Calculation Method for evaluating Solar Assisted Heat Pump Systems in SAP July 2013


 Randolph Martin
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Calculation Method for evaluating Solar Assisted Heat Pup Systes in SAP July 2013 Page 1 of 17
2 1 Introduction This docuent describes how Solar Assisted Heat Pup Systes are recognised in the National Calculation Method for Energy Rating of Dwellings, known as SAP Below is a siplified energy flow diagra of a Solar Assisted Heat Pup Syste, which includes the following principal coponents: Solar theral heat collector/abient heat absorber Watertowater heat pup Theral store Low teperature theral store Note: the diagra only shows the ain energy flows and not actual connections. Energy flow scheatic C/H 35ºC DHW Inline heater Solar theral collector Theral store Teperature 38ºC or higher Heat pup heats theral store to 38ºC Low teperature theral store Teperature 20ºC to 5ºC Solar theral collectors ebedded in roof tiles capture insolation on war sunny days, whilst absorbing abient heat fro surrounding air at night and during overcast periods. Captured solar energy is fed to: a) the theral store, when the solarheated water is war enough, or b) the low teperature theral store otherwise Heat absorbed by the collector at night or on overcast days fro the environent is fed to the low teperature theral store. A watertowater heat pup transfers heat fro the low teperature theral store to the theral store when requested by the control syste. Page 2 of 17
3 Doestic space heating and hot water services are provided by puping Priary Water fro the theral store to two separate plate heat exchangers, where heat is transferred to the doestic space heating syste or to a separate ains pressure hot water syste that has a suppleentary direct electric inline heater. For the purposes of analysis in SAP, the operation of the syste has been divided into four odes. Mode 1 (day tie war and sunny) Defined as the daylight hours (hours between sunrise and sunset) when the air teperature exceeds 15ºC and horizontal direct and diffuse insolation exceeds 10W/ 2. In this Mode:  Solar energy is captured and delivered to the theral store to offset hot water heating load. Any shortfall is et by the electric inline heater.  The heat pup does not operate. Mode 2 (day tie cool and sunny) Defined as the daylight hours when the air teperature is 15ºC or below and horizontal direct and diffuse insolation exceeds 10W/ 2. In this Mode:  Solar energy is captured and delivered to the low teperature theral store  The heat pup upgrades heat fro the low teperature theral store to the theral store. The heat source for the syste is the outside air and solar energy cobined; an average source teperature of 10 C is assued. The sink teperature is 38ºC (or suitable setpoint defined by Manufacturer).  The theral store supplies heat to the hot water and space heating systes. Any shortfall in water heating load and space heating load is et by separate directelectric inline heaters. Mode 3 (day tie cool and overcast) Defined as the daylight hours when the air teperature is 15 C or below and direct and diffuse insolation is 10W/ 2 or below. In this Mode:  The solar collector absorbs abient heat and delivers it to the low teperature theral store.  The heat pup upgrades heat fro the low teperature theral store to the theral store. The heat source for the syste is the outside air; an average source teperature of 4.5 C is assued. The syste operates siilarly to an Air Source Heat pup in this ode. The sink teperature is 38ºC (or suitable setpoint defined by Manufacturer).  The theral store supplies heat to the hot water and space heating systes. Any shortfall in water heating load and space heating load is et by separate directelectric inline heaters. Mode 4 (nighttie) Defined as the hours when not in ode 1, 2 or 3. In this Mode:  The solar collector absorbs abient heat and delivers it to the low teperature theral store.  The heat pup upgrades heat fro the low teperature theral store to the theral store. The heat source for the syste is the outside air; the low teperature theral store is assued to be 5 C below the outside air teperature giving an average source teperature of 1.2 C. The syste operates siilarly to an Air Source Heat pup in this ode. The sink teperature is 38ºC (or suitable setpoint defined by Manufacturer).  The theral store supplies heat to the hot water and space heating systes. Any shortfall in water heating load and space heating load is et by separate directelectric inline heaters. Page 3 of 17
4 Any shortfall in space heating is deterined by the capacity of the heat pup or rate of heat transferred to the low teperature theral store, whichever is the sallest. The theral store is assued to supply heat for space heating first, with any reaining heat supplied to the doestic hot water service. 2 Basis of the ethod The basis of the Solar Assisted Heat Pup calculation ethod is to analyse the Mode 1 operation within a separate suppleentary calculation procedure (Appendix workbook). The other odes of operation (Modes 2 4) are odelled as a standard heat pup, see SAP 2009 Appendix N, but with odified average source and sink teperatures as noted above and in accordance with EN The Plant Size Ratio (PSR) range is also extended to 5.0, where the Product Characteristics Database (PCDB) records values at: 0.2, 0.6, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0. The additional heat losses associated with Solar Assisted Heat Pup systes in coparison to standard types (i.e. air, ground or water source) are also odelled within the suppleentary calculation procedure (Appendix ) for all operating odes. 2.1 Mode 1 The suppleentary calculation procedure (Appendix ) calculates the direct reduction in water heating due to captured solar energy when the air teperature exceeds 15ºC and direct and diffuse solar insolation exceeds 10W/ 2. To siplify the calculation process (Appendix ) for Mode 1 operation, a reference syste was defined to which the addition or reduction of energy consuption is applied within SAP software. The specification for this reference syste is below: Space heating is provided by the defined Solar Assisted Heat Pup using perforance data recorded in the Product Characteristics Database (PCDB). Water heating is provided by a 160 litre cylinder with integral electric iersion and a anufacturer s declared heat loss of 2.21 kwh/day (when cylinder is 45K above the test laboratory air teperature). The cylinder is installed outside the heated space. No solar water heating syste In SAP 2009, the heat loss fro an ordinary hot water cylinder is an annual calculation defined as: Nuber of days in a year x daily heat loss for a cylinder with a standard 45K above its surrounding x teperature factor. The teperature factor (e.g. 0.6) accounts for the cylinder, when installed in the dwelling, being at a lower teperature than the standard test criteria. The above SAP assuptions are invalid for the theral store of a Solar Assisted Heat Pup, since being installed outside and partially suberged underground its heat losses will vary onthly. The theral store heat loss calculations are aended to onthly calculations and account for operation within all operating odes  see section These calculations are undertaken within a separate suppleentary calculation procedure (Appendix workbook). Heat losses for the external pipework connected to the theral store for both space heating and hot water systes are also accounted for by the onthly calculation in section These calculations are also undertaken within a separate suppleentary calculation procedure (Appendix workbook). Page 4 of 17
5 The low teperature store is not used in ode 1 and therefore excluded fro the Mode 1 calculation procedure SAP Solar water heating calculations The contribution of captured solar energy towards hot water heating is calculated in accordance with SAP 2009 Appendix H, extract below: The solar contribution to doestic hot water is given by: s = S Zpanel Aap 0 UF f1 f2 Where: s = solar input, kwh/year S = total solar radiation on collector, kwh/²/year Zpanel = overshading factor for the solar panel Aap = aperture area of collector, ² 0 = zeroloss collector efficiency UF = utilisation factor a1 = linear heat loss coefficient of collector, W/²K f1 = collector perforance factor = (a1/ 0) (a1/ 0)² if a1/ 0 < 20 = a1/ 0 if a1/ 0 20 Veff = effective solar volue, litres Vd = daily hot water deand, litres f2 = solar storage volue factor = ln(veff/vd) subject to f(veff/vd) <= 1.0 Note. The overall perforance of solar water systes depends on how the hot water syste is used, e.g. daily drawoff patterns and the use of other water heating devices such as a boiler or an iersion. The procedure described here is not suitable for detailed design in a particular case. It is intended to give a representative value of the solar contribution to doestic water heating over a range of users. Insolation is deterined fro tables that account for the solar collector angle of tilt and orientation. The zero heat loss collector efficiency and linear heat loss factor are tested according to EN (Theral solar systes and coponents  Solar collectors  Part 2: Test ethods) The solar collector perforance factor is a function of the collector s heat loss and zero heat loss efficiency. The solar storage volue factor is calculated fro the ratio of the volue of solar store and the daily water usage. When the solar storage volue is greater than the daily hotwater usage the factor is 1. The utilisation factor accounts for the agnitude of captured solar energy copared to the energy required to heat the hot water. That is, high levels of captured solar energy cannot always be utilised Application for Solar Assisted Heat Pup Systes The captured solar energy is only applicable to Mode 1 operation for the calculation procedure. Therefore, the SAP Appendix H variable (S) total solar radiation on collector is ultiplied by the fraction of incident solar energy in ode 1 (see Table 2, Section 3.1.2). In SAP the heat losses fro a solar hot water cylinder are not explicitly odelled and are therefore excluded fro the calculation of the utilisation factor. Page 5 of 17
6 The heat loss fro the Solar Assisted Heat Pup syste theral store and distribution pipework is substantially higher than typical losses fro solar theral systes and is therefore included in the suppleentary procedure. These losses should strictly also be included in the solar utilisation factor calculation. However, including this would introduce a coplex iterative process. To avoid the requireent for an iterative process, the usefulness of solar energy is liited to the hot water energy requireent plus the theral store and distribution pipe heat loss. The solar collector perforance factor (f1) and solar storage volue factor calculations (f2) are unchanged. 2.2 Mode 2, 3 and 4 The operating odes 2, 3 and 4 are analysed within SAP software utilising the heat pup data record held within the Product Characteristics Database (PCDB). The data foring the record is calculated according to EN15316 using laboratory easureents 1 and hourly cliate data. EN15316 deterines the Seasonal Perforance Factor (SPF) and any suppleentary heating required as a function of the plant size ratio. Hourly weather data containing air teperatures and direct and diffuse horizontal insolation were sourced fro a standard reference cliate year for Leeds 2. It is coposed of typical onthly data selected fro ten years of data. The EN15316 calculation procedure only accounts for solar energy input during cold and bright periods (Mode 2). Hourly weather data was used to calculate the onthly fraction of captured solar energy during cold periods (see table 2), when direct and diffuse insolation was greater than 10W/ 2 and cold was defined as 15ºC or lower. The fraction of captured solar energy during cold periods is ultiplied by the onthly insolation values within Appendix H of SAP 2009 and transferred to the EN15316 calculation procedure. Specified insolation values are for a south facing panel with little or no over shading. The sensitivity of heat pup Seasonal Perforance Factor to inor variations in solar collector area, orientation and tilt was found to be insignificant when assessed by the EN15316 calculation procedure, particularly given the large area of solar collector. For exaple, a tolerance of ² is therefore peritted for a noinal tested area of ². Additionally, hydraulically separated ultiples of collector areas are peritted in order to increase the effective heat pup output, whilst siultaneously capturing ore solar energy. In this exaple, the noinal defined collector area sizes are therefore: a) 19 to 25² b) 38 to 50² c) 57 to 75² Note: It is critical that collector areas are hydraulically separated fro any additional areas, in this exaple 1925², since this calculation ethod assues the solar collectors will not stall. 1 See: SAP 2009 Calculation Methodology for electrically driven heat pups 2 The test reference year is coposed of onthly data fro different years (e.g. January fro year x, February fro x3, March fro year x+5) that were considered as a typical onth fro the years available and is priarily designed for coplex dynaic building coputer odels, see Ref 1 Page 6 of 17
7 3 Procedure The following are the required data ites for each Solar Assisted Heat Pup syste to be recognised within SAP : a) Manufacturer b) Brand c) Model Nae d) Model ualifier e) Theral store volue f) The heat loss of theral store above ground at a standardised 45K teperature difference to abient external environent. Based on easureents or independent thirdparty siulation. g) The heat loss of theral store below ground at a standardised 45K teperature difference to surrounding ground environent. Based on easureents or independent thirdparty siulation. h) The heat loss for the pipes connecting the theral store to the dwelling at a standardised 45K teperature difference to abient external environent. This is calculated using typical installation pipe lengths, diaeter and insulation levels agreed with the anufacturer. i) Solar collector heat loss W/ 2 /K fro UKAS or equivalent third party test easureents to EN :2006 j) Solar collector efficiency at zero heat loss fro UKAS or equivalent third party test easureents to EN :2006 k) Area of solar collector ( 2 ) l) Solar collector pup power (Watts) The user selects the collector brand and odel and enters the details of the dwelling and heating syste into the suppleentary calculation (Appendix ) workbook. The user ust also enter the following paraeters into SAP calculation software: a) Space heating provided by the recognised Solar Assisted Heat Pup Syste fro the Product Characteristics Database (PCDB) record according to brand, odel and odel qualifier. b) Water heating is provided by a 160 litre cylinder with integral electric iersion and a anufacturer s declared heat loss of 2.21 kwh/day. c) The hot water cylinder is specified as outside the heated space. The calculation procedure calculates the decrease or increase in energy consuption relative to the above scenario as detailed in section Calculations The calculation procedure deterines the difference in energy required for hot water heating between that required by the Solar Assisted Heat Pup Syste and that required by the reference syste (see Section 2.1 for details). This is undertaken in the following sequence: 1. The energy required for hot water heating for the Solar Assisted Heat Pup Syste is calculated in accordance with sections to The energy consuption for the reference syste is calculated in accordance with section Paraeters (e) (l) are recorded within the Appendix workbook (suppleentary calculation procedure), whilst all others are recorded within the workbook and the Product Characteristics Database (PCDB). Page 7 of 17
8 3. The overall energy perforance of the Solar Assisted Heat Pup is copared to the reference syste and is calculated in accordance with section Theral store heat losses and distribution pipe losses For each onth calculate the heat loss fro the theral store according to (1). store, ( T T ) ( T T ) air,45 K store, air, grd,45 K store, ground, Nd (1) 45 where: Nd is the nuber of days in the onth. air,45k and grd,45k are the daily heat losses for the section of theral store above and below ground respectively, standardised to a 45K teperature rise above its surroundings. These are supplied by the anufacturer either fro physical tests or fro a siulation conducted by an independent thirdparty. Tstore is the onthly average teperature of the theral store (i.e. the anufacturer s defined set point teperature). T is the onthly air teperature used in SAP 2009 air, Tground, is the onthly ground teperature set to the average yearly air teperature for each onth Note: In ode 1 the teperature of the theral store will be higher than the setpoint (defined by anufacturer) due to the captured solar energy heating the theral store directly and thereby increasing its standing heat loss above that calculated in (1). The beneficial captured solar gains are liited to the axiu hot water energy required plus the theral store heat loss and distribution pipe heat loss, instead of using the solar utilisation factor as explained in part Therefore, if a higher standing heat loss than that at the defined setpoint were calculated, it would erely increase solar energy contribution by the sae aount, with no net change in the overall energy consuption. For each onth calculate the heat loss connecting the external theral store to the hot water heating and spacing heating distribution systes: pp, pp, air,45 K ( Tstore, Tair, ) pp, grd,45 K ( Tstore, Tground, ) Nd (2) 45 where: pp, air and pp, grd is the pipe heat loss to air and ground standardised to a 45K teperature rise above its surroundings. Standardised pipe heat losses agreed with the anufacturer are held within the suppleentary calculation (Appendix ) workbook. A sall range of options are assigned based on typical pipe diaeters, lengths and insulation levels between the theral store and the dwelling. These options account for heat losses during space heating and hot water heating operation with four installation options provided in the table below. Page 8 of 17
9 Pipe exposure and insulation 2.5 or less of insulated pipe, ostly above ground 2.5 or less of insulated pipe, ostly buried More than 2.5 but less than 5 of insulated pipe, ostly buried More than 2.5 but less than 5 of insulated pipe, ostly above ground Table 1  Pipe heat loss data required Standardised heat loss kwh/day Air Ground  x.xx x.xx   x.xx x.xx  The heat losses in Table 1 ust use the following specifications: or 5 refers to a single pipe length (e.g. the flow or return), but the total heat loss is doubled in the suppleentary calculation (Appendix ) workbook to account for both. 2. Standardised refers to a teperature difference of 45K between the pipe and the surrounding environent. 3. Pipe inside diaeter is X with insulation thickness of X of theral conductivity (λ value) of X W/K. The values denoted as X are defined by the anufacturer during the SAP Product Recognition stage and recorded in the suppleentary calculation (Appendix ) workbook. 4. The insulated pipe conduction heat loss (i.e. excluding the heat surface coefficient is calculated fro: 2 l ln( r2 / r1), where l is the total pipe length (5 or 10) and r and 2 r 1 is the inside and outside radius of the insulated pipe. 5. A 0.13 ²K/W surface heat transfer resistance is applied to the insulated external pipe surface area above ground, whilst no surface resistance is applied to the pipe installed below ground. 6. The heat loss to the air over a 24 hour period (kwh) for a teperature difference of 45K between the pipe and the surrounding environent is: pp, air l ln( r / r) 2 rl The heat loss to the ground over a 24 hour period (kwh) for a teperature difference of 45K between the pipe and the surrounding environent is: l ln( r / r) pp, grd Solar water heating contribution Calculate the onthly solar heating contribution to water heating as: f N H Z A f( a / ) (3) S, s d s panel ap Page 9 of 17
10 s is the incident annual radiation on collector, kwh/²/year (see Table H2, SAP 2009) f is the onthly to annual ratio (Table H3, SAP 2009) N d is the nuber of days in the onth H s is the onthly fraction for war and sunny days (see Table 2 below) Z is the over shading factor for the solar collector panel A ap is the aperture area of collector, ² 0 is the zeroloss collector efficiency a 1 is the linear heat loss coefficient of collector, W/²K f( a / ) is collector perforance factor defined as: 1 0 f( a / ) a / a / ² if a / < f( a / ) a / if a / Liit the onthly solar contribution to: xs, store, hw, where: (4) hw, is the onthly hot water deand ([45 ] in SAP 2009 Worksheet). store, is the onthly heat loss fro the store calculated fro equation (1) Note: Since the theral store s heat loss can be recouped by the solar contribution (for Mode 1), in theory the utilisation factor should include the large theral store and distribution pipe heat losses. However, introducing the heat losses into the solar utilisation factor calculation would ean introducing an iterative calculation which is not practical in SAP. Instead, the usefulness of the captured solar energy is liited to the hot water energy requireent plus the theral store s associated standing heat loss (i.e. the theral store and distribution pipework heat losses). This approach is reasonable given that the SAP solar utilisation factor approach was devised for noral sized solar water heating syste and Solar Assisted Heat Pup Systes have very large theral stores and solar collector areas. Page 10 of 17
11 Captured solar energy fraction delivered to theral store H s Captured solar energy fraction delivered to low teperature theral store January 0.0% 98.4% February 0.0% 99.3% March 5.4% 94.4% April 8.2% 91.6% May 41.1% 58.8% June 46.6% 53.3% July 85.1% 14.7% August 77.0% 22.9% Septeber 56.7% 43.1% October 7.8% 91.7% Noveber 1.5% 97.3% Deceber 2.3% 94.7% Table 2  Fraction of captured solar energy delivered to theral store and low teperature theral store The daily captured solar energy delivered to the theral store is the fraction delivered in daylight hours when the air teperature exceeds 15ºC and the horizontal direct and diffuse insolation is greater than 10W/ Hot water uplift The theral store is heated by the heat pup to a teperature set point defined by the anufacturer (i.e. 38ºC). On war and sunny days captured solar energy will increase the teperature further. However, the teperature of the theral store ay not be sufficient to satisfy the required doestic hot water teperature, even during war and sunny periods. The noinal average hot water delivery teperature in SAP 2009 is approxiately 52ºC but varies onthly. A direct electric inline heater is provided to suppleent hot water heating and its operation is analysed within the Appendix procedure. This is calculated as the difference (shortfall) between the axiu delivery teperature delivered by the theral store and the SAP onthly hot water teperature. This section estiates any shortfall in the water heating that is et by the electric inline heater and is the aount of energy required to heat hot water to the desired teperature (e.g. 52ºC 4 ) above the theral store teperature. First, the onthly theral store teperature rise due to solar heat gains is estiated fro the energy balance and the heat capacity of the theral store (i.e. the volue ultiplied by the specific heat capacity of water). This is the net heat gain resulting fro the teperature rise due to the solar water heating contribution, less any theral store and distribution pipe heat losses, divided by the heat capacity. This will give the accuulated teperature rise at the end of the onth. Dividing by the nuber of days in the onth will give the expected average teperature rise at the end of each day. The theral store teperature will accuulate each day, which will increase the theral store s heat losses, until such tie as the heat losses equal the captured solar energy. 4 In SAP 2009 the teperature of the delivered hot water varies onthly and is calculated by adding the onthly values of SAP Table 1d and SAP Table G2. Page 11 of 17
12 Calculate the average daily teperature rise due to solar heat gains for each onth thus: T [( )] 3600 / (4.19 V N ) (5) st, s. hw. st, pp, hs d S, is the onthly solar heating contribution calculated in (3) hw, is the onthly energy delivered to the doestic hot water (SAP box ) st, is the onthly heat loss fro the theral store at the required onthly hot water supply teperature ( T hwd, ). This is calculated by substituting Thwd, in place of Tstore, in equation 1. is the priary pipe heat loss assuing the theral store teperature pp, T and is estiated fro equation (2) by replacing T, is hwd, T hwd,. store with V hs is the volue of the theral store N d is the nuber of days per onth 4.19 is the specific heat capacity of water in kj/litres/k 3600 is a ultiplier that converts fro kwh to kj Deterine the fraction of days per onth (P in(iso),) ), when considered in isolation, where the suppleentary electric inline heater is required to raise the hot water teperature (fro heat supplied by the theral store at the defined teperature set point) to the desired hot water teperature according to (6): If, > 0 p Tst in( iso), ( T T ) If, = 0 then p ( ), 1 Tst in iso hwd, store Nd Tst, (6) If the result of (6) is greater than 1 reset to 1. T store, is the teperature the theral store reaches fro use of the heat pup alone (i.e. the setpoint teperature, defined by Manufacturer) T hwd, is the average teperature of the delivered hot water teperature which varies onthly (su of SAP Table 1d and SAP table G2). Equation (6) considers onths in isolation and not consecutively. When considered consecutively the theral store ay have reached the required hot water teperature in the previous onth (i.e. the suer onths when operating in Mode 1, where the setpoint teperature T store, ay be exceeded) and would reain so until the required energy for hot water services exceeds the captured solar energy Page 12 of 17
13 (less heat losses). To deterine the fraction of days per onth, when considering the onths consecutively, the results of equation (6) are applied to each onth as noted below: a) In calendar order, note the first onth where the fraction of days (where suppleentary hot water heating is required) is less than 1. b) In reverse calendar order, starting fro Deceber note the first onth where the fraction of days is less than 1. c) For the onths between (a) and (b), but not onths (a) or (b), set the fraction of days to zero. The fractions of days for all other onths are unaltered. The fraction of days per onth where suppleentary hot water heating is required when considered consecutively is p in,. Calculate the suppleentary energy required for each onth, if any, by the electric inline heater: up, p ( T T ) in, hw, hwd, store [ ] [1 CoP.. hw] ( Thwd, Tcold, ) (7) hw, is the onthly energy delivered in the hot water (SAP box ) CoP.. hw is the heat pup coefficient of perforance when delivering heat fro the low teperature theral store to the theral store Circulator energy consuption Calculate the annual electricity consuption of the circulation pup during ode 1 as: circ h circulator power(w) /1000 (8) h = 1248hrs, which is the nuber of hours per year that the syste operates in Mode 1. This is defined as the nuber of hours where the air teperature exceeds 15 ºC and the direct and diffuse insolation exceeds 10 W/ Su the individual contributions Using the results of (1) to (8) calculate the annual water heating energy as below, where siga refers to the onthly suation over the year. 12 [( ) / CoP.. ] (9) hw, syste circ uplift, pp, store, hw. s, hw 1 The CoP.. hw is taken to be the sae value calculated in EN15316 for space heating operation. This is a reasonable assuption since it represents the Coefficient of Perforance (CoP) of heat delivery to the theral store, which provides both space heating and hot water heating services. Page 13 of 17
14 3.1.6 Water heating consuption of the reference syste The energy consuption of the reference syste is calculated using SAP conventions within SAP software. The reference hot water syste is an electric iersion within a 160 litre tank installed outside the heated space. The tank has a anufacturer s declared heat loss of 2.21 kwh/day. 12 [( 0.6 N ) ] (8) hw, ref refstore, d d hw, 1 where: refstore, d is standardised daily heat loss of 2.21 kwh/day 0.6 is the teperature factor (See table 2b of SAP 2009) N d is the nuber of days per onth hw, is the onthly energy delivered in the hot water (boxes (45) of SAP worksheet) Overall energy savings The overall energy savings (or penalty) calculated by the suppleentary calculation (Appendix ) workbook is: Energy saving (or penalty if negative) = hw, ref hw, syste (9) Page 14 of 17
15 4 References 1. Standard reference year weather data for Leeds fro CIBSE Guide J: Weather, Solar and Illuinance Data. 2. The Governent s Standard Assessent Procedure for Energy Rating of Dwellings 2009 edition incorporating RdSAP 2009, March 2010, BRE Page 15 of 17
16 Appendix This appendix lists the hours of operation of ode (Table A1) and the table data used in the EN15316 calculation procedure (Table A2 and A3). Mode 1 Hours when air teperature exceeds 15ºC and direct and diffuse insolation exceeds 10W/ 2 Mode 2 Hours when air teperature is 15ºC or below and direct and diffuse insolation exceeds 10W/ 2 Mode 3 Hours of daylight when air teperature is 15ºC or below and direct and diffuse insolation is 10W/ 2 or below Mode 4 Hours of darkness or when not in Mode 1, Mode 2 or Mode 3. Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Mode 4 hours hours hours hours January February March April May June July August Septeber October Noveber Deceber Table A1  Hours operation by ode Solar energy transitted In kwh per onth Mode 2 January February March April May June July August Septeber October Noveber Deceber Table A2  Solar energy transitted to collector for EN15316 calculations Page 16 of 17
17 Note  Table A2 uses the following assuptions: Solar collector easured efficiency at zero heat loss of 73% Solar collector heat loss coefficient of W/ 2 /K Solar collector on 30º slope and south facing Solar collector area = ² Over shading = none Mode 2 Cold and bright Mode 3 Cold and dull during the day Mode 4 Night tie Low teperature theral store teperature ºC (sae as outside) Low teperature theral store teperature ºC (sae as outside) Low teperature theral store teperature ºC (5K below outside) January February March April May June July August Septeber October Noveber Deceber Table A3 Low teperature theral store teperature for Mode 2, 3 and 4. Page 17 of 17
Chapter 5. Principles of Unsteady  State Heat Transfer
Suppleental Material for ransport Process and Separation Process Principles hapter 5 Principles of Unsteady  State Heat ransfer In this chapter, we will study cheical processes where heat transfer is
More informationEvaluating Inventory Management Performance: a Preliminary DeskSimulation Study Based on IOC Model
Evaluating Inventory Manageent Perforance: a Preliinary DeskSiulation Study Based on IOC Model Flora Bernardel, Roberto Panizzolo, and Davide Martinazzo Abstract The focus of this study is on preliinary
More informationHW 2. Q v. kt Step 1: Calculate N using one of two equivalent methods. Problem 4.2. a. To Find:
HW 2 Proble 4.2 a. To Find: Nuber of vacancies per cubic eter at a given teperature. b. Given: T 850 degrees C 1123 K Q v 1.08 ev/ato Density of Fe ( ρ ) 7.65 g/cc Fe toic weight of iron ( c. ssuptions:
More informationEUROMAP 46.1. Extrusion Blow Moulding Machines Determination of Machine Related Energy Efficiency Class. Version 1.0, January 2014 13 pages
EUROMAP 46.1 Extrusion Blow Moulding Machines Deterination of Machine Related Energy Efficiency Class Version 1.0, January 2014 13 pages This recoendation was prepared by the Technical Coission of EUROMAP.
More informationExtendedHorizon Analysis of Pressure Sensitivities for Leak Detection in Water Distribution Networks: Application to the Barcelona Network
2013 European Control Conference (ECC) July 1719, 2013, Zürich, Switzerland. ExtendedHorizon Analysis of Pressure Sensitivities for Leak Detection in Water Distribution Networks: Application to the Barcelona
More informationPREDICTION OF MILKLINE FILL AND TRANSITION FROM STRATIFIED TO SLUG FLOW
PREDICTION OF MILKLINE FILL AND TRANSITION FROM STRATIFIED TO SLUG FLOW ABSTRACT: by Douglas J. Reineann, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Agricultural Engineering and Graee A. Mein, Ph.D. Visiting Professor
More informationUse of extrapolation to forecast the working capital in the mechanical engineering companies
ECONTECHMOD. AN INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY JOURNAL 2014. Vol. 1. No. 1. 23 28 Use of extrapolation to forecast the working capital in the echanical engineering copanies A. Cherep, Y. Shvets Departent of finance
More information( C) CLASS 10. TEMPERATURE AND ATOMS
CLASS 10. EMPERAURE AND AOMS 10.1. INRODUCION Boyle s understanding of the pressurevolue relationship for gases occurred in the late 1600 s. he relationships between volue and teperature, and between
More informationAn Innovate Dynamic Load Balancing Algorithm Based on Task
An Innovate Dynaic Load Balancing Algorith Based on Task Classification Hongbin Wang,,a, Zhiyi Fang, b, Guannan Qu,*,c, Xiaodan Ren,d College of Coputer Science and Technology, Jilin University, Changchun
More informationModelling of Thermal Behavior NDoped Silicon Resistor
Journal of Sensor Technology, 0,, 337 http://dx.doi.org/0.436/jst.0.309 Published Online Septeber 0 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/jst) Modelling of Theral Behavior NDoped Silicon Resistor Fouad Kerrour,
More informationConstruction Economics & Finance. Module 3 Lecture1
Depreciation: Construction Econoics & Finance Module 3 Lecture It represents the reduction in arket value of an asset due to age, wear and tear and obsolescence. The physical deterioration of the asset
More informationELECTRIC SERVO MOTOR EQUATIONS AND TIME CONSTANTS
ELECIC SEO MOO EQUAIONS AND IME CONSANS George W. Younkin, P.E. Life FELLOW IEEE Industrial Controls Consulting, Div. Bulls Eye Marketing, Inc Fond du c, Wisconsin In the analysis of electric servo drive
More informationThis paper studies a rental firm that offers reusable products to price and qualityofservice sensitive
MANUFACTURING & SERVICE OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Vol., No. 3, Suer 28, pp. 429 447 issn 523464 eissn 5265498 8 3 429 infors doi.287/so.7.8 28 INFORMS INFORMS holds copyright to this article and distributed
More informationLecture L9  Linear Impulse and Momentum. Collisions
J. Peraire, S. Widnall 16.07 Dynaics Fall 009 Version.0 Lecture L9  Linear Ipulse and Moentu. Collisions In this lecture, we will consider the equations that result fro integrating Newton s second law,
More informationSOME APPLICATIONS OF FORECASTING Prof. Thomas B. Fomby Department of Economics Southern Methodist University May 2008
SOME APPLCATONS OF FORECASTNG Prof. Thoas B. Foby Departent of Econoics Southern Methodist University May 8 To deonstrate the usefulness of forecasting ethods this note discusses four applications of forecasting
More informationPresentation Safety Legislation and Standards
levels in different discrete levels corresponding for each one to a probability of dangerous failure per hour: > > The table below gives the relationship between the perforance level (PL) and the Safety
More informationCalculating the Return on Investment (ROI) for DMSMS Management. The Problem with Cost Avoidance
Calculating the Return on nvestent () for DMSMS Manageent Peter Sandborn CALCE, Departent of Mechanical Engineering (31) 453167 sandborn@calce.ud.edu www.ene.ud.edu/escml/obsolescence.ht October 28, 21
More informationADJUSTING FOR QUALITY CHANGE
ADJUSTING FOR QUALITY CHANGE 7 Introduction 7.1 The easureent of changes in the level of consuer prices is coplicated by the appearance and disappearance of new and old goods and services, as well as changes
More informationApplying Multiple Neural Networks on Large Scale Data
0 International Conference on Inforation and Electronics Engineering IPCSIT vol6 (0) (0) IACSIT Press, Singapore Applying Multiple Neural Networks on Large Scale Data Kritsanatt Boonkiatpong and Sukree
More informationEnergy Systems Modelling: Energy flowpaths
Energy Systes Modelling: Energy flowpaths Coputer tools for energy systes design have traditionally been constructed by reducing the coplexity of the underlying syste equations in an attept to lessen
More informationThe Virtual Spring Mass System
The Virtual Spring Mass Syste J. S. Freudenberg EECS 6 Ebedded Control Systes Huan Coputer Interaction A force feedbac syste, such as the haptic heel used in the EECS 6 lab, is capable of exhibiting a
More informationManaging Complex Network Operation with Predictive Analytics
Managing Coplex Network Operation with Predictive Analytics Zhenyu Huang, Pak Chung Wong, Patrick Mackey, Yousu Chen, Jian Ma, Kevin Schneider, and Frank L. Greitzer Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
More informationThe Research of Measuring Approach and Energy Efficiency for Hadoop Periodic Jobs
Send Orders for Reprints to reprints@benthascience.ae 206 The Open Fuels & Energy Science Journal, 2015, 8, 206210 Open Access The Research of Measuring Approach and Energy Efficiency for Hadoop Periodic
More informationImplementation of Active Queue Management in a Combined Input and Output Queued Switch
pleentation of Active Queue Manageent in a obined nput and Output Queued Switch Bartek Wydrowski and Moshe Zukeran AR Special Research entre for UltraBroadband nforation Networks, EEE Departent, The University
More informationDesign of Model Reference Self Tuning Mechanism for PID like Fuzzy Controller
Research Article International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology EISSN 77 46, PISSN 347 56 4 INPRESSCO, All Rights Reserved Available at http://inpressco.co/category/ijcet Design of Model Reference
More informationTHE INTELLIGENT CHOICE IN COMFORT SINGLE & MULTI TYPE AIR CONDITIONERS
THE INTELLIGENT CHOICE IN COMFORT SINGLE & MULTI TYPE AIR CONDITIONERS Fujitsu General air conditioners are selected and loved by people around the world. P4 P6 ASYB09/12/18LD P9 Today, the full line of
More informationA Gas Law And Absolute Zero Lab 11
HB 040605 A Gas Law And Absolute Zero Lab 11 1 A Gas Law And Absolute Zero Lab 11 Equipent safety goggles, SWS, gas bulb with pressure gauge, 10 C to +110 C theroeter, 100 C to +50 C theroeter. Caution
More informationOnline Appendix I: A Model of Household Bargaining with Violence. In this appendix I develop a simple model of household bargaining that
Online Appendix I: A Model of Household Bargaining ith Violence In this appendix I develop a siple odel of household bargaining that incorporates violence and shos under hat assuptions an increase in oen
More informationProject Evaluation Roadmap. Capital Budgeting Process. Capital Expenditure. Major Cash Flow Components. Cash Flows... COMM2501 Financial Management
COMM501 Financial Manageent Project Evaluation 1 (Capital Budgeting) Project Evaluation Roadap COMM501 Financial Manageent Week 7 Week 7 Project dependencies Net present value ethod Relevant cash flows
More informationarxiv:0805.1434v1 [math.pr] 9 May 2008
Degreedistribution stability of scalefree networs Zhenting Hou, Xiangxing Kong, Dinghua Shi,2, and Guanrong Chen 3 School of Matheatics, Central South University, Changsha 40083, China 2 Departent of
More informationA CHAOS MODEL OF SUBHARMONIC OSCILLATIONS IN CURRENT MODE PWM BOOST CONVERTERS
A CHAOS MODEL OF SUBHARMONIC OSCILLATIONS IN CURRENT MODE PWM BOOST CONVERTERS Isaac Zafrany and Sa BenYaakov Departent of Electrical and Coputer Engineering BenGurion University of the Negev P. O. Box
More informationThe Mathematics of Pumping Water
The Matheatics of Puping Water AECOM Design Build Civil, Mechanical Engineering INTRODUCTION Please observe the conversion of units in calculations throughout this exeplar. In any puping syste, the role
More information 265  Part C. Property and Casualty Insurance Companies
Part C. Property and Casualty Insurance Copanies This Part discusses proposals to curtail favorable tax rules for property and casualty ("P&C") insurance copanies. The syste of reserves for unpaid losses
More informationQuality evaluation of the modelbased forecasts of implied volatility index
Quality evaluation of the odelbased forecasts of iplied volatility index Katarzyna Łęczycka 1 Abstract Influence of volatility on financial arket forecasts is very high. It appears as a specific factor
More informationMarkov Models and Their Use for Calculations of Important Traffic Parameters of Contact Center
Markov Models and Their Use for Calculations of Iportant Traffic Paraeters of Contact Center ERIK CHROMY, JAN DIEZKA, MATEJ KAVACKY Institute of Telecounications Slovak University of Technology Bratislava
More informationA Gas Law And Absolute Zero
A Gas Law And Absolute Zero Equipent safety goggles, DataStudio, gas bulb with pressure gauge, 10 C to +110 C theroeter, 100 C to +50 C theroeter. Caution This experient deals with aterials that are very
More informationOnline Bagging and Boosting
Abstract Bagging and boosting are two of the ost wellknown enseble learning ethods due to their theoretical perforance guarantees and strong experiental results. However, these algoriths have been used
More informationFuzzy Sets in HR Management
Acta Polytechnica Hungarica Vol. 8, No. 3, 2011 Fuzzy Sets in HR Manageent Blanka Zeková AXIOM SW, s.r.o., 760 01 Zlín, Czech Republic blanka.zekova@sezna.cz Jana Talašová Faculty of Science, Palacký Univerzity,
More informationOpenGamma Documentation Bond Pricing
OpenGaa Docuentation Bond Pricing Marc Henrard arc@opengaa.co OpenGaa Docuentation n. 5 Version 2.0  May 2013 Abstract The details of the ipleentation of pricing for fixed coupon bonds and floating rate
More informationMachine Learning Applications in Grid Computing
Machine Learning Applications in Grid Coputing George Cybenko, Guofei Jiang and Daniel Bilar Thayer School of Engineering Dartouth College Hanover, NH 03755, USA gvc@dartouth.edu, guofei.jiang@dartouth.edu
More informationDesign, optimization and prototyping of small power transformers
Doctoral School of Energy and Geotechnology January 15 20, 2007. Kuressaare, Estonia Design, optiization and prototyping of sall power transforers Avo Reinap, Rando Pikner, Roan Ionikan, Karl Pärn Tallinn
More informationSearching strategy for multitarget discovery in wireless networks
Searching strategy for ultitarget discovery in wireless networks Zhao Cheng, Wendi B. Heinzelan Departent of Electrical and Coputer Engineering University of Rochester Rochester, NY 467 (585) 75{878,
More informationMethod of supply chain optimization in Ecommerce
MPRA Munich Personal RePEc Archive Method of supply chain optiization in Ecoerce Petr Suchánek and Robert Bucki Silesian University  School of Business Adinistration, The College of Inforatics and Manageent
More informationA shortterm, patternbased model for waterdemand forecasting
39 Q IWA Publishing 2007 Journal of Hydroinforatics 09.1 2007 A shortter, patternbased odel for waterdeand forecasting Stefano Alvisi, Marco Franchini and Alberto Marinelli ABSTRACT The shortter, deandforecasting
More informationImage restoration for a rectangular poorpixels detector
Iage restoration for a rectangular poorpixels detector Pengcheng Wen 1, Xiangjun Wang 1, Hong Wei 2 1 State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruents, Tianjin University, China 2
More informationDynamic Placement for Clustered Web Applications
Dynaic laceent for Clustered Web Applications A. Karve, T. Kibrel, G. acifici, M. Spreitzer, M. Steinder, M. Sviridenko, and A. Tantawi IBM T.J. Watson Research Center {karve,kibrel,giovanni,spreitz,steinder,sviri,tantawi}@us.ib.co
More informationResearch Article Performance Evaluation of Human Resource Outsourcing in Food Processing Enterprises
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology 9(2): 964969, 205 ISSN: 20424868; eissn: 20424876 205 Maxwell Scientific Publication Corp. Subitted: August 0, 205 Accepted: Septeber 3, 205 Published:
More informationExercise 4 INVESTIGATION OF THE ONEDEGREEOFFREEDOM SYSTEM
Eercise 4 IVESTIGATIO OF THE OEDEGREEOFFREEDOM SYSTEM 1. Ai of the eercise Identification of paraeters of the euation describing a onedegreeof freedo (1 DOF) atheatical odel of the real vibrating
More informationPlane Trusses. Section 7: Flexibility Method  Trusses. A plane truss is defined as a twodimensional
lane Trusses A plane truss is defined as a twodiensional fraework of straight prisatic ebers connected at their ends by frictionless hinged joints, and subjected to loads and reactions that act only at
More informationInsurance Spirals and the Lloyd s Market
Insurance Spirals and the Lloyd s Market Andrew Bain University of Glasgow Abstract This paper presents a odel of reinsurance arket spirals, and applies it to the situation that existed in the Lloyd s
More informationAudio Engineering Society. Convention Paper. Presented at the 119th Convention 2005 October 7 10 New York, New York USA
Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper Presented at the 119th Convention 2005 October 7 10 New York, New York USA This convention paper has been reproduced fro the authors advance anuscript, without
More informationAppendix G. Allowable and Non Allowable Capital Costs
Appendix G Allowable and Non Allowable Capital Costs Overview The Minister ay approve additions/deletions to the list of allowable costs or require additions to the list of nonallowable costs. Where
More informationEstimation of mass fraction of residual gases from cylinder pressure data and its application to modeling for SI engine
Journal of Applied Matheatics, Islaic Azad University of Lahijan, Vol.8, No.4(31), Winter 2012, pp 1528 ISSN 20086083 Estiation of ass fraction of residual gases fro cylinder pressure data and its application
More informationManual for SOA Exam FM/CAS Exam 2.
Manual for SOA Exa FM/CAS Exa 2. Chapter 1. Basic Interest Theory. c 2008. Miguel A. Arcones. All rights reserved. Extract fro: Arcones Manual for the SOA Exa FM/CAS Exa 2, Financial Matheatics. Spring
More informationExperiment 2 Index of refraction of an unknown liquid  Abbe Refractometer
Experient Index of refraction of an unknown liquid  Abbe Refractoeter Principle: The value n ay be written in the for sin ( δ +θ ) n =. θ sin This relation provides us with one or the standard ethods
More informationCLOSEDLOOP SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK OPTIMIZATION FOR HONG KONG CARTRIDGE RECYCLING INDUSTRY
CLOSEDLOOP SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK OPTIMIZATION FOR HONG KONG CARTRIDGE RECYCLING INDUSTRY Y. T. Chen Departent of Industrial and Systes Engineering Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong yongtong.chen@connect.polyu.hk
More informationEnergy Proportionality for Disk Storage Using Replication
Energy Proportionality for Disk Storage Using Replication Jinoh Ki and Doron Rote Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 {jinohki,d rote}@lbl.gov Abstract Energy
More informationESTIMATING LIQUIDITY PREMIA IN THE SPANISH GOVERNMENT SECURITIES MARKET
ESTIMATING LIQUIDITY PREMIA IN THE SPANISH GOVERNMENT SECURITIES MARKET Francisco Alonso, Roberto Blanco, Ana del Río and Alicia Sanchis Banco de España Banco de España Servicio de Estudios Docuento de
More informationPhysics 211: Lab Oscillations. Simple Harmonic Motion.
Physics 11: Lab Oscillations. Siple Haronic Motion. Reading Assignent: Chapter 15 Introduction: As we learned in class, physical systes will undergo an oscillatory otion, when displaced fro a stable equilibriu.
More informationBER Assessors Dwellings Technical Bulletin
BER Assessors Dwellings Technical Bulletin Issue No. 3/11 May 2011 Contents: 1 Window defaults in DEAP and use of DEAP Table 6a... 2 2 Solar Space Heating Systems in DEAP... 4 3 Storage and direct electric
More informationModeling Parallel Applications Performance on Heterogeneous Systems
Modeling Parallel Applications Perforance on Heterogeneous Systes Jaeela AlJaroodi, Nader Mohaed, Hong Jiang and David Swanson Departent of Coputer Science and Engineering University of Nebraska Lincoln
More informationModel Predictive Control Approach to Improve the Control Performance in Pasteurized Milk Process
Paper code: pc IChE International Conference Noveber, at Hatyai, Songkhla HAIAND odel Predictive Control Approach to Iprove the Control Perforance in Pasteurized ilk Process Sathit Niasuwan, Paisan Kittisupakorn
More informationData Set Generation for Rectangular Placement Problems
Data Set Generation for Rectangular Placeent Probles Christine L. Valenzuela (Muford) Pearl Y. Wang School of Coputer Science & Inforatics Departent of Coputer Science MS 4A5 Cardiff University George
More informationAn Improved Decisionmaking Model of Human Resource Outsourcing Based on Internet Collaboration
International Journal of Hybrid Inforation Technology, pp. 339350 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/hit.2016.9.4.28 An Iproved Decisionaking Model of Huan Resource Outsourcing Based on Internet Collaboration
More informationExample: Suppose that we deposit $1000 in a bank account offering 3% interest, compounded monthly. How will our money grow?
Finance 111 Finance We have to work with oney every day. While balancing your checkbook or calculating your onthly expenditures on espresso requires only arithetic, when we start saving, planning for retireent,
More information! Thermodynamics worked examples
! Therodynaics worked exaples Refrigeration. (a) What pressure is required in a freezer copartent evaporator coil using refrigerant R34a if the teperature is to be aintained at 0 C? (b) What is the enthalpy
More informationSalty Waters. Instructions for the activity 3. Results Worksheet 5. Class Results Sheet 7. Teacher Notes 8. Sample results. 12
1 Salty Waters Alost all of the water on Earth is in the for of a solution containing dissolved salts. In this activity students are invited to easure the salinity of a saple of salt water. While carrying
More informationPERFORMANCE METRICS FOR THE IT SERVICES PORTFOLIO
Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov Series I: Engineering Sciences Vol. 4 (53) No.  0 PERFORMANCE METRICS FOR THE IT SERVICES PORTFOLIO V. CAZACU I. SZÉKELY F. SANDU 3 T. BĂLAN Abstract:
More informationAn Approach to Combating Freeriding in PeertoPeer Networks
An Approach to Cobating Freeriding in PeertoPeer Networks Victor Ponce, Jie Wu, and Xiuqi Li Departent of Coputer Science and Engineering Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, FL 33431 April 7, 2008
More informationEvaluating Software Quality of Vendors using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process
IMECS 2008 92 March 2008 Hong Kong Evaluating Software Quality of Vendors using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process Kevin K.F. Yuen* Henry C.W. au Abstract This paper proposes a fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy
More informationOptimization of a Piezoelectric Crystal Driver Stage using System Simulations
Optiization of a Piezoelectric Crystal Driver Stage using Syste Siulations Jonny Johansson Lulel University of Technology 97 87 Lulel, Sweden Abstract Using SPICE, successful efforts have previously been
More information1 Analysis of heat transfer in a singlephase transformer
Assignent 7 Analysis of heat transr in a singlephase transforer The goal of the first assignent is to study the ipleentation of equivalent circuit ethod (ECM) and finite eleent ethod (FEM) for an electroagnetic
More informationAdaptive Modulation and Coding for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Radio Channel
Recent Advances in Counications Adaptive odulation and Coding for Unanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Radio Channel Airhossein Fereidountabar,Gian Carlo Cardarilli, Rocco Fazzolari,Luca Di Nunzio Abstract In
More informationA ComputerAided System for Melt Quality and Shrinkage Propensity Evaluation Based on the Solidification Process of Ductile Iron
Paper 08008(05).pdf, Page of 5 AFS Transactions 2008 Aerican Foundry Society, Schauburg, IL USA A CoputerAided Syste for Melt Quality and Shrinkage Propensity Evaluation Based on the Solidification Process
More informationSUBMERSIBLE PUMPS. Applications. Advantages. Great diversification Wide fulfilment of demand High efficiency Permanent further development
SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS BPS series 33 TPS / TPV series 3 RV series 3 SV / BAV series 3 KS / KSH series 3 DS / DSK series 0 JK series 1 JKH series JKCH series 3 SB series SW series Other pups Applications 31
More informationExperience with WinterKennedy coefficients on hydraulic identical units
IGHEM 014 The 10 th International conference on hydraulic efficiency easureents Itajuba, Brasil Septeber 16 th  18 th, 014 XXXXXX Experience with WinterKennedy coefficients on hydraulic identical units
More informationFactored Models for Probabilistic Modal Logic
Proceedings of the TwentyThird AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (2008 Factored Models for Probabilistic Modal Logic Afsaneh Shirazi and Eyal Air Coputer Science Departent, University of Illinois
More informationPure Bending Determination of StressStrain Curves for an Aluminum Alloy
Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 0 Vol III WCE 0, July 68, 0, London, U.K. Pure Bending Deterination of StressStrain Curves for an Aluinu Alloy D. TorresFranco, G. UrriolagoitiaSosa,
More informationCPU Animation. Introduction. CPU skinning. CPUSkin Scalar:
CPU Aniation Introduction The iportance of realtie character aniation has greatly increased in odern gaes. Aniating eshes ia 'skinning' can be perfored on both a general purpose CPU and a ore specialized
More informationGlobal Experiment for the International Year of Chemistry. Salty Waters
Global Experient for the International Year of Cheistry Salty Waters This docuent contains a description for the Salty Waters Activity that is part of the Global Experient being conducted during the International
More informationExploiting Hardware Heterogeneity within the Same Instance Type of Amazon EC2
Exploiting Hardware Heterogeneity within the Sae Instance Type of Aazon EC2 Zhonghong Ou, Hao Zhuang, Jukka K. Nurinen, Antti YläJääski, Pan Hui Aalto University, Finland; Deutsch Teleko Laboratories,
More informationComparison of Gamma and Passive Neutron NonDestructive Assay Total Measurement Uncertainty Using the High Efficiency Neutron Counter
Coparison o Gaa and Passive Neutron NonDestructive Assay Total Measureent Uncertainty Using the High Eiciency Neutron Counter John M. Veilleux Los Alaos National Laboratory Los Alaos, NM 87545, USA 505/6677434
More informationOptimal ResourceConstraint Project Scheduling with Overlapping Modes
Optial ResourceConstraint Proect Scheduling with Overlapping Modes François Berthaut Lucas Grèze Robert Pellerin Nathalie Perrier Adnène Hai February 20 CIRRELT2009 Bureaux de Montréal : Bureaux de
More informationThe Velocities of Gas Molecules
he Velocities of Gas Molecules by Flick Colean Departent of Cheistry Wellesley College Wellesley MA 8 Copyright Flick Colean 996 All rights reserved You are welcoe to use this docuent in your own classes
More informationAir of Importance. A Study of Air Distribution Systems in Manufactured Homes
Air of Iportance A Study of Air Distribution Systes in Manufactured Hoes A research project sponsored by: Alternative Energy Corporation Carolina Power & Light Copany New York State Energy Research and
More informationAnswer: Same magnitude total momentum in both situations.
Page 1 of 9 CTP1. In which situation is the agnitude of the total oentu the largest? A) Situation I has larger total oentu B) Situation II C) Sae agnitude total oentu in both situations. I: v 2 (rest)
More informationNew technical solutions for energy efficient buildings
 New technical solutions for energy efficient buildings State of the Art Report New technologies for heat pumps Authors: Heimo Staller, Angelika Tisch, IFZ Oct. 2010 Background Heat pumps are machines
More informationA New HighFrequency Fluorescent Lamp Model
A New HighFrequency Fluorescent ap Model Thoas J. Ribarich and John J. Ribarich International Rectifier Power IC Group 33 Kansas St., El Segundo, CA, 945438 Tel.: (31)76887 Fax: (31)768846 as presented
More informationCOMBINING CRASH RECORDER AND PAIRED COMPARISON TECHNIQUE: INJURY RISK FUNCTIONS IN FRONTAL AND REAR IMPACTS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO NECK INJURIES
COMBINING CRASH RECORDER AND AIRED COMARISON TECHNIQUE: INJURY RISK FUNCTIONS IN FRONTAL AND REAR IMACTS WITH SECIAL REFERENCE TO NECK INJURIES Anders Kullgren, Maria Krafft Folksa Research, 66 Stockhol,
More informationRod Type. Rod Type. Rod Type
RCP2 RCA RCS2 Standard Width RCP2RA4C Width RCP2RA6C series Width RCP2RAC Singleguide Coupling Width RCP2RGS4C otor Doubleguide Coupling Width RCP2RGS6C Width 5 RCP2RGDC Width RCP2RGD4C Width
More informationMeasurement of radiation. Chapter 7 Measurement of Radiation: Dosimetry. Description of radiation beam. Energy transfer.
Chapter 7 Measureent of Radiation: osietry Radiation osietry I Text: H.E Johns and J.R. Cunningha, The physics of radiology, 4 th ed. http://www.utoledo.edu/ed/depts/radther Measureent of radiation escription
More information2. FINDING A SOLUTION
The 7 th Balan Conference on Operational Research BACOR 5 Constanta, May 5, Roania OPTIMAL TIME AND SPACE COMPLEXITY ALGORITHM FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ALL BINARY TREES FROM PREORDER AND POSTORDER TRAVERSALS
More informationMarkovian inventory policy with application to the paper industry
Coputers and Cheical Engineering 26 (2002) 1399 1413 www.elsevier.co/locate/copcheeng Markovian inventory policy with application to the paper industry K. Karen Yin a, *, Hu Liu a,1, Neil E. Johnson b,2
More informationALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN OF CONCRETE MASONRY BASED ON THE 2012 IBC & 2011 MSJC. TEK 147C Structural (2013)
An inforation series fro the national authority on concrete asonry technology ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN OF CONCRETE MASONRY BASED ON THE 2012 IBC & 2011 MSJC TEK 147C Structural (2013) INTRODUCTION Concrete
More informationOptimal Times to Decrease Extraction Rates During TwoStage Remediation Affected by RateLimited Transport Jose A. Saez, Loyola Marymount University
Optial Ties to Decrease Extraction ates During TwoStage eediation Affected by ateliited Transport Jose A. Saez, Loyola Maryount University Abstract Saez and Haron presented a twostage pup and treat
More informationComparison of Thermal Insulation Materials for Building Envelopes of Multistorey Buildings in SaintPetersburg
Chaykovskiy Geran T60KA Coparison of Theral Insulation Materials for Building Envelopes of Multistorey Buildings in SaPetersburg Bachelor Thesis Deceber 010 Date of the Bachelor thesis 0.1.010 Author(s)
More information6. Time (or Space) Series Analysis
ATM 55 otes: Tie Series Analysis  Section 6a Page 8 6. Tie (or Space) Series Analysis In this chapter we will consider soe coon aspects of tie series analysis including autocorrelation, statistical prediction,
More informationChE 203  Physicochemical Systems Laboratory EXPERIMENT 2: SURFACE TENSION
ChE 203  Physicocheical Systes Laboratory EXPERIMENT 2: SURFACE TENSION Before the experient: Read the booklet carefully. Be aware of the safety issues. Object To deterine the surface tension of water
More informationAC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER CIRCUITS (RMS VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS)
AC TAGE CNTRER CRCUT (RM TAGE CNTRER) AC voltage controllers (ac line voltage controllers) are eployed to vary the RM value of the alternating voltage applied to a load circuit by introducing Thyristors
More informationMIRA'S GUIDE TO ELECTRIC SHOWERS
MIRA'S GUIDE TO ELECTRIC SHOWERS SHOWERING PERFECTION ONLINE THIS GUIDE GIVES YOU ALL THE TECHNICAL INFORMATION YOU NEED TO CHOOSE THE RIGHT SHOWER FOR THE JOB. HOWEVER, DON T FORGET THAT OUR WEBSITE IS
More information