# APPENDIX B DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR APPROVED TREATMENT METHODS

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1 APPENDIX B DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR APPROVED TREATMENT METHODS PLANTER BOXES 1. Determine the impervious area contributing flow to the planter box (see Chapter 4.2). 2. Assumption: Typical soil infiltration rate of ½ -inch per hour for slightly compacted soil suitable for planting Calculate Size: a water quality design storm of 1-inch per 24-hours, the required size of the planter box is calculated using the following equation: Q in = Q out V in * A = V out * a V in = Rate of Incoming Rainfall = 1/24 in/hr A = Contributing Impervious Area (sf) V out = Soil Infiltration Rate = ½ in/hr a = Area of Planter Box (sf) V in =1/24 in/hr and V out = ½ in/hr, the equation is simplified to: a = 1/12 * A Thus a planter box shall be sized as 1/12 of the contributing impervious area. This also implies that the 12-inch deep reservoir will be full in 24-hours given no infiltration. this reason, an overflow pipe set at the top of the reservoir is required for conditions of soil saturation. VEGETATED SWALES 1. Determine impervious area contributing flow to swale. This is unique to all designs and must be determined by the design engineer. 2. Calculate the flow rate for both water quality event and peak event. The Santa Barbara Urban Hydrograph method results in a water quality flow of Q WQ = cfs per acre and a 10-year peak flow of Q PF = cfs per acre using the following factors: a. Water quality storm: 1 inch in 24-hours b. Peak storm 3 inches in 24-hours (10-yr, 24-hour event) c. Time of Concentration 5 minutes d. Runoff Curve No Irrigation Runoff Control Strategies, H. Hansen, W. Trimmer, Oregon State University Extension Service, Oct Appendix B - 1

2 3. Calculate the length of swale required to provide a detention time of 5 minutes using the water quality storm. A length of 150-feet per acre of impervious surface will meet this requirement for a trapezoidal swale with the following properties: a. Base width 1 foot b. Side slope 4:1 c. Flow depth 2 inches 4. Check capacity under water quality design storm and under 10-year storm events. Using Manning s equation, Q = A x 1.49/n x (R^0.667) x (s^0.5) Q = flow rate in cfs A = cross sectional area of flow in sf (0.44 sf for water quality flow) n = Manning s n = 0.20 for grass R = Hydraulic radius in feet (0.13 feet for water quality flow) s = Longitudinal slope of swale the water quality storm the flow depth is fixed at 2-inches so the only variable is the slope of the swale, which is determined by the site design. The flow rate of the swale can then be calculated using the following equation: Q WQ = 0.84 x (s^0.5) a 10-year peak flow, the designer will need to calculate the actual depth of flow. If a flow depth of 6-inches is assumed the flow can be calculated using the following equation: FILTER STRIPS Q PF = 7.09 x (s^0.5) The proper function of a filter strip is determined almost exclusively by the residence time of the water flowing across the strip. A minimum residence time of 5-minutes is specified. Filter strips have a standard width of 10-feet and a standard cross slope of 2%. Using these figures a standard filter strip can effectively treat runoff from an impervious area of 55-feet per foot of strip length. Note: minimum width for a filter strip is 5-feet. 1. Determine impervious area contributing flow to filter strip. This is unique to all designs and must be determined by the design engineer. 2. Calculate the flow rate for both water quality event and peak event. The Santa Barbara Urban Hydrograph method results in a water quality flow of Q WQ = cfs per acre and a 10-year peak flow of Q PF = cfs per acre using the following factors: a. Water quality storm: 1 inch in 24-hours b. Peak storm 3 inches in 24-hours (10-yr, 24-hour event) Appendix B - 2

3 c. Time of Concentration 5 minutes d. Runoff Curve No Calculate the width of the strip required to provide a residence time of 5 minutes using the water quality storm. The calculation is an iterative process beginning with the design flow and checking against the required flow velocity. Design Flow: Q d = cfs x A Q d = design flow (cubic feet per second) A = contributing impervious surface (acres). Maximum Velocity: V = W / t V = maximum flow velocity (feet per second) W = Filter strip width (feet) t = residence time (300 seconds) Using Manning s equation and the calculated maximum velocity, the maximum depth of flow can be calculated as follows: V = (1.49/n) x (d^(2/3)) x (s^.5) Solving for d: V = maximum flow velocity (feet per second) n = Manning s roughness coefficient, 0.20 for grass d = flow depth in feet (equivalent to hydraulic radius for wide flow over a filter strip) s = cross slope d^(2/3) = V x (n/1.49) x (1/s^0.5) d = [V x (n/1.49) x (1/s^0.5)] ^ (3/2) The maximum flow depth and maximum velocity are then compared to the design flow rate to see if the selected width is acceptable: d x V Q d d = maximum flow depth (feet) V = maximum velocity (feet per second) Q d = design flow rate (cubic feet per second) If the calculated flow rate is less than the design flow rate the filter strip will need to be wider. 4. Standard filter strip calculation (for 10-foot wide strip) a. Design flow rate Q d = cfs/acre Appendix B - 3

4 b. Maximum Velocity V = 10 feet / 300 seconds = ft/sec c. Maximum flow depth d = [V x (n/1.49) x (1/s^0.5)] ^ (3/2) d = [0.033 x (0.20/1.49) x (1/.02^0.5)] ^ (3/2) d = [0.033 x x 7.07] ^ (3/2) d = [.0312] ^ (3/2) d = ft d. Calculate Flow Rate: Q calc = V x d = ft/sec x ft x unit width (1 foot) Q calc = cfs/foot of width e. Calculate Contributing Area Area = Q calc / Q d ( cfs/foot) / (0.145 cfs/acre) = acre per foot length ( acre) x (43,560 sf/acre) = 55 sf INFILTRATION TRENCH The following design guidelines can be used to size an infiltration trench. The design engineer may modify the dimensions and calculate a different length of trench that may be more appropriate to a given site. These calculations assume a constant infiltration rate and assume infiltration through the bottom of the trench only. 1. Determine impervious area contributing flow to infiltration trench. This is unique to all designs and must be determined by the design engineer. 2. Determine the infiltration rate of the soil. This will be unique for all sites. The infiltration rate should be converted into feet per day for the following equations. 3. Calculate the flow rate for both water quality event and peak event. The Santa Barbara Urban Hydrograph method results in a water quality flow of Q WQ = 2,865 cubic feet per day per acre and a 10-year peak flow of Q PF = 10,032 cubic feet per day per acre using the following factors: a. Water quality storm: 1 inch in 24-hours b. Peak storm 3 inches in 24-hours (10-yr, 24-hour event) c. Time of Concentration 5 minutes d. Runoff Curve No Calculate the length of trench required to infiltrate the total flow in 24-hours using the water quality storm. The contributing flow, Q WQ, must be less than or equal to the flow infiltrating into the ground, Q INF. In equation form: Appendix B - 4

5 Q WQ Q INF The flow exiting the trench is assumed equivalent to the infiltration rate, I R, multiplied over the area of the bottom of the trench, or: Q INF = I R * A OUT = I R * (W * L) Therefore, W = Width of trench (standard = 2 feet) Q WQ Q INF 2,865 cfd/acre * A (acres) I R * (W * L) Solving for L, let W = 2-feet L (2,865 cfs/acre * A) / (2 * I R ) A = Area of contributing impervious area in acres W = Width of trench (standard = 2 feet) 5. Calculate the length of the infiltration trench required to contain the flow of a 10- year event. The total volume of flow in one day (based on the peak flow event) must be less than or equal to the volume of the trench plus the volume infiltrated in one day. In equation form, V PF V STORAGE + V INFILTRATED The volume of infiltration in one day is assumed equivalent to the infiltration rate, I R, multiplied over the area of the bottom of the trench (W * L), multiplied by the porosity of clean drain rock, or: V INF = I R * W * L * p * 1-day Therefore, W = Width of trench (standard = 2 feet) p = porosity of drain rock (default value of 30%) V PF V STORAGE + V INFILTRATED (10,032 cfd/acre * A * 1-day) (L * W * D * p) + (L * W * I R * 1-day) Solving for L, let W = 2-feet, D = 1-foot, p = 0.3: L (10,032 * A) / ( * I R ) Appendix B - 5

6 A = Area of contributing impervious area in acres 6. Size the infiltration trench based on the larger length determined in (4) and (5). EXTENDED DETENTION BASIN These design guidelines for extended detention basins can be used to size the basin for pollution removal only, or to reduce the total volume discharging from a site. This calculation will give the required size of the basin and discharge control orifices. The actual geometry of the basin will vary with the site conditions. This design guide assumes the use of orifice structures to control discharge. Other methods of flow control may be used provided that they are capable of effectively controlling flows. 1. Calculate the daily runoff from a site that would be treated by the basin. Calculations should be for both the 1-inch, 24-hour water quality storm and the 10-year peak flow storm (3-inch, 24-hour). 2. Calculate the surface area of the basin needed to achieve the maximum loading rate of 2.0 ft³/ft²/day. This amount is equivalent to the water quality storm flow divided by Calculate the maximum depth of water under water quality storm conditions. At the maximum loading rate, the maximum depth would be 2 feet. Lower loading rates would result in shallower depths. 4. Calculate the size of the orifice needed to limit flow to 2/3 of average daily inflow for the water quality storm at the maximum water depth. Orifice size is calculated as follows: A = Q [C x (2gh)] A = orifice area Q = design flow rate C = orifice coefficient: 0.98 for rounded orifice 0.61 for a sharp-edged orifice 0.80 for short-tube orifice 0.51 for Borda orifice 2 g = force of gravity h = depth of water above orifice. 2 Dally, J. W., W. F. Riley, and K. G. McConnell Instrumentation for Engineering Measurements. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 2ed. Appendix B - 6

7 If the basin is designed for pollution removal only, an overflow structure must be installed at the maximum water depth for a water quality storm with the capacity to pass the 10-year design storm. If the basin is designed to limit total runoff, a second orifice is installed at this level. 5. Determine the length of extended detention desired. Typically this will be 12- or 24-hours. 6. Calculate the design discharge rate to achieve extended detention. 12-hour extended detention the design discharge will be 2/3 of the daily inflow under a 10-year storm. 24-hour extended detention the design discharge would be ½ of the daily inflow. 7. Calculate the maximum depth of water under the 10-year storm. This is equal to the maximum detained volume divided by the area of the pond. An exact calculation of the volume requires a somewhat detailed hydrographic analysis, however, for the purposes of this manual a default value of 0.45 times the daily inflow for 12-hour extended detention, and 0.60 times the daily inflow for 24-hour extended detention will be acceptable. 8. Calculate the orifice size to meet the design discharge rate. An overflow structure will need to be installed at the maximum water depth capable of passing a 25-year storm. Appendix B - 7

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