of class conflict. Question 32. Question : The term Weber used to refer to a group's pattern of behavior is verstehen. Question 33. Question : The language we speak is a product of our socialization but gestures, such as the thumbs-up sign or 'flipping-the-bird' are instinctual and therefore common across cultures. Question 34. Question : Norms regulating sexuality, such as universal prohibitions against sex between parents and children or between siblings, show that cultural beliefs reflect necessary and absolute truths. Question 35. Question : A motorcycle club of lawyers and physicians who meet for long weekend rides represent a counterculture. Question 36. Question : The process of socialization is so powerful that one culture can even learn to experience feelings that are unknown in another

11 culture. Question 37. Question : While stages of life, such as adolescence, are recognized across all cultures, many cultures have different normative expectations of appropriate responsibilities for each stage. Question 38. Question : Status refers to social position and role refers to the behaviors considered appropriate to that position Question 39. Question : Since we all live in society and common sense enables us to understand our experience, sociological research is at best redundant and probably unnecessary. Question 40. Question : Personal experience is a reliable source of sociological understanding because our individual experience represents a random sample from which we can generalize to larger populations. Question 41. Question : Bureaucracies are irrational organizations which enable incompetent people to hide from responsibility and undermine

12 efficiency and goal attainment. Question 42. Question : According to the conflict perspective, humanization of the work place is an alternative to the more common exploitation of workers by employers. Question 43. Question : Because of similar histories, including a common heritage of western expansion and settlement and conquest of native people, the rates of violent crime in the U.S. and Canada are similar to each other and quite different from the rates of European nations. Question 44. Question : Because there will always be some bad people, deviance and crime is inevitable and all societies experience similar patterns of crime. Question 45. Question : African Americans and Latinos are more likely to be sentenced to death if they kill European Americans than if they kill members of their own racial or ethnic group. Question 46. Question : The most frequent victims of hate crimes are European Americans who are victimized by minorities.

13 Question 47. Question : Most Americans, including minorities, have an average or betterthan-average chance of getting ahead, of climbing the social class ladder. Question 48. Question : The belief that the values of the poor are distinctly different than those of other Americans and that it is those values, and not the oppportunity structure within society, that cause poverty, is called the feminization of poverty. Question 49. Question : Max Weber defined social class as a group of people who rank closely to one another in property, power and prestige. Question 50. Question : The poverty line, is a subjective measure determined by people's self-report about whether they feel poor relative to others in the country.

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