Field Performance of Two Stormwater Bioretention Filtration Design Configurations

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1 Field Performance of Two Stormwater Bioretention Filtration Design Configurations Andrew Anderson, E.I.T. North Carolina State University Department of Biological & Agricultural Engineering 2013 Annual Regional Stormwater Conference Charlotte, NC Like us on Facebook

2 Courtesy Arkansas LID Manual

3 Stormwater Control Measure Toolbox Bioretention Vegetated swales Green roofs Rainwater harvesting Permeable pavement Sand filter Catch basin insert Stormwater wetlands Detention/retention ponds What about in series? Proprietary devices?

4 Stormwater Proprietary Devices New systems introduced faster than researchers can research them. How well do they compare to traditional BMPs? Numerous and varying testing protocols across U.S. Unique opportunity between municipality, manufacturers, and independent Universities to implement field-scale studies.

5 Filterra Bioretention System High-flow surface runoff filter Open-throat inlet ideal for curb flow Proprietary soil media with tree planter Courtesy:

6 Filterra BioPave TM Stormwater System Courtesy:

7 BioPave TM Treatment Train Surface Inflow Permeable Pavement (PICP) Filterra To traditional storm drainage network Flow/WQ Flow/WQ Flow/WQ Performance Evaluation: PICP (in) PICP (out) PICP (out) Filterra (out) PICP (in) Filterra (out) LID Processes Filtration Infiltration LID Processes Filtration Bio processes Sorption Evapotranspiration

8 Fayetteville, NC Raleigh Asheville Charlotte Fayetteville Wilmington Fayetteville Characteristic Value Annual Precipitation (in.) 45 Avg. Precipitation Days (>0.01 in) 111 Avg. Inter-Event Time (d) 3 to 4 10-yr, 24-h storm (in.) 5.52 Population (2010 Census) 374,157 Map Data source: Climate Data source: olina#geography

9 Research Site Amtrak Station 0.13-acre drainage area 100% impervious ~270:1 Loading Ratio Amtrak Train Station

10 Stand-Alone Filterra Surface inflow from aging asphalt parking lot Media filtration and treatment Outflow drainage to existing storm sewer Sized for the 10-yr storm Courtesy:

11 Stand-Alone Filterra Sizing Courtesy:

12 Stand-Alone Filterra Construction

13 Stand-Alone Filterra Construction

14 Stand-Alone Filterra Construction

15 Stand-Alone Filterra Monitoring Equipment

16 Filterra BioPave TM PICP Area = 2,300 sf Runon Area = ~5000 sf (~2:1 ratio)

17 Design Cross-Section 4 No. 57 Opengraded base 2 No. 8 Stone 3 1/8 Concrete pavers No. 2 Subbase Subgrade 4 perforated underdrain Concrete check dam

18 Construction of PICP

19 Construction of PICP Specify AND verify..washed stone!!!

20 Construction of PICP Monitoring wells Concrete check dams

21 Construction of PICP Screed #8 stone Fill joints with #8 Compact #2 stone

22 Finished PICP Surface

23 Tree filter / bioretention install

24 Tree filter / bioretention install INLET (FROM PICP) OUTLET (TO STORM DRAIN)

25 Tree filter / bioretention install Outflow of tree filter connects to existing storm network

26 Monitoring Goals 1. Evaluate water quality and hydrologic treatment performance of both PICP-Filterra and standard Filterra proprietary devices a) North Carolina b) Virginia 2. Collect hydrologic data of PICP SCM for use in calibration of DRAINMOD

27 Monitoring Metrics Event Mean Concentrations (EMCs) Phosphorus (Total, Dissolved, Ortho-P) Nitrogen (TKN, NOx, Ammonia, TN, Total & Diss.) Total Suspended Solids Suspended Sediment Concentration Particle Size Distribution Specific Gravity Copper and Zinc (Total & Dissolved) ph Hydrology Flow rate Total volume time metrics

28 Preliminary Monitoring Results n < 15 for all water quality parameters Rainfall events sampled Range = 0.18 to 2.08 in. Median = 0.6 in.

29 BioPave TM Hydrology (PICP Portion) 93% Cumulative Volume Reduction Median volume reduction 98% (Range %) Median peak time delay ratio = 9.1 (past targets for bioretention of 6 1 ) 1 Davis, A. P. (2008). Field Performance of Bioretention: Hydrology Impacts. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 13(2), 90.

30 Preliminary Monitoring Results Sediment, Standalone Unit TSS TSS (EPA Method #160.2) SSC (ASTM Method D ) Differences in sampling and analysis (SSC includes more sand-sized particles) Consistently low sediment in outflow (filtration mechanism) OutEMC = (P) Pr > t =

31 Preliminary Monitoring Results Nitrogen Species, Standalone Unit NO 2/3 -N TN Excellent 1 Excellent 1 Inlet Outlet 1 McNett, J. K., Hunt, W. F., and Osborne, J. a. (2010). Establishing Storm-Water BMP Evaluation Metrics Based upon Ambient Water Quality Associated with Benthic Macroinvertebrate Populations. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 136(5),

32 Low Nutrient Influent Loadings (North Inlet) Total Nitrogen Total Phosphorus

33 Preliminary Monitoring Results Phosphorus Species, Standalone Unit TP TDP OutEMC = (P) Pr > t = Ortho-P OutEMC = 2.7E E 17(P) Pr > t = 0.122

34 Preliminary Monitoring Results Phosphorus Species, Standalone Unit McNett, J. K., Hunt, W. F., and Osborne, J. a. (2010). Establishing Storm-Water BMP Evaluation Metrics Based upon Ambient Water Quality Associated with Benthic Macroinvertebrate Populations. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 136(5),

35 Preliminary Monitoring Results Metals, Standalone Unit Copper Zinc

36 Buffering Effect of Amtrak Retrofits

37 Preliminary Monitoring Results Particle Size Distribution, Standalone Unit

38 Low Nutrient Influent Loadings (North Inlet) Why?

39 Preliminary Monitoring Results NO 2/3 -N TN TKN TP TDP TSS Standalone Filterra Permeable Pavement -66% 30% 41% 28% 90% -130% 7% 33% 32% 82%

40 Conclusions Influent concentrations LOW for Filterra Opportunity to examine effluent concentrations relative to ambient water quality standards Volume reduction and filtration hypothesized to provide additional benefits Standalone device sediment, metals removal (% basis) is high ph buffering seems apparent Load reductions observed for both systems BioPave load reduction appears greater than standalone system

41 Field monitoring can be challenging Maintenance is key to permeable pavement component City cooperation is key in field projects Not all urban watersheds are created equally Lessons Learned

42 References ASTM Standard D448. (2008). Standard Classification for Sizes of Aggregate for Road and Bridge Construction, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, DOI: /D Brown, R.A., Skaggs, R.W, Hunt, W.F. (2013). Calibration and Validation of DRAINMOD to Model Bioretention Hydrology. Journal of Hydrology, 486, Gee, G.W. and J.W. Bauder. (1995). Particle-size analysis in A. Klute (ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. p NC DENR (2007). Chapter 18: Permeable Pavement (rev. 2012) in Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual. North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality. Smith, D. R. (2011). Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements. 4 th ed. Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute, Montreal, Canada. Barrett, M.E., Lantin, A. and Austrheim-Smith, S. (2004). Stormwater pollutant removal in roadside vegetated buffer strips. Transport Res. Rec. 1890: McNett, J. K., Hunt, W.F., and Osborne, J.A. (2010). Establishing storm-water BMP evaluation metrics based upon ambient water quality associated with benthic macroinvertebrate populations. J. of. Env. Eng. 136:

43 Acknowledgements William Hunt, Professor, NC State University Shawn Kennedy, Research Technician Filterra Bioretention Systems Greg Caison, City of Fayetteville Mayowa Lewis, City of Fayetteville Al Hardee, City of Fayetteville Amtrak staff, Fayetteville, NC Linda McKenzie & Jenny James, NCSU Center for Applied Aquatic Ecology

44 Thanks! Any Questions? Like us on Facebook

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